Different Conceptions (different + conception)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

,South Opposed to East and North': Adrian Stokes and Josef Strzygowski.

ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2003
A study in the aesthetics, historiography of Orientalism
The ,South Opposed to East and North' of this paper's title comes from the third section of Adrian Stokes's book The Quattro Cento of 1932 , subtitled A Different Conception of the Italian Renaissance, and the founding work of his aesthetic. The Quattro Cento can be viewed as a response to the need expressed by Strzygowski in his Origin of Christian Church Art of 1923 ,for a work dealing with the penetration of the South by the North of Europe and the subsequent rise of the so-called Renaissance'; a North, in Strzygowski's view, already permeated by influences from the East. Within the contested terrain inscribed in the term, this paper isolates three key ,Orients' crucial to Stokes's Quattro Cento aesthetic: the experiential Orient of his Conrad-inspired voyage to the East; the Orient of the British Museum; and that of the Orientalist texts , primarily the now-marginalized Josef Strzygowski. As a study in the historiography of Orientalism, the essay examines how Adrian Stokes inflected his experience and readings of these Orients to re-evaluate European , specifically Italian Renaissance , culture. [source]

How Different Conceptions of Risk Are Used in the Organ Market Debate

A. Aronsohn
The success of kidney and liver transplantation is hindered by a shortage of organs available for transplantation. Although currently illegal in nearly all parts of the world, a living ,donor' or ,vendor' kidney market has been proposed as a means to reduce or even end this shortage. Physician members of the American Society of Transplantation, the American Society of Transplant Surgeons and the American Association for the Study of Liver Disease were surveyed regarding organ markets for both living kidney and living liver transplantation. The survey queried respondents about their attitudes toward directed living donation, nondirected living donation, the potential legalization of living donor organ markets and the reasons for their support or opposition to organ markets. Partial or completed surveys were returned by 346 of 697 eligible respondents (50%). While virtually all supported or strongly supported directed living donation (98% and 95% for kidney and liver lobes, respectively), the vast majority disagreed or strongly disagreed with the legalization of living donor organ markets (80% for kidneys and 90% for liver lobes). Both those who support and those who oppose a legalized living donor organ market rate risk to the donor among the most important factors to justify their position. [source]

Teaching and Learning Guide for: Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary

