Different Communities (different + community)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Different Communities

  • different community structure

  • Selected Abstracts

    Religious Persecution: And What To Do About It

    DIALOG, Issue 2 2002
    John Hilary Martin
    Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and other religions can all be found in geographically diverse Indonesia. Adding to this layered society are many different ethnic groups, political groups, and socio,economic groups. The joining of all these factors led to different communities forming adats,religio,customary agreements. When talking about "religious persecution" in Indonesia, all of these factors must be taken into account. Even so, it would be extremely naive to think that religious belief is a peripheral motivation for violence. This article explores a method by which religious scholars, leaders, and communities can curtail religious persecution in Indonesia; the method includes: personal encounter; discussion of the scholarly agenda; a public engagement through dialogue that leads to commitment; and finally, the appeal of prayer and ritual. [source]

    Diversity of phototrophic bacteria in microbial mats from Arctic hot springs (Greenland)

    Guus Roeselers
    Summary We investigated the genotypic diversity of oxygenic and anoxygenic phototrophic microorganisms in microbial mat samples collected from three hot spring localities on the east coast of Greenland. These hot springs harbour unique Arctic microbial ecosystems that have never been studied in detail before. Specific oligonucleotide primers for cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria, green sulfur bacteria and Choroflexus/Roseiflexus -like green non-sulfur bacteria were used for the selective amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Amplification products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequenced. In addition, several cyanobacteria were isolated from the mat samples, and classified morphologically and by 16S rRNA-based methods. The cyanobacterial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from DGGE represented a diverse, polyphyletic collection of cyanobacteria. The microbial mat communities were dominated by heterocystous and non-heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria. Our results indicate that the cyanobacterial community composition in the samples were different for each sampling site. Different layers of the same heterogeneous mat often contained distinct and different communities of cyanobacteria. We observed a relationship between the cyanobacterial community composition and the in situ temperatures of different mat parts. The Greenland mats exhibited a low diversity of anoxygenic phototrophs as compared with other hot spring mats which is possibly related to the photochemical conditions within the mats resulting from the Arctic light regime. [source]

    Biogeography of bacteria associated with the marine sponge Cymbastela concentrica

    Michael W. Taylor
    Summary Recent debate regarding microbial biogeography has focused largely on free-living microbes, yet those microbes associated with host organisms are also of interest from a biogeographical perspective. Marine eukaryotes and associated bacteria should provide ideal systems in which to consider microbial biogeography, as (i) bacteria in seawater should be able to disperse among individuals of the same host species, yet (ii) potential for adaptation to particular hosts (and thus speciation) also exists. We used 16S rDNA-DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) to examine geographic variability in bacterial community composition in the marine sponge Cymbastela concentrica. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding patterns (and phylogenetic analysis of excised DGGE bands) indicated different communities in Cymbastela concentrica from tropical versus temperate Australia. In contrast, communities were very similar over a 500-km portion of the sponge's temperate range. Variation in bacterial community composition was also considered with respect to ocean current patterns. We speculate that the divergent communities in different parts of the sponge's range provide evidence of endemism attributed to host association, although variation in environmental factors such as light and temperature could also explain the observed results. Interestingly, bacterial communities in seawater varied much less between tropical and temperate locations than did those in C. concentrica, supporting the concept of widespread dispersal among these free-living microbes. [source]

    Reproducibility of a microbial river water community to self-organize upon perturbation with the natural chemical enantiomers, R - and S -carvone

    Katja Lehmann
    Abstract A river water microbial community was studied in response to perturbation with the monoterpene enantiomers R - and S -carvone. The microbial community structure and function was also evaluated after enantiomers exposure was switched. Microbial communities were evaluated by length heterogeneity PCR. The addition of R - and S -carvone enriched for a range of functionally different communities: enantiomer-selective, racemic and ones that contain both. After 5 days incubation, the R - and S -carvone treatments developed a range of dominant microbial communities, which were increasingly dissimilar from the ones in which no carvone degradation had taken place (R -values: R -carvone 0.743, S -carvone 0.5007). There was an increase in the evenness of the microbial community structure upon carvone depletion. After the cross-over, the rate of carvone utilization was significantly faster than after the first carvone addition (P=0.008) as demonstrated by concomitant carvone and oxygen depletion. The main R -degrading community (450,456 bp) appeared enantioselective and largely unable to degrade S -carvone, whereas the S -carvone-degrading community (502,508 bp) appeared to have racemic catabolic capacity. In conclusion, chemical perturbations, such as enantiomers, might generate a significant shift in the river microbial ecology that can have implications for the function of a river in both a spatial and temporal context. [source]

