Different Colonies (different + colony)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The influence of ant-attendance on aphid behaviour investigated with the electrical penetration graph technique

Gisep Rauch
Abstract For the mutualistic interaction between the aphid Metopeurum fuscoviride Stroyan (Homoptera: Aphididae) and the ant Lasius niger L. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) it has been shown that ant-tended aphids develop faster, reproduce at a higher rate, and live longer than aphids not tended by ants. We used electrical penetration graphs (EPG) to investigate if behavioural patterns differ between ant-tended and untended M. fuscoviride during 8 h experiments. Measurements were made on adult aphids from four different ant-tended colonies that continued to be tended by L. niger during the experiments, and from four different colonies where ant workers were excluded several days before the start of the experiment and that were also not tended by ants during the experiments. Ants readily tended wired aphids and ant tending did not interfere with the EPG measurements. There were no significant differences in the duration of sieve element penetration or in any other analysed feeding-related EPG parameters between ant-tended and untended individuals. However, the quality of the EPG recordings did not allow the distinction between the EPG-waveform E1 (salivation only) and E2 (salivation and ingestion). These results suggest that the changes in life-history traits of ant-tended aphids do not result from changes in time of sieve element penetration waveforms. Alternative mechanisms may involve an increase in the rate of sap uptake or a higher effectiveness in nutrient uptake in the presence of ants. Our study demonstrates that the EPG technique is a useful tool to investigate the feeding behaviour of aphids during interactions with ants. [source]

Mating compatibility, life-history traits, and RAPD-PCR variation in Bemisia tabaci associated with the cassava mosaic disease pandemic in East Africa

M.N. Maruthi
Abstract The pandemic of a severe form of cassava mosaic virus disease (CMVD) in East Africa is associated with abnormally high numbers of its whitefly vector, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). To determine whether a novel B. tabaci biotype was associated with the CMVD pandemic, reproductive compatibility, fecundity, nymphal development, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variability were examined in, and between, B. tabaci colonies collected from within the CMVD pandemic and non-pandemic zone in Uganda. In a series of reciprocal crosses carried out over two generations among the six CMVD pandemic and four non-pandemic zone cassava B. tabaci colonies, there was no evidence of mating incompatibility. All the crosses produced both female and male progeny in the F1 and F2 generations, which in a haplo-diploid species such as B. tabaci indicates successful mating. There also were no significant differences between the sex ratios for the pooled data of experimental crosses, between individuals from two different colonies and control crosses between individuals from the same colony. Only one instance of mating incompatibility occurred in a control cross between cassava B. tabaci from Uganda and cotton B. tabaci from India. Measures of fecundity of the pandemic and non-pandemic zone B. tabaci on four cassava varieties showed no significant differences in their fecundity, nymphal development or numbers surviving to adult eclosion. Cluster analysis of 26 RAPD bands using six 10-mer primers was concordant with the mating results, grouping the pandemic and non-pandemic zone colonies into a single large group, also including a B. tabaci colony collected from cassava in Tanzania. These results suggest that it is unlikely that the severe CMVD pandemic in East Africa is associated with a novel and reproductively isolated B. tabaci biotype. [source]

Condition, reproduction and survival of barn swallows from Chernobyl

Summary 1We investigated the relationship between radiation arising from the fall-out due to the explosion of the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, Ukraine, and body condition, rate of reproduction and survival in a migratory passerine bird, the barn swallow Hirundo rustica L., by comparing a contaminated region and a control region (Kanev) during 6 years between 1991 and 2004. 2The fraction of nonreproducing adults was on average 23% in Chernobyl compared with close to zero in Kanev and other European populations. 3Body condition as estimated from body mass was similar in Chernobyl and Kanev. Although laying date did not differ significantly between the two regions, clutch was reduced by 7%, brood size by 14% and hatching success by 5% in the Chernobyl region relative to the control area. 4Annual adult survival, estimated from mark,recapture analyses, was on average 28% in the Chernobyl region, but 40% in Kanev. 5The relationships were generally confirmed in rank correlation analyses between response variables and ambient radiation levels in different colonies. 6The overall findings are consistent with the hypothesis that radioactive contamination in the Chernobyl region has significant negative impact on rates of reproduction and survival of the barn swallow. We hypothesize that these effects are mediated by antioxidants and/or mutations. [source]

Postnatal growth and reproductive biology of Rhinolophus hipposideros (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae)

Guido Reiter
Abstract The timing of birth and postnatal growth in lesser horseshoe bats Rhinolophus hipposideros were studied during 2000 and 2001 at three maternity roosts located in the provinces of Carinthia and Salzburg, Austria. Postnatal growth curves for length of forearm and body mass were determined separately for the different colonies and years. Cooler weather during June 2001 coincided with a median birth date that was 8 days later than in 2000, whilst the difference between colonies was 4 and 5 days, respectively, for the pooled data of both years. Cool temperatures in June also coincided with a longer duration of the parturition period. Postnatal growth rates were higher than in most other bat species but differences between years and colonies were considerable. These differences may be attributed to the ambient roost temperatures, whereby the young of two cooler roosts showed significantly reduced growth rate during 8 days of cool weather in 2000. Moreover, later born and therefore smaller pups were more strongly affected by low temperatures than earlier born and larger ones. The mean length of forearm of young lesser horseshoe bats at the beginning of September equalled that of adult bats, whilst their body mass was still lower. Non-volant juveniles did not cluster following the nightly emergence of adult females, and a preferred location within the roosts could not be identified. High and very low roost temperatures, however, did have an influence on the location of non-volant young in the colonies. [source]

Cuticular hydrocarbons in a termite: phenotypes and a neighbour,stranger effect

Manfred Kaib
Abstract The composition of cuticular hydrocarbons of different colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes falciger shows considerable intercolonial variation. Ordination, as well as cluster analyses, separate profiles into three distinct chemical phenotypes. Behavioural tests with major workers reveal no alarm behaviour or mortality in pairings of workers from the same colony but a full range from no alarm to overt aggression, with associated death, when individuals were paired from different colonies. The level of mortality increases with differences in the composition of cuticular hydrocarbons between colonies. However, no mortality occurs in pairings of individuals from neighbouring colonies belonging to different phenotypes. The data thus provide evidence for a ,neighbour,stranger' effect (so-called ,dear-enemy' phenomenon) in termites. [source]