Mikhail Kissine
This guide accompanies the following article: Mikhail Kissine, ,Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary', Language and Linguistics Compass 2/6 (2008) pp. 1189,1202. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00093.x. The terms locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act originate from Austin's classical How to do with words. The corresponding notions, however, prove difficult to define. Yet, lack of careful delineating of each level can lead to important theoretical confusions. This Teaching and Learning Guide explains why proper understanding of Austin's trichotomy is crucial for semantics and pragmatics. Author's Introduction Most contemporary discussions in semantics and pragmatics employ , implicitly or explicitly , some or all of the concepts of locutionary,illocutionary or perlocutionary acts. These notions originate from Austin's posthumous and notoriously intricate book, How to do things with words. The point of interest for the linguist, however, is not so much the exegesis of Austin's ideas, as the precise delimitation of these levels of meaning. First, it is important to characterise the locutionary level , which falls short of any illocutionary force , to avoid contaminating analyses of utterance meanings with matters relative to the illocutionary level, viz. to the speech act performed. Second, the precise definition of illocutionary acts is an extremely difficult matter. However, the first, imperative step must be a clear demarcation between perlocutionary acts , relative to causal effects of the utterances , and the utterance's illocutionary force. Third, to assess theories of illocutionary forces, one must take into account the requirements for psychological and empirical plausibility. For instance, classical Gricean theories of illocutionary force attribution link it with the cognitive capacity to perform complex multi-layered mental state attributions, which is incompatible with the data available on the pragmatic and cognitive functioning of young children. In sum, gaining better understanding of the tripartite distinction between the locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary levels is not a taxonomical exercise, but a prerequisite for anyone willing to tackle semantic and/or pragmatic issues with the right tools. Suggested Reading Austin, J.L. (1975) How to do things with words, Second edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Lecture VIII. Difficult reading, but essential to understand Austin's intuitions and the origin of the debate. Strawson, P.F. (1964) "Intention and convention in speech acts", Philosophical Review, 73, 439,60. Classical criticism of Austin's claim abut the conventionality of illocutionary acts and first formulation of a Gricean theory of speech acts. Strawson, P.F. (1973) "Austin and ,Locutionary meaning'", in I. Berlin et al. (eds.) Essays on J.L. Austin, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 46,68. This equally classical paper sheds light onto the difficult notions of rhetic and locutionary acts; it paves the way for using these concepts interchangeably. Recanati, F. (1987) Meaning and Force. The pragmatics of performative utterances, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Chapter 9. This is a lucid discussion and elaboration of Strawson's conception of the locuitonary act as a potential for the illocutionary level. Wilson, D. and Sperber, D. (1988) "Mood and the analysis of non-declarative sentences", in J. Dancy et al. (eds.) Human Agency, Language, Duty and Value. Philosophical essayes in honour of J.O. Urmson, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 77,101. This paper gives important reasons for not confusing the analysis of mood , of the locutionary level , with the analysis of speech acts. Kissine, M. (2009) "Illocutionary forces and what is said", Mind and Language, 24, 122,38. Provides a definition of locutionary acts as linguistic representations of mental states, and lays grounds for a theory of speech acts as reasons to believe or to act. Bach, K. (1994) "Conversational impliciture", Mind and Language, 9, 124,62. An important defence of the distinction between illocutionary and locutionary acts. However, the reader should be warned that Bach conceives of locutionary acts as context-independent propositional radicals, which is not a self-evident position. Alston (2000) Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Chapter 2. Contains a clear and lucid criticism of theories that confuse illocutionary and perlocutionary levels. Dominicy, M. (2008) "Epideictic rhetoric and the representation of human decision and choice", in K. Korta and J. Garmendia (eds.) Meaning, Intentions, and Argumentation, Stanford, CSLI, 179,207. This paper contains a useful test for distinguishing verbs that describe illocutionary acts form those that describe perlocutionary acts. It is also the first proposal to formulate the illocutionary/perlocutionary divide in Davidsonian terms. Focus Questions 1,What kind of philosophy of action is called for by the distinction between locutions, perlocutions and illocutions? 2,Should the locutionary level be always fully propositional? 3,Can illocutionary acts be characterised in terms of prototypical perlocutional effects? 4,Should illocutionary acts be divided in conventional (institutional) and non-conventional (non-insitutional) ones? 5,Are there good reasons for singling out a locutionary level? 6,,Does the attribution of illocutionary forces presuppose a complex mindreading process? Connexion with to Related Material in Lectures or Discussions 1,The distinction between the locutionary and illocutionary levels is crucial for any discussion about the semantics/pragmatics interface. Many scholars hastily characterise semantics as related to sentence-meaning and pragmatics as concerning the speech act performed. However, one should not take for granted that any level where the meaning is context-dependant is necessarily that of the illocutionary act performed. 2,This distinction can also be relevant for the discussions about the meaning of moods. For instance, the imperative mood is often analysed in terms of the directive illocutionary force. However, there are cases where utterances of imperative sentences do not correspond to a directive speech act. 3,The distinction between perlocutionary and illocutionary acts remains central for any attempt to classify or to define illocutionary forces. 4,Different conceptions of illocutionary acts are important for discussions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the pragmatic dimension(s) of linguistic competence. [source]

State, Citizen, and Character in French Criminal Process

Stewart Field
This paper charts some major differences in the way in which evidence of the defendant's character is treated in France when compared with practice in England and Wales. Such evidence is more pervasive and visible (especially in the most serious cases) and its relevance is more broadly defined. Further, its presentation is shaped by a developed and positive conception of the French citizen. In part, these differences may be explained by differences in procedural tradition: the unitary trial structure in France, the dominance of fact,finding by the professional judiciary, and the rejection of general exclusionary rules of evidence. But a full explanation requires French legal culture to be understood in the context of French political culture. This reveals a very different conception of relations between state and citizen to that of Anglo-Saxon liberalism. As a result the legitimacy of trial is seen in terms of the rehabilitation of the accused as a citizen of the state rather than simply the punishment of a particular infraction. [source]

Education: From telos to technique?

