Different Colours (different + colour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The role of the magnocellular pathway in serial deployment of visual attention

Alicia Cheng
Abstract Normal human visual function often demands detection of a target among a number of other objects cluttering the scene, such as when searching for a known face in a crowd. In these and similar tasks, the search performed is a serial one, with an attentional spotlight scanning the objects of the scene. We have investigated whether one of the afferent channels in vision, the colour-blind magnocellular pathway, is essential in such serial searches. We did this by using items that were isoluminant with the background but of a different colour, for which the magnocellular cells would be blind. The search in these conditions required much longer reaction times than when even a very small luminance contrast (2%) was added to the items. Because such luminance contrasts can be detected only by magnocellular cells and not by neurons of the other channels (parvocellular and koniocellular), the magnocellular pathway appears vitally important for serial search. In contrast, in a feature search task, which does not require allocation of attentional resources, the search was as efficient with isoluminance as when luminance contrast was added to the items. [source]

Thrips see red , flower colour and the host relationships of a polyphagous anthophilic thrips

Abstract 1.,The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei, is a polyphagous anthophilic species that colonises a wide range of host-plant species across different plant taxa. The environmental cues used by these polyphagous insects to recognise and locate host plants are not known. We therefore determined if colour is an important environmental signal used by F. schultzei to recognise flowers of eight of its more significant host-plant species. 2.,The effect of flower colour on the colonisation of different host plant species by F. schultzei was investigated by collecting and analysing the following: (a) numbers of thrips from different heights and aspects of the primary host plant Malvaviscus arboreus, (b) thrips distribution within flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis, (c) colour reflectance from flowers of eight different host-plant species, and (d) reflectance from different coloured sticky traps and the number of thrips trapped on them at different times of the day and on different dates. 3.,The results indicate that: (a) the thrips (both sexes) concentrate towards the top of the primary host plant M. arboreus and are not distributed differentially according to sunny or shady aspect of the plant, (b) the number of female thrips on H. rosasinensis was higher in anthers compared to petals (corolla) and the basal parts of the flower, and males were as numerous on the petals as were females, and (c) there is a common floral reflectance pattern (but with different intensities) across the eight host plant species, mainly in the red part of the spectrum (600,700 nm). 4.,Results of colour sticky trapping show that red attracts more female thrips compared to any other colour and that most were caught between 09.00 and 11.00 hours. By contrast, more male thrips were trapped between 07.00 and 09.00 hours. Males were more evenly distributed across the different colours but the highest numbers were associated with the yellow traps. 5.,The higher densities of thrips at the top of their host plant may be related to the early morning (07.00,11.00 hours) activity of the thrips, when the top portions of the plant are more exposed to sunlight. The sex-related distributions of F. schultzei thrips across time, coloured sticky traps, and various parts of the flowers seem to be related to mating swarm formation by the males, on the one hand, and the relative frequency and intensity of the use of M. arboreus by the females, on the other, as a feeding and oviposition site. Frankliniella schultzei females respond more strongly to red than to any other colours, so it is predicted that the spectral properties of colour recognition by this species will correlate with the predominant red reflectance of its primary host, M. arboreus, and that there may well be a sex-related difference in colour recognition within this species. [source]

Captures of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae on spheres of different colours

Byron I. Katsoyannos
Abstract Alighting and capture of wild olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera, Tephritidae), on spheres of seven different colours was studied on Chios island, Greece. The 70-mm-diam plastic spheres, coated with adhesive, were suspended on olive trees. Yellow and orange spheres trapped the greatest number of males while red and black spheres trapped the greatest number of females. White and blue spheres were the least effective for both sexes. Peak captures occurred in the late afternoon and especially around sunset. Since mating takes place in the last hours of the photophase, the increased captures during that period may be related to the sexual behaviour of the fly. When red spheres were assessed against glass McPhail traps baited with 2% ammonium sulphate, which consist a standard tool for monitoring the olive fruit fly in Greece, there were no significant differences in male captures. However, spheres trapped almost three times as many females as McPhail traps. The possible mechanisms underlying colour discrimination, the motivation of alighting flies and the possible use of red spheres for monitoring and controlling B. oleae are discussed. [source]

