Dietary Guidelines (dietary + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Dietary guidance for older Australians

NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 4 2009
A. Stewart TRUSWELL
Abstract Aim:, This paper reviews the literature on dietary guidance for older Australians. Methods:, The components of the 1999 National Health and Medical Research Council Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians are reviewed in conjunction with the current literature. Results:, Advice on a healthy diet for older people from different professionals can sometimes seem to be looking in opposite directions in terms of amount and types of food to recommend. Appropriate nutritional guidance should be determined by the stage of ageing, not by chronological age. For those in the third age,older but still active,advice should be somewhat modified from the dietary guidelines for younger adults. For example, maintaining muscles and bones become more important than keeping a low body mass index. Conclusions:, The 1999 National Health and Medical Research Council Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians provide a sensible framework for considering recent evidence. In old people who are frail and losing weight, the ,fourth age', our main concern should be to prevent (further) malnutrition. The popular dietary rules of low calories, sugar, fat and salt no longer apply. [source]


The 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: foundation of US nutrition policy

NUTRITION BULLETIN, Issue 3 2000
Rachel K. Johnson
Summary The Dietary Guidelines for Americans form the foundation of US federal nutrition policy. The Food Guide Pyramid, the most widely distributed and best-recognised nutrition education tool ever produced in the US, is based partially on the Dietary Guidelines. In addition, every federal nutrition programme in the United States uses the Dietary Guidelines as part of their nutrition standards. Federal law requires that the guidelines be reviewed every five years. The Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was charged with answering the question, ,what should Americans eat to be healthy?' After rigorously reviewing the scientific, peer-reviewed literature the committee recommended a new set of guidelines for the year 2000. The guidelines are intended for healthy children (ages 2 years and older) and generally healthy adults of any age. The guidelines were expanded from seven in 1995 to ten in 2000. The 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans are; (1) aim for a healthy weight; (2) be physically active each day; (3) let the pyramid guide your food choices; (4) eat a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains; (5) eat a variety of fruits and vegetables daily; (6) keep foods safe to eat; (7) choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and moderate in total fat; (8) choose beverages and foods that moderate your intake of sugars; (9) choose and prepare foods with less salt; and (10) if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. [source]


A New Food Guide in Japan: The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top

NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 4 2007
Nobuo Yoshiike MD
The Dietary Guidelines for Japanese, released in 2000, provides the basics of a healthy diet for the people of Japan. In July 2005, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan jointly released a new pictorial guide, The Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top, to help people implement the Dietary Guidelines for Japanese. It guides people as to what kinds and how much food they should eat each day to promote health. This paper describes the nature of the diet and the theoretical framework applied in the development of the new guidelines. [source]


Palliation in cancer of the oesophagus , what passes down an oesophageal stent?

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 5 2003
A. Holdoway
Introduction: Self-expanding metal stents are becoming an increasingly popular method of palliation of dysphagia in advanced oesophageal carcinoma. Approximately 10% require intervention post-placement because of blockage (Angorn, 1981). This could be prevented by effective dietary advice. We set out to write evidence-based dietary guidelines for patients undergoing oesophageal stent insertion. A comprehensive literature search failed to identify evidence to support the present guidelines used by manufacturers and dietitians on foods allowed or to avoid and the use of fizzy drinks to ,clean' the stent. Only reference on the ability to consume a semi-solid or solid diet was made (Nedin, 2002). We therefore tested the ability of 50 foods to pass through a stent and the efficacy of fizzy water in unblocking an occluded stent. Method: Normal mouthfuls of raw and cooked, peeled/unpeeled fruit and vegetables, casseroles, griddle or grilled plain meat, poultry or fish, eggs, nuts, dried fruit and bread in various forms were tested. An adult female chewed a ,normal' mouthful of each test food and at the point of swallowing the bolus of food was passed into an expanded Ultraflex metal covered stent (internal diameter 18 mm). If occlusion occurred, water was dribbled through the stent, simulating swallowing fluid, in an attempt to unblock the stent. If the occlusion remained, the stent was agitated to mimic advice given about moving around to unblock a stent in a patient. If it remained occluded, a smaller amount of food, approximately half a mouthful, was chewed for twice as long and re-tested. To test the efficacy of fizzy water to clear an occlusion, we compared the ability of water, warm water and fizzy water to unblock a stent artificially occluded with a bolus of bread. Results: Foods that occluded the stent but passed through if eaten in half mouthfuls and chewed for twice normal chewing time included sandwiches, dry toast, apple, tinned pineapple, fresh orange segments with pith removed, up to six sultanas, chopped dried apricot, boiled egg, muesli, meat and poultry. Dry meat, fruit with pith, skins of capsicum peppers and tomatoes, more than seven sultanas and dried apricots caused occlusion. Nuts and vegetables such as lettuce, which are cited in many diet sheets as items to avoid (Nedin, 2002), passed through the stent when chewed to a normal level. The volumes of fluid required to unblock a stent occluded with bread were 5 l of fizzy water, 3.5 l of cold water or 1 l of warm water. Conclusion: If a patient has good dentition and can chew well and take small mouthfuls and prepare and cook food appropriately, it is likely that they can enjoy a wide variety of solid foods. The use of fizzy drinks to maintain the patency of the stent in patients prone to reflux is questionable, warm fluids may be more efficacious. Based on these initial findings we are updating our dietary guidelines for patients undergoing oesophageal stent insertion and hope to audit stent occlusion following implementation. [source]