Anoop Gupta
Abstract A preoccupation with technology has helped bury the philosophical question: What is the point of education? I attempt to answer this question. Various answers to the question are surveyed and it is shown that they depend upon different conceptions of the self. For example, the devotional-self of the 12th century (which was about becoming master of the self) gave way to the liberal-self (which was to facilitate social change). Education can only be satisfactorily justified, I argue, by appeal to transcendent values such as mastery of the self, which is incipient in liberal education. [source]


Margaret Eisenhart
This article examines different conceptions of causation and their implications for understanding educational phenomena and conducting educational research. Specifically, I discuss four research designs for pursuing questions about causation in education. Two of these research designs take a variance approach to causation (that is, they attempt to show correlations between earlier events and subsequent ones), while the other two take a process approach (that is, they attempt to show a demonstrable sequence of events by which one variable flows into or leads to another). The point of the discussion is to illustrate, first, their respective strengths and, second, their necessary interdependence. Ultimately, I argue that just as both hammers and saws are needed to build a good house, both variance and process approaches are needed to build a good understanding of causation in education. [source]

Equality and Constitutional Indeterminacy An Interpretative Perspective on the European Economic Constitution

Alexander Somek
It is claimed that European supranationalism represents an unprecedented mode of political association whose point is to maintain what is good about nationality and the nation state by stripping the latter of its adverse effects. In this article, this claim is submitted to a test by examining how different ways of conceiving of anti-discrimination in the context of intra-Community trading law give rise to two different conceptions of the European economic constitution. While the first one is married to the ideal of behavioural anti-discrimination,that is, of affording protection against discriminatory acts by Member States,whose application would seemingly leave the nation state in its place, the other one takes a system of nation states as something that in and of itself engenders systematically discriminatory effects on international trade. According to the latter, effective anti-discrimination presupposes overcoming such a system altogether. Both conceptions of the economic constitution are manifest in Community law, and at first glance it appears as if adherence to the first one would be consonant with supranationality as a special mode of political association. However, owing to internal predicaments arising from the application of the equality principle (understood as a principle protecting against discrimination), the difference between both conceptions cannot be upheld in practice. Since the first conception is constantly undermined by the second in the course of its application, it remains uncertain, at least in this context, whether or not the European nation state is left in place by the European Economic Constitution. [source]

Reterritorilizing the Relationship between People and Place in Refugee Studies

Cathrine Brun
The article discusses different conceptions of space and place in refugee studies, especially contributions from anthropology and geography. A main distinction is drawn between two understandings of space and place; an essentialist conception, stating a natural relationship between people and places and an alternative conception attempting to de-naturalize the relationship between people and places. The consequences of applying different conceptions of space and place for the development of refugee policies and representations of refugees and displaced persons are addressed. For many displaced persons, displacement is experienced as being physically present at one place, but at the same time having a feeling of belonging somewhere else. It is argued that though attempts to de-naturalize the relationship between people and places have been important for how the refugee experience is conceptualized, there has been too much focus on imagination accompanied by a neglect of the local perspective of migrants and displaced people. In the local perspective of forced migration, the present lives of displaced people are emphasized. Especially the attitudes from the host communities, the policy environment that displaced people are part of, and their livelihood opportunities are the focus of regard. ,Territoriality' and ,reterritorialization' of the relationship between people and places are discussed as tools to analyse the local perspective of forced migration in general and the strategies of internally displaced persons and their hosts in Sri Lanka in particular. [source]

