Dietetic Care (dietetic + care)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Survey of dietetic provision for patients with diabetes

M. Nelson
SUMMARY Aims To survey dietitians involved in diabetes care regarding the provisions for patients with diabetes. Methods A national survey of 512 dietitians known to be engaged in provision of diabetes care was conducted in 1997 and 391 (76%) responded. Results Nationally the median provision of dietetic care for diabetes reported was 10.7 h per 100 000 general population per week, but the provision was uneven ranging from 2.0 to 27.6 h per 100 000. Eighty-five per cent of dietitians worked in areas where the provision was less than 22 h per 100 000 general population per week (the current recommended minimum standard). Dietetic provision was greater in secondary care (median 9.1 h per 100 000 general population per week) than in general practice, residential homes and other locations (median 4.4 h per 100 000 general population per week). Provision was greater in those areas in which a designated dietitian had responsibility for co-ordinating the dietetic service for diabetes than in areas where the co-ordinator was not a dietitian or where there was no co-ordinator. Over 90% of dietitians reported following British Diabetic Association (BDA) recommendations regarding advice on carbohydrate, sugar, fat and fibre consumption, but only one-third routinely advised on salt restriction. Of the 17% of dietitians who continue to use carbohydrate exchanges, all combine this method with other approaches. Of the recommendations made by the Clinical Standards Group, only 69% of dietitians reported seeing more than half of newly diagnosd adult patients within four weeks, and less than 50% reported offering half or more of their patients an annual review. Amongst the literature in current use, 98% of dietitians use BDA literature for teaching patients and 90% use BDA publications in their own education. Seventy-six per cent of dietitians believed that there was a role for commercial slimming organizations in weight management of people with diabetes Conclusions Given the proven value of dietetic input in diabetes management, there would be advantages to correcting the regional inequalities in dietetic provision for diabetes care in the UK. [source]

A study of dietary advice and care provided to HIV positive patients referred for lipid lowering: as part of a service improvement initiative

N.A. Billing
Background:, Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality in HIV-infected patients. As life expectancy of HIV infected patients has increased, concerns about the long-term effects of treatment grow (Sax, 2006). HIV positive patients have a greater risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and ART has been associated with a 26% increase in the rate of MI per year of exposure (DAD Study Group, 2003). The aim of this study was to evaluate provision of dietetic care to patients referred for lipid lowering advice and identify potential areas for service improvement. Methods:, Departmental activity statistics identified 117 new clients referred for lipid lowering advice in the previous 11 months. The biochemical data and dietetic record cards were screened, of the initial sample 30 were excluded as they did not have follow up biochemistry after their dietetic consultation and a further seven were excluded as they were seen primarily for other conditions. The remaining cards (n = 80) had their dietetic record cards audited to check dietary topics discussed, risk factors identified length before follow up and clinical outcomes. Results:, There were 68 men and 12 women in this sample with a mean age of 46 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.4 kg m,2 (3.7 kg m,2). Of the clients referred, only 48.8% of the sample had high density lipoprotein (HDL): cholesterol ratios taken to calculate cardiovascular risk and most patients were seen an average of 30.7 days (35.3 days) after high was identified. Following their dietetic consultation, 77% of clients had a reduction in their cholesterol levels and 61% had a reduction in triglyceride levels. This sample's average percentage change in cholesterol was ,10% (16%) and triglyceride was ,6% (32%). The most popular dietary advice was reducing saturated fat intake (90%), increasing fibre intake (76%), benefits of plant stanols (40%), importance of regular meals (29%), exercise (26%) and benefits of omega three (11%). Additional risk factors identified 11% of clients seen were smokers, however most records (66%) did not have documentation on whether smoking behaviour was discussed. Only 20% of clients had a follow up appointments and not all were seen within 3 months with average time between follow up being 14.9 weeks (13.2 weeks). Discussion:, Improvement in biochemical results were comparable to a study by Henry et al., (1998) which showed that in HIV infected clients receiving ART, diet modification and increased exercise were successful in reducing cholesterol levels by 11% and triglyceride levels by 21%. The level of smoking was considerably lower than other studies (DAD Study Group, 2003) which reported 56% of HIV positive clients to be smokers. A large number of clients were lost to follow up and were not seen within 3 months. Lazzaretti et al., (2007) showed in a randomized trial that seeing patients at regular 3 month intervals for dietary intervention prevented an increase in lipid blood levels in individuals who start ART. Conclusions:, Not all clients are having their cardiovascular risk calculated before referral for dietary advice. Clients are not being seen at regular intervals by dietitians, some are lost to follow up and smoking status is not regularly documented during dietetic consultation. References, Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group. (2003) Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. N. Engl. J. Med.349, 1993,2003. Friis-Moller, N., Weber, R., Reiss, P., Thiebaut, R., Kirk, O., d'Arminio, M.A. et al. (2003) Cardiovascular disease risk factors in HIV patients' association with antiretroviral therapy. Results from the DAD study. AIDS17, 1179,1193. Henry, K., Melroe, H., Huebesch, J., Hermundson, J. & Simpson, J. (1998) Atorvastatin and gemfibrozil for protease inhibitor-related lipid abnormalities. Lancet352, 1031,1032. Sax, P.E. (2006)Strategies for management and treatment of dyslipidemia in HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care 18, 149,157. Lazzaretti, R., Pinto-Ribeiro, J., Kummer, R., Polanczyk, C. & Sprinz, E. (2007) Dietary intervention when starting HAART prevents the increase in lipids independently of drug regimen: a randomized trial. Oral abstract session: 4th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention: Abstract no.WEAB303. [source]