Phylogenetic 16S rRNA analysis reveals the presence of complex and partly unknown bacterial communities in Tito Bustillo cave, Spain, and on its Palaeolithic paintings

Claudia Schabereiter-Gurtner
Summary Tito Bustillo cave (Ribadesella, Spain) contains valuable Palaeolithic paintings, which date back 15 000,20 000 years. Since 1969, the cave has been open to the public. Rock wall surfaces, spelaeothems and soils are covered by apparent biofilms of phototrophic microorganisms, which develop under artificial lighting. In addition, rock surfaces present conspicuous bacterial growth in the form of round colonies of different colours and about 1,2 mm in diameter. Even the famous Paintings Panel shows some evident microbial growth. In the present study, bacterial communities on the paintings and on the rock surfaces near the paintings were analysed by culture-independent techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of bacterial 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA), phylogenetic sequence analyses and genetic community fingerprinting by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE fingerprints showed complex bacterial community patterns. Forty-one clones matching DGGE bands of the community fingerprints were sequenced, representing about 39% of DNA fragments in the DGGE patterns. Phylogenetic sequence analyses revealed a high number of phylogenetically novel 16S rDNA sequence types and a high diversity of putatively chemotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria. Sequences were phylogenetically most closely related to the Proteobacteria (20 clones), green non-sulphur bacteria (three clones), Planctomycetales order (one clone), Cytophaga,Flexibacter, Bacteroides division (one clone) and the Actinobacteria (four clones). Furthermore, we report the presence of members of the Acidobacterium division (12 clones) in a karstic hypogean environment. Members of this phylum have not so far been detected in these particular environments. [source]

Fruit Colour Preferences of Redwings (Turdus iliacus): Experiments with Hand-Raised Juveniles and Wild-Caught Adults

ETHOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
Johanna Honkavaara
Certain fruit colours and their contrast with the background coloration are suggested to attract frugivorous birds. To test the attractiveness of different colours, we performed three experiments in laboratory with controlled light conditions. In the first two experiments, we studied the fruit colour preferences of naive juvenile redwings. In the third experiment, we continued to investigate whether the contrast of the fruit colour with the background coloration affects the preference of both naive juveniles and experienced adult redwings. In the first experiment, juvenile birds preferred black, UV-blue and red berries, to white ones. In pairwise trials, a new set of juveniles still preferred red berries to white ones. When testing the effect of contrasts on their choice, juveniles preferred UV-blue berries to red ones on a UV-blue background. However, no preference was found, when the background was either red or green. Adult redwings preferred UV-blue berries to red ones on all backgrounds. According to these results, juveniles seem to have an innate avoidance of white berries. Furthermore, the foraging decisions of fruit-eating birds are affected more by fruit colour than its contrast with background coloration, at least when contrasting displays are encountered from relatively short distances. Differences in preferences of adult and juvenile birds also indicate that learning seems to play a role in fruit choices. [source]

Raman spectroscopic analysis of mediaeval wall paintings in the Palencia region, Spain

S. E. Jorge Villar
Abstract The use of Raman spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of wall paintings and frescoes has been reported previously. In this paper we present for the first time the Raman study of a collection of three wall paintings attributed to the same artist, dating from the XVth century, and a fourth wall painting dated three centuries earlier, all of them located in the same area, namely Palencia in northern Spain. From the results obtained here we can conclude that there is an identifiable recipe for the different colours and pigment tonalities, which had been maintained during the centuries regardless of the artistic origin of the work and did not seem to have been subjected to external influences. Also, the use of expensive pigments by the artist(s) is identified with the local importance of the figure, more than with the established religious hierarchy. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic study of pigments present in decorative wallpapers of the middle nineteenth century from the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria, Basque Country, Spain),