Re-Enactment and Radical Interpretation

Giuseppina D'Oro
This article discusses R. G. Collingwood's account of re-enactment and Donald Davidson's account of radical translation. Both Collingwood and Davidson are concerned with the question "how is understanding possible?" and both seek to answer the question transcendentally by asking after the heuristic principles that guide the historian and the radical translator. Further, they both agree that the possibility of understanding rests on the presumption of rationality. But whereas Davidson's principle of charity entails that truth is a presupposition or heuristic principle of understanding, for Collingwood understanding rests on a commitment to internal consistency alone. Collingwood and Davidson diverge over the scope of the principle of charity because they have radically different conceptions of meaning. Davidson endorses an extensional semantics that links meaning with truth in the attempt to extrude intensional notions from a theory of meaning. Since radical translation rests on a truth-conditional semantics, it rules out the possibility that there may be statements that are intelligible even though based on false beliefs. Collingwood's account of re-enactment, on the other hand, disconnects meaning from truth, thereby allowing for the possibility of understanding agents who have false beliefs. The paper argues, first, that Davidson's account of radical translation rests on inappropriately naturalistic assumptions about the nature of understanding, and that Davidson commits this error because he develops his account of radical interpretation in response to an epistemological question that is motivated by a skeptical concern: "how can we know whether we have provided the correct interpretation?" Second, that in the twentieth century far too much philosophizing has been driven by epistemological concerns that have obscured attempts to provide adequate answers to the sort of conceptual question with which Collingwood is concerned, namely: "what does it mean to understand?" [source]

Critical Junctures and Social Identity Theory: Explaining the Gap between Danish Mass and Elite Attitudes to Europeanization

By applying a combination of a social constructivist perspective on ideational change with theories of social learning and social identity, the article explains the gap in the Danish discourse on Europe between mass and elite. The Danish population is conceptualized as two differently constructed ,social groups' consisting of a nation people and a state-elite group. Each ,social group' has experienced different processes of ideational change and socialization and has developed different conceptions of interests and political preferences. [source]

Public Attitudes About Government Involvement in Expressive Controversies

Jennifer L. Lambe
The purpose of this study is to identify segments of the public in terms of their attitudes about the permissibility of government censorship. Secondary analysis is conducted on 3 existing data sets that included J. L. Lambe's Willingness to Censor (WTC) scale (2002). Cluster analysis identifies 3 groups with different conceptions of the proper role of the government with regard to expressive controversies: Protectors who want the government to proactively ensure expression is permitted, censors who want the government to restrict expression when another social goal is at stake, and allowers who want the government simply to stay out of such controversies. [source]

How and what university students learn through online and face-to-face discussion: conceptions, intentions and approaches

R. A. Ellis
Abstract This paper reports a phenomenographic investigation into students' experiences of learning through discussion , both online and face to face (F2F). The study context was a second-year undergraduate course in psychology for social work in which the teacher had designed discussion tasks to begin in F2F mode and to continue online. A combination of open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was used to investigate students' conceptions of what they were learning, their intentions and their approaches to learning through discussion. Analysis of the interview and open-ended questionnaire data identified a number of qualitatively different conceptions, intentions and approaches to learning through discussion. Associations were found between what students thought they were learning through discussions, their approaches to learning through discussion and their course grade. Students with a cohesive conception and students adopting a deep approach (to learning through online discussion) got better course grades. There was no significant difference between deep and surface approaches to F2F discussion and course grade. The outcomes of this study have implications for the design of online and F2F discussion tasks and in particular for helping students adopt richer conceptions of what they stand to gain through discussion. [source]

Uncounted or illusory blessings?

Competing responses to the Easterlin, Easterbrook, Schwartz paradoxes of well-being
Abstract The Easterlin paradox concerns slight or negligible increases in personal satisfaction reported as income rises beyond high middle income levels. Sister paradoxes highlighted by Easterbrook and Schwartz concern the frequent low or negligible impact on personal satisfaction of improvements in various dimensions of life. The paper identifies a range of responses to the paradoxes, shows how these responses reflect a series of different conceptions of the meaning of well-being, and assesses their cogency. It indicates areas where follow-on research is required. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A ,European' Conception of Legal Consciousness: Rediscovering Eugen Ehrlich

Marc Hertogh
This paper discusses the present ,legal consciousness' literature and seeks to identify two different conceptions of legal consciousness. Most of this literature originated in the United States, but there has also been a growing interest in issues of legal consciousness in Europe. The use of the term ,legal consciousness ' in these European discussions is, however, remarkably different from its use in the United States literature. It is argued that the most commonly used ,American ' conception of legal consciousness reflects important ideas of Roscoe Pound and asks: how do people experience (official) law? By contrast, a European conception of legal consciousness, which was first introduced by the Austrian legal theorist Eugen Ehrlich, focuses on: what do people experience as ,law '? After both perspectives are applied in a case-study of a run-down neighbourhood in the Netherlands, it is concluded that future studies of legal consciousness may benefit from an integration of the two conceptions. [source]