    Community and Individual Race/Ethnicity and Home Health Care Use among Elderly Persons in the United States

    James B. Kirby
    Objective. To investigate whether the interaction between individual race/ethnicity and community racial/ethnic composition is associated with health-related home care use among elderly persons in the United States. Data Sources. A nationally representative sample of community-dwelling elders aged 65+ from the 2000 to 2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=23,792) linked to block group-level racial/ethnic information from the 2000 Decennial Census. Design. We estimated the likelihood of informal and formal home health care use for four racial/ethnic elderly groups (non-Hispanic [NH] whites, NH-blacks, NH-Asians, and Hispanics) living in communities with different racial/ethnic compositions. Principal Findings. NH-Asian and Hispanic elders living in block groups with ,25 percent of residents being NH-Asian or Hispanic, respectively, were more likely to use informal home health care than their counterparts in other block groups. No such effect was apparent for formal home health care. Conclusions. NH-Asian and Hispanic elders are more likely to use informal home care if they live in communities with a higher proportion of residents who share their race/ethnicity. A better understanding of how informal care is provided in different communities may inform policy makers concerned with promoting informal home care, supporting informal caregivers, or providing formal home care as a substitute or supplement to informal care. [source]

    The new neighbour: Experiences of living next door to people suffering from long-term mental illness

    Arild Granerud
    ABSTRACT The transition from hospital to community care for people with long-term mental illness is of growing concern. The aim of the present study was to illuminate if and how people with long-term mental illness have affected their neighbourhood after re-establishing themselves in apartments of their own. Nineteen neighbours of group homes for people with long-term mental illness, in seven different communities in eastern Norway, have been interviewed. The grounded theory procedures as well as the constant comparative method were employed to analyse the findings. From the data, one main category was identified: the need for information. [source]

    Comparison of medication-prescribing patterns for patients in different social groups by a group of doctors in a general practice

    Mrs. Jenifer Anne Harding Primary care pharmacist
    Objective This study was designed to compare medication-prescribing patterns of five general practitioners (GPs) who served patients living in two different communities, one of which is more economically deprived. Method The study focused on cardiovascular and antibiotic prescribing. Practice population data including history of cardiovascular disease and records of medication prescribed were considered with public health and socio-economic statistics for each community. Setting The study practice serves 8300 patients in two clinics, Tipton and Gornal, 4 miles apart. Each has similar numbers of registered patients. Tipton is in one of England's most deprived areas, ranked 16 out of 354 in the Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2004, compared with Gornal which is situated in an area ranked 109. Key findings For each Tipton patient, mean prescribing costs were 37% higher and mean number of prescription items were 16% higher over the study period compared with Gornal. Although a higher incidence might be expected in Tipton, little difference in identified cardiovascular disease (CVD) was found between Tipton and Gornal, and prescribing rates of aspirin and statins were similar. Tipton patients with CVD were less likely to be prescribed antihypertensives especially calcium channel blockers (P = 0.003) and diuretics (P = 0.02). Tipton patients received on average 3.27 different cardiovascular drugs compared with 3.80 in Gornal (P = 0.004). In those aged 65 years and over, this reduced to 3.08 in Tipton compared with 3.82 in Gornal (P = 0.001). Tipton patients generally, and children specifically, were significantly more likely to receive antibiotic prescriptions (P <0.0001). Conclusion This study suggested that some prescribing patterns differed at the two clinics, which may reflect different behaviours by the GPs when prescribing in the two communities of different population need. [source]

    How issues get framed and reframed when different communities meet: a multi-level analysis of a collaborative soil conservation initiative in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Art Dewulf
    Abstract Drawing on qualitative data from a longitudinal case study of a collaborative soil conservation initiative in southern Ecuador, we study how multiple actors, including university experts, development organizations and local communities, make sense of the issues from different perspectives through the process of issue framing. Starting from an analysis of the actors' usual issue frames, we point out their differences in selecting aspects, connecting them and drawing boundaries around the issues. Bringing in the time dimension leads us to consider how changing patterns of actor involvement and evolving frame configurations mutually influence each other. In a third step, we zoom in on the here-and-now level of ongoing interaction using discourse analysis, outlining an interactive, communicative and discursive approach to dealing with differences in issue framing. We identify various ways of dealing with these differences and argue that approaching them constructively by tuning the different frames into a mutually acceptable configuration is an important challenge for any attempt at integrated management of natural resources. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Small Business in the Face of Crisis: Identifying Barriers to Recovery from a Natural Disaster,