K. Castro
One of the earliest wallpapers manufactured by the Santa Isabel factory (Vitoria, Basque Country, Spain) (1845) was found at the Torre de los Varona (near Vitoria) during restoration work on the building. As part of this cleaning and restoration work, the identification of the wallpaper's pigments was carried out by Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy. Fragments of paper were set in a sampler kit for planar surfaces. By moving the paper samples, it is possible to locate the laser beam's spot at the point that it is going to be analysed with a spatial resolution of about 0.5 mm. With this method it is possible to map a surface of several square centimetres without the need for an optical microscope. As FT-Raman analysis is totally non-destructive, the samples were restored and integrated with the whole wallpaper at the end of the analysis. Small particles of pigment were collected for the analysis of the pink and green colours by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In both cases, the damage caused by the pigment sampling was minimal and non-visible. BaSO4, CaCO3, Pb3O4, PbCrO4, PbO, Prussian Blue, gypsum and an organic black pigment were detected. It is important to take into account the laser beam's penetrative power in order to interpret the spectra correctly. The identification of only eight pigments to make 12 different colours, mostly in two different shades, shows the ability of the wallpaper manufacturer to create a rich palette at low cost. This type of primitive industrial decorative work has become real artwork that it is necessary to preserve and restore. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dietary conservatism may facilitate the initial evolution of aposematism

OIKOS, Issue 3 2003
R. J. Thomas
It has generally been assumed that warningly coloured organisms pay a cost associated with their increased visibility, because naïve predators notice and eat them. This cost is offset by their enhanced protection from educated predators who associate the colour pattern with unprofitability. However, some studies have suggested that avoidance of novel prey by avian predators ("dietary conservatism") can actually place novel colour morphs at a selective advantage over familiar ones, even when they are highly conspicuous. To test this idea, we experimentally simulated the appearance of a single novel-coloured mutant in small populations (20 individuals) of palatable artificial prey. The colour morph frequencies in each "generation" were determined by the relative survival of the previous generation under predation by birds. We used wild-caught European robins Erithacus rubecula foraging on pastry "prey" of different colours. The aim was to test whether prey selection by predators prevented or facilitated the novel colour morph persisting in the prey population over successive generations. We found that the novel colour morph quickly increased to fixation in 14/40 prey "populations", and at least once each in 8 of the 10 birds tested. Novel mutants of the classic aposematic colours (red and yellow) reached fixation most frequently, but even the green and blue novel morphs both increased to fixation in 2/40 trials. Novel colours reached fixation significantly faster than could be accounted for by drift, indicating active avoidance by the birds. These results suggest that a novel colour morph arising in a prey population can persist and increase under the selective pressure imposed by predators, even to the local exclusion of the original morph, despite being fully palatable. The consequences of this finding are discussed in relation to receiver psychology, the evolution of aposematism and the existence of polymorphism in Müllerian mimics. [source]

Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 5 2006
G. F. Gonzales
Summary Lepidium meyenii (Maca) grows exclusively between 4000 and 4500 m above sea level in the Peruvian central Andes. The hypocotyls of this plant are traditionally used in the Andean region for their supposed fertility-enhancing properties. The hypocotyls have different colours. Of these, Black maca has better effects on spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that Black maca has early effects during a spermatogenic cycle (12 days) of male rats. For this, testicular spermatid, epididymal sperm and vas deferens sperm counts were measured after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 12 days of treatment with Black maca. Aqueous extract of Black maca was given orally by daily gavage at a dose of 2 g kg,1. In a spermatogenic cycle, compared with day 1, daily sperm production (DSP) was lower at day 7 (control), whereas with Black maca, the difference was observed at day 12. Epididymal sperm count was higher in rats treated with Black maca at days 1, 3 and 7, but similar to controls at days 5 and 12; similarly sperm counts in vas deferens was higher in rats treated with Black maca in days 3, 5 and 7, but similar to controls at days 1 and 12. From this, it is suggested that first action of Black maca was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after 1 day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at day 3 of treatment. Finally, an increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with Black maca. Testicular testosterone was not affected after 7 days treatment with Black maca. In conclusion, Black maca affects sperm count as early as 1 day after beginning of treatment. [source]

Molecular variation in pigmentation genes contributing to coat colour in native Korean Hanwoo cattle