Metaphor and the Dynamics of Knowledge in Organization Theory: A Case Study of the Organizational Identity Metaphor*

Joep P. Cornelissen
abstract Despite the increased salience of metaphor in organization theory, there is still very little conceptual machinery for capturing and explaining how metaphor creates and/or reorders knowledge within organization theory. Moreover, prior work on metaphor has insufficiently accounted for the context of interpreting a metaphor. Many metaphors in organization theory, including the ,organizational identity' metaphor, have often been treated in singular and monolithic terms; seen to offer a similar or largely synonymous interpretation to theorists and researchers working along the entire spectrum of disciplines (e.g. organizational behaviour, organizational psychology) in organization theory. We argue in this paper that contextual variation however exists in the interpretation of metaphors in organization theory. This argument is developed by proposing and elaborating on a so-called image-schematic model of metaphor, which suggests that the image-schemata (abstract imaginative structures) that are triggered by the metaphorical comparison of concepts may vary among individuals. Accordingly, once different schemata are triggered the completion and interpretation of a metaphor may equally vary among different individuals or, indeed, research communities. These points associated with the image-schematic model of metaphor are illustrated with a case study of the ,organizational identity' metaphor. The case study shows that this particular metaphor has spiralled out into different research communities and has been comprehended in very different ways as different communities work from very different conceptions, or image-schemata, of ,organization' and ,identity', and use different theoretical frameworks and constructs as a result. The implications of the image-schematic view of metaphor for knowledge development and theoretical progress in organization theory are discussed. [source]

Time and space in the Sri Lanka-Tamil diaspora

Øivind Fuglerud
Based upon fieldwork in Sri Lanka and among Tamil migrants in Norway, this article discusses the relationship between space, time and national identity. The author argues that in the Sri Lanka-Tamil diaspora one finds two different conceptions of Tamil culture, the ,traditional' and the ,revolutionary'. The first expresses a space-time relationship that is nomadic and grounded in heritage; the second one is sedentary and historicist. The latter serves as a basis for Tamil separatism, the first does not. By propagating the ,revolutionary' model of culture, with its particular understanding of space and time, the Tamil separatist movement Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has adopted viewpoints that throughout this century have fuelled the nationalism of the Sinhalese majority in Sri Lanka. The author argues that instead of explaining social change historically, which is one trend within anthropological theory today, anthropologists should concentrate on exploring under which conditions historical explanations are seen as more valid than their alternatives. [source]

Nursing leadership and health sector reform

Chris Borthwick
Nursing leadership and health sector reform The political, technological and economic changes that have occurred over the past decade are increasingly difficult to manage within the traditional framework of health-care, and the organisation of health-care is seen to need radical reform to sweep away many of the internal barriers that now divide one form of health-care, and one profession, from another. Nursing must equip itself with skills in advocacy and political action to influence the direction the system will take. Nursing currently suffers from a weakness in self-concept that goes hand in hand with a weakness in political status, and nursing leadership must build the foundations for both advocacy for others and self-advocacy for the nursing movement. The profession faces tensions between different conceptions of its role and status, its relationship to medicine, and its relationship to health. Health indices are tightly linked to status, and to trust, hope, and control of one's own life. Can nurses help empower others when they are not particularly good at empowering themselves? What will the role of the nurse be in creating the information flows that will guide people toward health? Nursing's long history of adaptation to an unsettled and negotiated status may mean that it is better fitted to make this adaptation than other more confident disciplines. [source]

Attachment to the Nation and International Relations: Dimensions of Identity and Their Relationship to War and Peace