    Rodney C. Runyan
    The crisis management literature has not dealt in depth with small business response to disasters. This study takes a qualitative approach to consider how small businesses respond to and recover from a large disaster, by interviewing stakeholders in five different communities in the Gulf Coast of the United States. Events that are considered to be crises in nature are usually characterized by high consequence, low probability, ambiguity, and decision making time pressure. Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath caused small business owners in the U.S. Gulf region to experience each of these. Findings include lack of planning by small business; vulnerability to cash flow interruption; lack of access to capital for recovery; problems caused by federal assistance; and serious infrastructure problems impeding recovery. [source]

    Characterizing the phylogenetic structure of communities by an additive partitioning of phylogenetic diversity

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Summary 1Analysing the phylogenetic structure of natural communities may illuminate the processes governing the assembly and coexistence of species in ecological communities. 2Unifying previous works, we present a statistical framework to quantify the phylogenetic structure of communities in terms of average divergence time between pairs of individuals or species, sampled from different sites. This framework allows an additive partitioning of the phylogenetic signal into alpha (within-site) and beta (among-site) components, and is closely linked to Simpson diversity. It unifies the treatment of intraspecific (genetic) and interspecific diversity, leading to the definition of differentiation coefficients among community samples (e.g. IST, PST) analogous to classical population genetics coefficients expressing differentiation among populations (e.g. FST, NST). 3Two coefficients which express community differentiation among sites from species identity (IST) or species phylogeny (PST) require abundance data (number of individuals per species per site), and estimators that are unbiased with respect to sample size are given. Another coefficient (,ST) expresses the gain of the mean phylogenetic distance between species found in different sites compared with species found within sites, and requires only incidence data (presence/absence of each species in each site). 4We present tests based on phylogenetic tree randomizations to detect community phylogenetic clustering (PST > IST or ,ST > 0) or phylogenetic overdispersion (PST < IST or ,ST < 0). In addition, we propose a novel approach to detect phylogenetic clustering or overdispersion in different clades or at different evolutionary time depths using partial randomizations. 5IST, PST or ,ST can also be used as distances between community samples and regressed on ecological or geographical distances, allowing us to investigate the factors responsible for the phylogenetic signal and the critical scales at which it appears. 6We illustrate the approach on forest tree communities in Equatorial Guinea, where a phylogenetic clustering signal was probably due to phylogenetically conserved adaptations to the elevation gradient and was mostly contributed to by ancient clade subdivisions. 7The approach presented should find applications for comparing quantitatively phylogenetic patterns of different communities, of similar communities in different regions or continents, or of populations (within species) vs. communities (among species). [source]

    Metaphor and the Dynamics of Knowledge in Organization Theory: A Case Study of the Organizational Identity Metaphor*

    Joep P. Cornelissen
    abstract Despite the increased salience of metaphor in organization theory, there is still very little conceptual machinery for capturing and explaining how metaphor creates and/or reorders knowledge within organization theory. Moreover, prior work on metaphor has insufficiently accounted for the context of interpreting a metaphor. Many metaphors in organization theory, including the ,organizational identity' metaphor, have often been treated in singular and monolithic terms; seen to offer a similar or largely synonymous interpretation to theorists and researchers working along the entire spectrum of disciplines (e.g. organizational behaviour, organizational psychology) in organization theory. We argue in this paper that contextual variation however exists in the interpretation of metaphors in organization theory. This argument is developed by proposing and elaborating on a so-called image-schematic model of metaphor, which suggests that the image-schemata (abstract imaginative structures) that are triggered by the metaphorical comparison of concepts may vary among individuals. Accordingly, once different schemata are triggered the completion and interpretation of a metaphor may equally vary among different individuals or, indeed, research communities. These points associated with the image-schematic model of metaphor are illustrated with a case study of the ,organizational identity' metaphor. The case study shows that this particular metaphor has spiralled out into different research communities and has been comprehended in very different ways as different communities work from very different conceptions, or image-schemata, of ,organization' and ,identity', and use different theoretical frameworks and constructs as a result. The implications of the image-schematic view of metaphor for knowledge development and theoretical progress in organization theory are discussed. [source]