T. R. Mohanty
Summary Pigmentation genes such as TYR (tyrosinase), TYRP1 (tyrosinase-related protein 1), DCT (previously TYRP2, or tyrosinase-related protein 2), ASIP (agouti) and MC1R (melanocortin receptor 1) play a major role in cattle coat colour. To understand the genotypic profile underlying coat colour in native Korean Hanwoo cattle and Angus black cattle, portions of the above-mentioned genes were amplified. Sequence analysis revealed variation in the TYRP1 (exon 5) and MC1R genes. Restriction enzyme analysis of these two genes could distinguish between different colours of Hanwoo cattle. Quantitative estimates of melanin and eumelanin in hair from three different-coloured Hanwoo phenotypes and Angus black showed significant differences at the breed and phenotypic levels. Finally, sequence variants in MC1R were associated with total melanin and eumelanin in breeds as well as in Hanwoo phenotypes. [source]

Evaluation of visible implant elastomer tags for tagging juvenile gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus L.); effects on growth, mortality, handling time and tag loss

Nicolás Astorga
Abstract The use of the fluorescent visible implant elastomer (VIE) tagging system in juvenile gilthead seabream, Sparus auratus L., between 7 and 18 g was examined. Four different colours (red, green, orange and yellow), three body positions (dorsal, lateral and caudal) and two orientations (horizontal and vertical) were tested. The mean tag application time for each fish was 15.7±0.32 s. There was no mortality associated with the method of tagging. The most visible tag colour was red. Injection orientation had a significant effect on length, width, fragmentation and fluorescent intensity of the tag. Horizontal tagging is recommended because of high fluorescent intensity, low fragmentation and for double tagging. There were no differences in growth between untagged controls and the VIE-tagged fish. [source]

New classification and basic stellar parameters of SU Equulei

O. Behre
Abstract The variable star SU Equulei was classified as a close binary with an eclipse light curve previously categorized as WUMa type. The aim of this paper is a review of this old classification on the basis of new observations and a new determination of variable star ephemeris as well as the determination of SU Equ spectral type and distance. New photometric observations in different colours allow a precise determination of the period of variability and yield more accurate light curves allowing a re-classification of the type of variability. We find the best period of variability to be half the old value. The shape of the light curve is inconsistent with an eclipse curve but consistent with an RR Lyrae type c classification. From the B, V, and R colours we deduce a new spectral classification. SU Equulei is an RRc Lyrae type variable of spectral class A8 at a distance of ,12.4 kpc instead of a late-type eclipsing binary (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The use of three-dimensional computed tomography for assessing patients before laparoscopic adrenal-sparing surgery

Michael Mitterberger
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) in delineating the relationship of the adrenal mass to adjacent normal structures in preparation for laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS Multislice CT (1 mm slices, 0.5 s rotation time) was used to evaluate 12 patients before adrenal-sparing surgery for aldosterone-producing adenoma or phaeochromocytoma. The CT data were reconstructed using two rendering techniques; (i) volume rendering with the modified VOLREN software (Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA) which allowed interactive 3D examination of the whole data volume within a few minutes; (ii) surface representations only of the interesting structures (kidney, adrenal tumour, vessels) represented in different colours and depicted together in a 3D scene using the software package 3DVIEWNIX. RESULTS In all, 14 adrenal masses in 12 patients were evaluated with 3D-CT; the number and location of lesions was accurate in all cases with both rendering techniques. The coloured surface-rendered images showed a consistently better delineation of the adrenal tumour from the normal tissue than did the volume-rendering technique. From this information all laparoscopic partial adrenalectomies could be completed as planned. CONCLUSIONS Interactive visualization of volume-rendered CT images was helpful for the planning and successful performance of the procedure, but coloured surface-rendered CT provided more convenient, immediate and accurate intraoperative information. [source]

Subjective visual sensations during cataract surgery performed under topical anaesthesia