Richard K. Herrmann
Since the rise of mass politics, the role national identities play in international relations has been debated. Do they produce a popular reservoir easily tapped for war or bestow dignity thereby fostering cooperation and a democratic peace? The evidence for either perspective is thin, beset by different conceptions of identity and few efforts to identify its effects independent of situational factors. Using data drawn from new national surveys in Italy and the United States, we advance a three-dimensional conception of national identity, theoretically connecting the dimensions to conflictive and cooperative dispositions as well as to decisions to cooperate with the United Nations in containing Iran's nuclear proliferation and Sudan's humanitarian crisis in Darfur. Attachment to the nation in Italy and the United States is found to associate with less support for militarist options and more support for international cooperation as liberal nationalists expect. This depends, however, on containing culturally exclusive conceptions of the nation and chauvinism. [source]

IV,Three Moments in the Theory of Definition or Analysis: Its Possibility, Its Aim or Aims, and Its Limit or Terminus

David Wiggins
The reflections recorded in this paper arise from three moments in the theory of definition and of conceptual analysis. The moments are: (I) Frege's (1894) review of Husserl's Philosophy of Arithmetic (Vol. I), the discussion there of the paradox of analysis, and the division that Frege marks, ensuing upon his distinction of Sinn/sense from Bedeutung/reference, between two different conceptions of definition; (II) Leibniz's still serviceable account (1684, 1704) of a distinction between the clarity and the distinctness of ideas,a distinction that prompts the suggestion that the guiding purpose of lexical definition is Leibnizian clarity whereas that of real definition (as Aristotle has us conceive it) is inseparable from the pursuit of Leibnizian distinctness; (III) Leibniz's speculations (1679) concerning the limit or terminus of analysis. The apparent failure of these speculations, casting doubt as it does upon the aspirations that give rise to them (aspirations not necessarily or entirely alien to the Zeitgeist of our own epoch), points to the long-standing need to reconfigure the philosophical business of enquiry into concepts. [source]

On "Coherence" and "Law": An Analysis of Different Models

RATIO JURIS, Issue 2 2001
Aldo Schiavello
The aim of this paper is to compare different conceptions of the role of (normative) coherence in the legal field. More precisely, it aims to deepen Neil MacCormick's theory of legal reasoning, in which coherence is essentially considered an interpretative tool, and Ronald Dworkin's legal theory, in which coherence occupies a more crucial place. The main results of this paper can be summarized in two points. A) For Dworkin, coherence is not just an interpretative standard but constitutes the hard core of his theory of law. B) As a consequence of A, Dworkin's reflections on coherence (as an interpretative standard) cannot be separated from his theory of law grounded on the concept of integrity. [source]

Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives

Clement Fatovic
Scholars, the courts, and the public have been ambivalent about prerogative, the power of presidents to take extraordinary actions without explicit legal authorization in emergencies, because it seems to defy core principles of liberal constitutionalism. This article examines the relation between prerogative and liberal constitutionalism by comparing the approaches of two Founders with different conceptions of executive power, Jefferson and Hamilton. Although they both endorsed a Lockean conception of prerogative that makes it possible to secure vital substantive ends that might be imperiled by strict adherence to ordinary legal forms in an emergency, they disagreed over the constitutionality of prerogative. Whereas Hamilton located the authority for prerogative within the implied powers of the Constitution, Jefferson expected presidents to admit wrongdoing and seek post-hoc approval from the public, a difference with important implications for both democracy and constitutional practice that can be traced back to ambiguities in Locke's theory of prerogative. [source]

Interpersonal Interaction and Economic Theory: The Case of Public Goods

Nicholas Bardsley
Interpersonal interaction in public goods contexts is very different in character to its depiction in economic theory, despite the fact that the standard model is based on a small number of apparently plausible assumptions. Approaches to the problem are reviewed both from within and outside economics. It is argued that quick fixes such as a taste for giving do not provide a way forward. An improved understanding of why people contribute to such goods seems to require a different picture of the relationships between individuals than obtains in standard microeconomic theory, where they are usually depicted as asocial. No single economic model at present is consistent with all the relevant field and laboratory data. It is argued that there are defensible ideas from outside the discipline which ought to be explored, relying on different conceptions of rationality and/or more radically social agents. Three such suggestions are considered, one concerning the expressive/communicative aspect of behaviour, a second the possibility of a part-whole relationship between interacting agents and the third a version of conformism. [source]


ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2005
Mechthild Fend
This essay argues for the shared quality of skin and painting as signifying surfaces. When representing the surface of the body the artist engages with questions about the borders of the body and relations between the interior and the exterior. Portraits by Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres are considered in relation to several discursive fields: medical definitions of skin from the Enlightenment, nineteenth-century artistic anatomy and art theory. While David's rendering of skin is understood in terms of Xavier Bichat's definition of skin as a ,limite sensitive', the hermetically sealed and opaque skin of Ingres's figures negates contemporary notions of skin as a communicative membrane. Scientific knowledge notwithstanding, these very different approaches to the representation of skin may be seen as reflecting upon different ways to produce meaning as well as different conceptions of the body. Mechthild Fend is a research scholar at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, where she is working on a project on the history and representation of skin in late eighteenth- and nineteenth-century France. Her recent books deal with the representation of masculinity: Männlichkeit im Blick. Visuelle Inszenierungen in der Kunst seit der Frühen Neuzeit (co-edited with Marianne Koos, Cologne, 2004), and Grenzen der Männlichkeit. Der Androgyn in der französischen Kunst und Kunsttheorie Zwischen Aufkl.arung und Restauration (Berlin, 2003). [source]

Introducing undergraduate students to science

Paulo De Ávila Jr.
Abstract Understanding the scientific method fosters the development of critical thinking and logical analysis of information. Additionally, proposing and testing a hypothesis is applicable not only to science, but also to ordinary facts of daily life. Knowing the way science is done and how its results are published is useful for all citizens and mandatory for science students. A 60-h course was created to offer undergraduate students a framework in which to learn the procedures of scientific production and publication. The course's main focus was biochemistry, and it was comprised of two modules. Module I dealt with scientific articles, and Module II with research project writing. Module I covered the topics: 1) the difference between scientific knowledge and common sense, 2) different conceptions of science, 3) scientific methodology, 4) scientific publishing categories, 5) logical principles, 6) deductive and inductive approaches, and 7) critical reading of scientific articles. Module II dealt with 1) selection of an experimental problem for investigation, 2) bibliographic revision, 3) materials and methods, 4) project writing and presentation, 5) funding agencies, and 6) critical analysis of experimental results. The course adopted a collaborative learning strategy, and each topic was studied through activities performed by the students. Qualitative and quantitative course evaluations with Likert questionnaires were carried out at each stage, and the results showed the students' high approval of the course. The staff responsible for course planning and development also evaluated it positively. The Biochemistry Department of the Chemistry Institute of the University of São Paulo has offered the course four times. [source]

A Simple and reliable formula for assessment of maximum volumetric productivities in photobioreactors

Jean-François Cornet
Abstract This article establishes and discusses the consistency and the range of applicability of a simple but general and predictive analytical formula, enabling to easily assess the maximum volumetric biomass growth rates (the productivities) in several kinds of photobioreactors with more or less 15% of deviation. Experimental validations are performed on photobioreactors of very different conceptions and designs, cultivating the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on a wide range of volumes and hemispherical incident light fluxes. The practical usefulness of the proposed formula is demonstrated by the fact that it appears completely independent of the characteristics of the material phase (as the type of reactor, the kind of mixing, the biomass concentration,), according to the first principle of thermodynamics and to the Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem. Its ability to give the maximum (only) kinetic performance of photobioreactors cultivating many different photoautotrophic strains (cyanobacteria, green algae, eukaryotic microalgae) is theoretically discussed but experimental results are reported to a future work of the authors or to any other contribution arising from the scientific community working in the field of photobioreactor engineering and potentially interested by this approach. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

Child abuse in China: a yet-to-be-acknowledged ,social problem' in the Chinese Mainland

D. P. Qiao
ABSTRACT Child abuse or child maltreatment has been a worldwide concern. In China, however, it receives scant attention from both academic communities and government. Chinese society has little awareness of child abuse as it is known in the West and there are apparently different conceptions and treatments of the problem. This paper attempts to delineate how the problem is now understood and treated in Mainland China. The reasons why child abuse has not yet been recognized as a social problem worthy of public concern in China are explored. It is argued that as a signatory of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child there is a need for the Chinese government, the academic community and professionals to reflect on their conception and treatment of child abuse so as to achieve more effective child protection for all children who are victims of child abuse. [source]