A service evaluation to determine the effectiveness of current dietary advice in treating human immunodeficiency virus-associated weight loss and to highlight potential service improvements

C.A. Hunt
Background:, Weight loss and muscle wasting are experienced by many patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Grinspoon et al., 2003). Malnutrition is an important predicator of morbidity and mortality; people who are malnourished who received antiretroviral treatment are six times more likely to die than those who are adequately nourished (Paton et al., 2006). The physical manifestations of muscle wasting can have significant psychosocial implications for HIV patients (Power et al., 2003; Sattler, 2003). The aim of this study to evaluate provision of dietetic care to patients referred for acute weight loss advice and identify areas for potential service improvement. Methods:, The data were gathered from the departmental dietetic activity statistics in 2007, diagnosis code ,HIV , acute weight loss'. Fifty-nine cards were located and baseline weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were recorded (two female, 57 male). Qualitative data on dietetic intervention were extracted from record cards , little and often eating approach, food fortification (FF), high energy high protein oral nutritional supplement (ONS) prescribed. Data were collected on body image, exercise and weight at follow-up visits during 2007. Results:, Forty-three percent of the patients referred for ,HIV-acute weight loss' were lost to follow-up. Forty-seven percent of the remaining patients had a BMI <20 kg m,2. Following their initial dietetic intervention, 81% of these patients had gained weight at the first follow-up. All had received nutritional counselling on little and often eating approach and FF; 75% had ONS prescribed. Average weight gain with nutritional counselling alone was 1.3 kg (2.1 kg) and for nutritional counselling plus supplementation was 2.1 kg (1.8 kg). This represented 2.5% (4.1%) and 3.9% (3.4%) weight gain, respectively. Discussion:, This evaluation has highlighted that patient follow-up frequency is an area for service improvement. Fifty-three per cent of patients (excluding those lost to follow up) had a BMI ,20 kg m,2 and were inaccurately recorded in the statistics as being referred for ,HIV-acute weight loss'. Fifty-two percent of these patients reported lipodystrophy and body image concerns, similar to findings of other studies. Fifty-six percent reported weight improvements following dietetic consultation. Body image is a frequent referral trigger, therefore improvements should be made to identify and treat patients with body shape issues. Conclusions:, Dietitians are effective at achieving weight gain in HIV positive patients with a BMI <20 kg m,2 using nutritional counselling methods with or without oral nutritional supplementation; these patients experienced a 3.3% weight gain. Strategies need to be implemented to reduce the number of patients lost to follow-up, as weight loss is a key morbidity and mortality indicator in HIV. References, Grinspoon, S. & Mulligan, K. (2003) Weight loss and wasting in patients infected with HIV. Clin. Infect. Dis.36 (Suppl. 2): 69,78. Nerad, J., Romeyn, M., Silverman, E., Allen-Reid, J., Dieterich, D., Merchant, J., Pelletier, V., Tinnerello, D. & Fenton, M. (2003) General nutritional management in patients infected with HIV. Clin. Infect. Dis.36 (Suppl. 2): 52,62. Ockenga, J., Grimble, R., Jonkers-Schuitema, C., Macallan, D., Melchior, J.C., Sauerwein, H.P., Schwenk, A. & Suttmann, U. (2006) ESPEN guidelines on enteral nutrition: wasting in HIV and other chronic infectious diseases. Clin. Nutr.25, 319,329. Paton, N.I., Sangeetha, S., Earnest, A. & Bellamy, R. (2006) The impact of malnutrition on survival and the CD4 count response in HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy. HIV Med.7, 232,330. Power, R., Tate, H.L., McGill, S.M. & Taylor, C. (2003) A qualitative study of the psychosocial implications of lipodystrophy syndrome on HIV positive individuals. Sex. Transm. Infect.79, 137,141. Sattler, F. (2003) Body habitus changes related to lipodystrophy. Clin. Infect. Dis36 (Suppl. 2): 84,90. [source]

Implementation research for ,evidence-based' guideline development by dietitians: a pilot study to test an instrument

B. M. Wammes
Abstract Aim, To improve the quality of dietetic care, dietitians in the University Medical Center Utrecht (UMCU) are encouraged to develop and implement ,evidence-based' guidelines. The aim of this pilot study was to develop and test a questionnaire for implementation research to monitor the process of developing and implementing these guidelines. Methods, A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 15 dietitians, who have started developing an ,evidence-based' guideline. The questionnaire measures determinants of dietitians' behaviour and the presence of conditions facilitating the development of a guideline. Cronbach's , with a cut-off point of 0.7 was used to analyse the internal consistence between the items related to behavioural determinants. A panel of professionals such as a member of staff from the UMCU, a communication expert and project-managers ensured the completeness of the questionnaire. Results, The internal consistency was high (, > 0.7) between the items related to the determinants of behaviour. The questionnaire gives a structured overview of factors affecting positively or negatively the process of guideline development. Although dietitians have a positive behaviour towards guideline development, they perceived barriers related to the presence of conditions to develop a guideline. Conclusion, We concluded that the applied questionnaire is appropriate for implementation research and has given a structured overview of factors that influence the development of dietetic guidelines by dietitans in the UMCU. [source]