Zsolt Biró
Abstract. Purpose:, To examine the patient's subjective visual sensations during cataract surgery performed under topical anaesthesia. Methods:, Prospective, non-randomized, cohort study. One hundred and thirty-two patients were interviewed by standard questionnaire within 1 hr of uncomplicated cataract surgery performed under topical anaesthesia. Results:, Everyone saw lights of different and changing intensity. One hundred and twenty-six (95.5%) patients saw different colours; 18 (13.6%) patients saw a rainbow-like scale of colours. Ninety-eight (74.2%) patients could see clear shapes and forms (mainly circle, square, rectangle, ellipse). Forty-nine (37.1%) patients could see instruments, and 35 (26.5%) patients saw the fingers of the surgeon during surgery. Twenty-six patients (19.7%) considered the strong light of the microscope very disturbing and uncomfortable. Forty-seven patients made drawings of the visual sensations that they experienced during surgery. Conclusion:, Consistent with our review of the literature, we found no relation between intraoperative visual sensations and patient's age, sex, preoperative visual acuity, duration of surgery or cataract severity. We found that it is helpful to inform the cataract patients of potential visual sensations before their surgery. [source]

Dynamic Chemical Devices: Photoinduced Electron Transfer and Its Ion-Triggered Switching in Nanomechanical Butterfly-Type Bis(porphyrin)terpyridines,