    Oscillating vegetation dynamics in a wet heathland

    Katharina E. Urban
    Abstract. Question: The significance of disturbances caused by periodical inundation was investigated with respect to its effects on vegetation dynamics, species richness and fluctuations, and to the relevance of certain plant properties. Location and Method: At a sod-cut stand within nutrient-poor inland sand dunes, permanent plots along a transect were surveyed over a period of up to nine years after sod cutting. Results: In contrast to never inundated plots, periodically inundated plots were characterized by low vegetation cover and by high numbers of species belonging to many different communities, each of them with a low cover. Periodical inundations favoured the presence of pioneers, species tolerant of disturbances, species adapted to wet conditions and stoloni-ferous species. Furthermore, annual fluctuations of species within each plot were higher and most species occurred only sporadically. Discussion: A comprehensive model is presented describing the relevant processes identified in the littoral zone. Changing water tables result in the creation of gaps. The re-colonization of these gaps follows mainly from vegetative regeneration and less to the dispersion of diaspores. Highest species numbers in the zone of moderate disturbances result from a high rate of re-colonization in spite of local extinctions following each disturbance event. It is suggested that colonization abilities are among the most important features for species occurrence at a site rich in disturbances (more important than competitive abilities and more important than a slow rate of displacement). For nature conservation such sites are very important, because they allow (rare) pioneer species to survive for longer periods of time. [source]

    Effect of observation method on the perception of community structure and water quality in a brackish water ecosystem

    MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 2009
    Tiia Möller
    Abstract The EU Water Framework Directive is a Community legislative instrument in the field of environmental protection that establishes a common framework for keeping water quality at a favourable level. To implement the directive, classification systems need to be established that allow detection of human impacts at early stages and, thus, more effective management of coastal communities. Due to the spatial variability of communities, however, the results of any assessment are highly dependent on the selection of data. In this study we identified local spatial scales in which variability of macrophyte communities was maximised, quantified links between observed patterns of sediment types and communities and estimated how selection criteria impacted the outcome of the assessment of indicator class value in four different communities of the Northern Baltic Sea. The main findings of the study were that: (i) there were no clear local spatial scales in which the variability of benthic communities was maximised; (ii) hard-bottom communities were better predicted by the spatial arrangement of sediment characteristics than soft-bottom communities; (iii) the selection of method had no effect on the estimates of macrophyte cover and indicator class; but (iv) method impacted independently of habitat type on error estimates of macrophyte cover and indicator class. To conclude, in such homogeneous and low diversity macrophyte communities it is preferable to use methods that result in lower error estimates of algal coverage and, thus, result in lower uncertainties of estimates in the water quality class. [source]

    On the Politics and Practice of Muslim Fertility

    Jennifer Johnson-Hanks
    Recent popular works have represented Muslim fertility as dangerously high, both a cause and consequence of religious fundamentalism. This article uses comparative, statistical methods to show that this representation is empirically wrong, at least in West Africa. Although religion strongly inflects reproductive practice, its effects are not constant across different communities. In West African countries with Muslim majorities, Muslim fertility is lower than that of their non-Muslim conationals; in countries where Muslims are in the minority, their apparently higher reproductive rates converge to those of the majority when levels of education and urban residence are taken into account. A similar pattern holds for infant mortality. By contrast, in all seven countries, Muslim women are more likely to report that their most recent child was wanted. The article concludes with a discussion of the relationship between autonomy and fertility desires. [source]

    Genetic diversity of Ranunculus acris L. (Ranunculaceae) populations in relation to species diversity and habitat type in grassland communities

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    Nidal Odat
    Abstract Correlates between genetic diversity at intra- and interpopulation levels and the species diversity in plant communities are rarely investigated. Such correlates may give insights into the effect of local selective forces across different communities on the genetic diversity of local plant populations. This study has employed amplified fragment length polymorphism to assess the genetic diversity within and between 10 populations of Ranunculus acris in relation to the species diversity (richness and evenness) of grassland communities of two different habitat types, ,seminatural' and ,agriculturally improved', located in central Germany. Within-population genetic diversity estimated by Nei's unbiased gene diversity (HE) was high (0.258,0.334), and was not correlated with species richness (Pearson's r = ,0.17; P = 0.64) or species evenness (Pearson's r = 0.15; P = 0.68) of the plant communities. However, the genetic differentiation between R. acris populations was significantly correlated with the difference in species evenness (Mantel's r = 0.62, P = 0.02), but not with difference in species richness of plant communities (r = ,0.17, P = 0.22). Moreover, we also found that populations of R. acris from the ,seminatural' habitat were genetically different (amova, P < 0.05) from those in ,agriculturally improved' habitats, suggesting that gene flow between these habitat types is limited. The results reported in this study may indicate that habitat characteristics influence the genetic diversity of plant species. [source]

    Genetic perspectives on forager-farmer interaction in the Luangwa Valley of Zambia

    Cesare de Filippo
    Abstract The transformation from a foraging way of life to a reliance on domesticated plants and animals often led to the expansion of agropastoralist populations at the expense of hunter-gatherers (HGs). In Africa, one of these expansions involved the Niger-Congo Bantu-speaking populations that started to spread southwards from Cameroon/Nigeria ,4,000 years ago, bringing agricultural technologies. Genetic studies have shown different degrees of gene flow (sometimes involving sex-biased migrations) between Bantu agriculturalists and HGs. Although these studies have covered many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, the central part (e.g. Zambia) was not yet studied, and the interactions between immigrating food-producers and local HGs are still unclear. Archeological evidence from the Luangwa Valley of Zambia suggests a long period of coexistence (,1,700 years) of early food-producers and HGs. To investigate if this apparent coexistence was accompanied by genetic admixture, we analyzed the mtDNA control region, Y chromosomal unique event polymorphisms, and 12 associated Y- short tandem repeats in two food-producing groups (Bisa and Kunda) that live today in the Luangwa Valley, and compared these data with available published data on African HGs. Our results suggest that both the Bisa and Kunda experienced at most low levels of admixture with HGs, and these levels do not differ between the maternal and paternal lineages. Coalescent simulations indicate that the genetic data best fit a demographic scenario with a long divergence (62,500 years) and little or no gene flow between the ancestors of the Bisa/Kunda and existing HGs. This scenario contrasts with the archaeological evidence for a long period of coexistence between the two different communities in the Luangwa Valley, and suggests a process of sociocultural boundary maintenance may have characterized their interaction. Am J Phys Anthropol 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Front and Back Covers, Volume 22, Number 5.

    ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY, Issue 5 2006
    October 200
    Front and back cover caption, volume 22 issue 5 Front cover Kayapo men of Brazilian Amazonia dance at a meeting of all Kayapo villages held in March 2006 with the aim of forging a united movement against the encroachment of agribusiness and large-scale development projects into the Xingú river valley. Up to the time of this meeting the widely dispersed Kayapo communities had never joined together as a single political organization under a common leadership. That they were able to do so at this meeting owed much to their ability to draw upon their shared tradition of collective ritual dance performances, which serve as the principal means of reproducing the social and political structures of their separate villages. At the meeting, held at the Kayapo village of Piaraçu on the Xingú, members of rival communities with mutually suspicious leaders joined in dances such as this one, drawn from the ritual for war, that expressed their solidarity in opposition to the common external threat. For the general audience, periodic interludes of dancing also provided a dramatic way of showing solidarity with one another and jointly expressing support for the orators, who were mostly leaders of the different communities. The meeting closed with a new ritual created for the occasion that began with a collective dance and culminated in a rite symbolizing the new level of common chiefly authority and leadership, encompassing Kayapo society as a whole, that had been created at the meeting. Back cover COMPETITIVE HUMANITARIANISM The back cover of this issue shows a detail from a map of ,Humanitarian actors involved in tsunami-related activities in Sri Lanka'. This excerpt lists but a few dozen of the many hundreds of agencies competing to provide relief in the wake of the tsunami that hit Sri Lanka in December 2004. In most disasters, a major problem facing relief agencies is a lack of resources. In the case of the 2004 tsunami, however, agencies were forced into competition with each other for effective distribution of an embarrassment of riches. Yet this distribution had to be in line with international standards, and needed to meet the requirements of those who had donated to the various appeals in other parts of the world and had specific ideas of what constituted relief. The result was an over-concentration on the visible and the photogenic rather than the arguably more important work of rebuilding institutions and social networks. As well as needing to meet international standards, relief agencies were subject to the bureaucratic requirements that they should expend their resources in an accountable fashion. Their slow reaction opened the way for a plethora of small and inexperienced organizations (and individuals) to enter the relief business. The aid they dispensed was often poorly directed and technically inferior, but the visibility of their operations prompted an easy criticism of the more ponderous activities of the larger relief organisations. While ready availability of resources marked out the tsunami relief effort from most other disasters, what seems to characterize aid operations in the wake of such disasters is a high degree of competition between relief agencies, and a continual call for a greater degree of co-ordination between relief organizations. Yet competitive pressures mean that co-ordination is unlikely to be attainable over more than the short term. From an anthropological point of view the following paradox is worthy of study: while philanthropy can be seen as the antithesis of self-interest, philanthropic organisations are inherently part of a self-interested, market-orientated social order. What starts out as a ,free gift' from the public of Europe, Asia or elsewhere ends up as a commodity in the marketplace of competitive humanitarianism. [source]