Myriam Linke-Schaetzel Dr.
Abstract A series of butterfly-type molecular constructs has been prepared in good yield by using a double Stille coupling synthetic protocol. They are composed of a terpyridine (terpy) scaffold and two wings composed of appended porphyrins that are capable of switching from an extended W geometry to a compact U geometry upon cation coordination of the terpy unit. The porphyrin moieties exist in the constructs either as free bases or they can be sequentially metallated, thus giving rise to wings of different "colours". Stationary and time-resolved emission studies of the HZn, ZnAu and Zn2Au constructs show that the electronic properties are strongly dependent on the geometry. In the extended W conformation an energy-transfer process is seen from the free base to the Zn-metallated porphyrin. In the U conformation in Zn2Au the donor luminescence resulting from the singlet excited state of the Zn wing is strongly, quenched not only due to the heavy atom effect but also due to a fast electron-transfer process to the ground state of the Au wing. Furthermore, the binding of (,,,)-diamine substrates to the ZnII,porphyrin sites can also influence the conformation of the system. For the Zn2Zn construct, single-crystal diffraction experiments with synchrotron radiation allowed the structure to be solved by direct methods and fully refined; it shows the expected U conformation. The central Zn atom is six-coordinate, whereby the zinc atom is coordinated by the ,3 -terpy ligand as well by monodentate and semi-chelating acetate anions. The structure is made rigid by hydrogen bonds involving the aqua ligands on the outer Zn centres and acetate oxygen atoms. The present system thus represents a double-trigger-modulated optomechanical switching device with selective substrate binding for either metal atoms or tailored ligands. Both energy- and electron-transfer processes can be controlled opening a means of improving the on/off ratio in future constructs. Une série d'architectures moléculaires, présentant une forme de papillon, a été préparée avec de bons rendements en utilisant une méthodologie synthétique comprenant comme étape clé un double couplage de Stille. Ces architectures sont composées d'un squelette terpyridine (terpy), qui compose le torse du papillon, sur lequel deux ailes porphyriniques ont été greffées; la géométrie peut varier entre une conformation étendue en forme de W, et une conformation compacte en forme de U, dû à la complexation du torse terpy par un cation de taille et coordination adéquate. Les ailes porphyriniques se présentent soit comme bases libres ou, peuvent être métallées successivement avec différentes métaux, pouvant ainsi avoir différentes "couleurs". Des études de fluorescence non seulement stationnaire mais aussi résolues dans le temps sur les architectures HZn, ZnAu et Zn2Au, montrent que les propriétés électroniques sont très dépendantes de la géométrie adoptée. Dans la conformation W étendue, nous avons mis en évidence un processus de transfert d'énergie de la porphyrine base libre vers la porphyrine metalée avec du Zn. Dans la conformation U de Zn2Au la luminescence de l'aile donneuse, à cause de l'état excité singulet, est fortement éteinte, non seulement à cause de l'effet d'atome lourd, mais aussi à cause d'un processus de transfert d'électron vers l'état fondamental de l'aile metalée avec de l'or. De plus, par compléxation avec des (,,,)-diamines des atomes de ZnIIdans les tetrapyrroles porphyrinques, la conformation induite du système peut être profondément influencée. Pour le composé Zn2Zn, que nous avons pu obtenir en monocristaux, des expériences de diffraction en utilisant comme source lumineuse un synchrotron, ont fourni des données qui ont permis de résoudre la structure par des méthodes directes et de la raffiner pour montrer la conformation en U attendue. L'atome central de Zn a une coordination de six dont trois provenant du ligand ,3 -terpy, et les autres de deux anions acetates, un monodenté et l'autre semi-chelatizé. La structure est ligotée par des multiples liaisons hydrogène entre des ligands aqueux sur les atomes de Zn externes et les atomes d'oxygène des anions acetates. Le système présenté est un double effecteur qui montre une commutation opto-mechanique dirigée soit par des ions métalliques, soit par d'autres ligands de taille adaptée. En même temps, les processus de transfert d'énergie et d'électrons peuvent être commuté en laissant de la place pour améliorer le rapport "on/off" dans de futures architectures. Abstract in Romanian:O serie de arhitecturi moleculare având o form, de fluture au fost preparate cu randamente bune utilizând o metodologie sintetic, cuprinzând ca etap, cheie un dublu cuplaj Stille. Aceste architecturi sunt compuse dintr-un schelet terpiridinic (terpy) alc,tuind trupul fluturelui, la care au fost implementate dou, aripi porfirinice care sunt capabile sa varieze între o conforma,ie extins, în forma de liter, W ,i o conformai,ie compact, în form, de litera U, datorit, complexarii trupului terpy printr-un cation de talie ,i coordina,ie adecvat,. Aripile porfirinice se prezintã fie ca base libere sau, datorita unei metalari succesive cu diferite metale, pot avea diferite "culori". Studii de fluorescen,a atât sta,ionar, cât ,i rezolvat, în timp, asupra arhitecturilor HZn, ZnAu ,i Zn2Au, arat, c, proprit,,ile electronice sunt foarte dependente de geometria adoptat,. In conforma,ia W extins,, am putut pune în eviden,, un proces de transfer de energie dinspre baza liber, c,tre porfirina metalat, cu Zn. In conforma,ia U a Zn2Au luminescen,a aripei donoare, datorate st,rii singulet excitate, este puternic stins, nu numai datorit, efectului de atom greu, cât ,i a unui proces de transfer de electron c,tre starea fundamental, a aripei metalat, cu aur. Pe deasupra, complexând (,,,)-diamine c,tre atomii de ZnIIîntre tetrapirolii porfirinici, sunt induse profunde influen,e asupra conforma,iei sistemului. Pentru compusul Zn2Zn, care a putut fi crescut monocristalin, experimente de difrac,ie folosind ca surs, luminoas, un sincrotron au condus la un set de date care a permis ca structura sa fie elucidat, prin metode directe ,i rafinat,, ar,tând conforma,ia în U a,teptat,. Atomul central de Zn are o coordina,ie de sase unde pe lang, lignadul ,3 -terpy, atomul de Zn este coordinat de c,tre doi anioni acetat, unul monodentat, iar cel,lalt semi-chelatizant. Structura este br,zdat, de leg,turi de hidrogen care implic, liganzii apo,i situa,i pe centrii de Zn exteriori, ,i atomii de oxigen din ionii acetat. Sistemul prezentat este un dutblu efector, ar,tând comutare opto-mecanic,, datorat, fie lig,rii prin ioni metalici, fie prin al,i liganzi perfect croitori,i. In acel,i timp, atât procese de transfer de energie, cât ,i de electroni, pot fi perfect comutate, l,sând loc pentru imbun,t,,irea raportului "on/off" în arhitecturi viitoare. [source]

The effect of texture on the pass/fail colour tolerances of injection-molded plastics