    Linking vegetation heterogeneity and functional attributes of temperate grasslands through remote sensing

    Roxana Aragón
    Abstract Question: How are plant communities of the Flooding Pampa grasslands spatially distributed? How do canopy dynamics of the different communities vary among seasons and years? Location: Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Methods: We characterized the distribution of communities through a supervised classification based on four Landsat 5TM images. We sampled species composition of 200 sites, with 130 of them corresponding to natural communities. Of the sampling areas 60% were used to classify, and the remaining areas to assess classification accuracy. We characterized the seasonal and interannual variability of canopy dynamics using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data provided by MODIS /Terra images. Results: Overall accuracy of the classification was satisfactory. The resulting maps showed a landscape formed by a matrix of extended lowlands with small patches of mesophytic and humid mesophytic meadows. The October scene (near the peak of productivity) was particularly important in discriminating among communities. The seasonal pattern of NDVI differed among communities and years. Mesophytic meadows had the highest NDVI mean and the lowest interannual coefficient of variation, halophytic steppes had the lowest mean, and vegetated ponds were the most variable. Conclusions: These grasslands have a fine-grained heterogeneity at the landscape scale. Each plant community has distinct seasonal and interannual canopy dynamics. These two features of grassland structure and functioning represent key information for rangeland management that may be obtained through a combination of minor field sampling and remote sensing. [source]

    Propagation of uncertainty from observing systems and NWP into hydrological models: COST-731 Working Group 2

    Massimiliano Zappa
    Abstract The COST-731 action is focused on uncertainty propagation in hydrometeorologica l forecasting chains. Goals and activities of the action Working Group 2 are presented. Five foci for discussion and research have been identified: (1) understand uncertainties, (2) exploring, designing and comparing methodologies for the use of uncertainty in hydrological models, (3) providing feedback on sensitivity to data and forecast providers, (4) transferring methodologies among the different communities involved and (5) setting up test-beds and perform proof-of-concepts. Current examples of different perspectives on uncertainty propagation are presented. Copyright © 2010 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Phylogenetic algorithms and the evolution of species communities in forest fragments

    CLADISTICS, Issue 1 2005
    Roseli Pellens
    In forest fragmentation studies, low specific richness in small fragments and community nestedness are usually considered to result from species loss. However, except in the case of fragmentation experiments, these studies cannot distinguish between original low richness and secondary species loss, or between original high richness and secondary colonizations in fragments. To distinguish between these possibilities is a matter of historical inference for which phylogenetic algorithms are designed. The methods of phylogenetic analysis, and especially parsimony analysis, can be used to find a tree of relationships between communities from different forest fragments, taking the presence or absence of species among different communities as characters. Parsimony analysis searches if species subsets can be classified in a nested hierarchy, and also establishes how the communities evolved, polarizing species changes into either extinctions or colonizations. By re-analyzing two classical studies in this new and powerful way, we demonstrate that the differences between fragments and large continuous forests cannot be attributed to species loss in all cases, contrary to expectations from models. © The Willi Hennig Society 2005. [source]


    James Huff
    This article explores how one faith-based nonprofit organization and its various Pentecostal and evangelical church partners in El Salvador are creating associational contexts within which local community development projects are identified and implemented. Observational and interview data derived from a process evaluation of a project identification exercise are examined to explore how different community and organizational stakeholders attempt to implement local development initiatives that will presumably build on local assets and associations. The study details the patterns of participation that emerged as members of local churches negotiated with their neighbors over how to best direct social change in their community. Corresponding analysis of interview data portrays how these same actors relied on diverse social logics,which are both religious and practical in nature,to make sense of and assess some of the key assumptions of a particular form of faith-based development. The case is a good example of how faith-based organizations play key roles in the formation of publics, wherein actors from diverse networks come together to deliberate over the aims and outcomes of local development projects in contemporary El Salvador. [source]