Ingrid Ariño
Abstract The effect of surface texture on the pass/fail colour tolerance region was estimated using acrylonitrile,butadiene,styrene injection-molded plaques in three different colours and with different surface textures. Variations in the measured colour coordinates due to differences in texture for three selected colours were observed using the specular component excluded mode (SCE) of the spectrophotometer. Such variations could not, however, be clearly distinguished in the specular component included mode. The colour tolerance regions were assessed through a combination of colour measurement and a psychometric study involving 35 observers. The limits of acceptance of colour differences varied substantially with the surface texture. In some cases, the observers accepted a larger colour difference for the textured than for the smooth surface, whereas in other cases, the reverse situation was noted. Thus, no general conclusion regarding the influence of texture on the tolerance region can be drawn, since the acceptable differences were colour- and/or surface texture-dependent. In the case of textured surfaces, measurements made in the SCE mode of the spectrophotometer appear to be more meaningful for assessing perceived colour differences and tolerance regions. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 32, 47,54, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/col.20284 [source]

Use of regression methods for determining the relation between theoretical,linear and spectrophotometrical colour values of bicolour woven structures

Helena Gabrijel
In this paper, new approaches for evaluating the entire colour effect of optical mixing of bicolour woven structures are presented. Simple woven structures with constant colour in the warp direction and different colours in the weft direction were prepared and analysed. The constructional parameters of these woven fabrics were systematically changed, which resulted in the variations of the fractions of colour components and, consequently, also in the changes of colour properties (lightness, hue, chroma) of bicolour optical mixtures. The position of colours of the bicolour structures and the approximate direction (linear) of colour changes in CIELAB colour space were theoretically determined with a simple geometrical model and additive method. Furthermore, the bicolour optical effects were determined spectrophotometrically. The differences between the linear,theoretical and the spectrophotometrical colour values of bicolour woven fabrics were mathematically analysed with linear and non-linear regression methods to determine the positions of colour coordinates L*, a* and b* of bicolour woven fabrics in the a*b* plane by increasing or reducing the cover factors of warp and weft threads (addition or reduction of colour components). The results present, on the one hand, the strong influence of original colours of warp and weft threads and, on the other hand, the minor influence of constructional parameters on the form of linear/non-linear behaviour of colours of bicolour compositions. When the characteristics of a specific colour combination are taken into account, the spectrophotometrical colour values of bicolour woven fabrics can be also mathematically determined with additive,theoretical colour values and, to some extent, with predictable colour deviations. [source]

Dyes from the leaves of deciduous plants with a high tannin content for wool

A S M Raja
The aqueous leaf extracts of five different deciduous plants, namely, silver oak, flame of the forest, tanner's senna, wattle and serviceberry, were used on their own and in combination with aluminium sulphate, stannous chloride and ferrous sulphate to dye wool by a simultaneous mordanting technique. The washing and light fastness properties of the developed shades were moderate to good. Based on the CIE 2000 spectral colour coordinate values (K/S, ,L, ,a, ,b and ,E), the developed shades were classified into four groups: yellow/brown, yellow, orange and dark grey. The use of aluminium sulphate gave medium shades (K/S = 8.24), while the stannous chloride and ferrous sulphate mordants provided deep shades (K/S = 30.5). Statistical analyses have shown that only the type of mordant and not the dye source significantly influenced the development of colour on wool. Hence, it was theoretically possible to use five selected leaves as a single mixture to produce four different colours on wool. [source]

Recolouring digital textile printing design with high fidelity

J H Xin
An algorithm of recolouring of polychromatic digital textile printing images is proposed based on the investigation of texture and colour distribution in different channels and image segmentation. A polychromatic image is first separated into monochromatic regions based on watershed transformation in CIELAB colour space. The initial markers are selected by hierarchical histogram analysis to eliminate the inherent drawbacks of over-segmentation in the watershed algorithm. Then the individual monochromatic regions can be mapped with different colours to obtain desirable designs. The artefacts in the boundaries of different regions are reduced by a technique of colour mixing through Gaussian blurring. The experimental simulation results indicated that the performance of the algorithm was quite good in both texture and colour fidelity. [source]