Nutrition, oral health and the young child

MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION, Issue 4 2007
Sudeshni Naidoo
Abstract Oral health is integral to general health and essential to well-being and quality of life. Socio-behavioural and environmental factors play a significant role in oral disease and oral health. Dental caries is a global disease with few populations exempt from its effects. In developing countries, as development increases so does dental caries and children are at the forefront of the disease disadvantage. There is a growing need to identify high caries risk groups accurately to commence prevention from a young age. The effect of early intervention in childhood on general and dental health with both population and high-risk approaches also needs examining. As an educational tool, the paediatric food-based dietary guidelines may play a significant role in nutrition and oral health interventions. This paper provides information on nutrition, including access to fluoride and use of sugar. Oral health concerns, such as early childhood caries, which are important for the young child, are also discussed. [source]


Nutrition and HIV/AIDS in infants and children in South Africa: implications for food-based dietary guidelines

MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION, Issue 4 2007
Michael K. Hendricks
Abstract The implications for food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) that are being developed in South Africa are reviewed in relation to HIV-exposed and -infected children. The nutritional consequences of HIV infection and nutritional requirements along with programmes and guidelines to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency in these children are also investigated. Based on studies for HIV-infected children in South Africa, more than 50% are underweight and stunted, while more than 60% have multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Nutritional problems in these children are currently addressed through the Prevention-of-Mother-to-Child Transmission Programme (PMTCT), the Integrated Nutrition Programme and Guidelines for the Management of HIV-infected Children which include antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in South Africa. Evaluations relating to the implementation of these programmes and guidelines have not been conducted nationally, although certain studies show that coverage of the PMTCT and the ARV therapy programmes was low. FBDGs for infants and young children could complement and strengthen the implementation of these programmes and guidelines. However, FBDGs must be in line with national and international guidelines and address key nutritional issues in these infants and young children. These issues and various recommendations are discussed in detail in this review. [source]


Modern India and the vitamin D dilemma: Evidence for the need of a national food fortification program

MOLECULAR NUTRITION & FOOD RESEARCH (FORMERLY NAHRUNG/FOOD), Issue 8 2010
Uma S. Babu
Abstract India is located between 8.4 and 37.6N latitude with the majority of its population living in regions experiencing ample sunlight throughout the year. Historically, Indians obtained most of their vitamin D through adequate sun exposure; however, darker skin pigmentation and the changes which have accompanied India's modernization, including increased hours spent working indoors and pollution, limit sun exposure for many. Inadequate sun exposure results in reduced vitamin D synthesis and ultimately poor vitamin D status if not compensated by dietary intake. Dietary vitamin D intake is very low in India because of low consumption of vitamin D rich foods, absence of fortification and low use of supplements. All these factors contribute to poor vitamin D status as measured by low circulating levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Our review searches the published literature specific to India for evidence that would confirm the need to fortify food staples with vitamin D or stimulate public health policies for vitamin D supplementation and dietary guidelines tailored to the Indian diet. This review documents findings of widespread vitamin D deficiency in Indian populations in higher and lower socioeconomic strata, in all age groups, in both genders and people in various professions. Moreover, poor vitamin D status in India is accompanied by increased bone disorders including osteoporosis, osteomalacia in adults and rickets and other bone deformities in children. Without a concerted national effort to screen for vitamin D status, to implement policies or guidelines for vitamin D fortification and/or supplementation and to re-assess recommended dietary intake guidelines, dramatic increase in the number of bone disorders and other diseases may lie ahead. [source]


Dietary guidance for older Australians

NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 4 2009
A. Stewart TRUSWELL
Abstract Aim:, This paper reviews the literature on dietary guidance for older Australians. Methods:, The components of the 1999 National Health and Medical Research Council Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians are reviewed in conjunction with the current literature. Results:, Advice on a healthy diet for older people from different professionals can sometimes seem to be looking in opposite directions in terms of amount and types of food to recommend. Appropriate nutritional guidance should be determined by the stage of ageing, not by chronological age. For those in the third age,older but still active,advice should be somewhat modified from the dietary guidelines for younger adults. For example, maintaining muscles and bones become more important than keeping a low body mass index. Conclusions:, The 1999 National Health and Medical Research Council Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians provide a sensible framework for considering recent evidence. In old people who are frail and losing weight, the ,fourth age', our main concern should be to prevent (further) malnutrition. The popular dietary rules of low calories, sugar, fat and salt no longer apply. [source]


Dietary Composition and Weight Loss: Can We Individualize Dietary Prescriptions According to Insulin Sensitivity or Secretion Status?

NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 10 2006
Anastassios G. Pittas MD
There is considerable uncertainty over whether any one dietary pattern broadly facilitates weight loss or maintenance of weight loss, and current dietary guidelines recommend a spectrum of dietary composition for the general population. However, emerging evidence suggests that specific dietary compositions may work better for identifiable groups of overweight/obese individuals based on their individual metabolic status. In particular, characteristics of insulin dynamics, such as insulin sensitivity or insulin secretion status, may interact with diets that vary in macronutrient composition to influence the weight loss achieved with a hypocaloric diet. [source]


Current International Approaches to Food Claims

NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 12 2000
No-Seong Kwak Ph.D.
The market for functional foods is rapidly increasing. It is necessary to establish a legal framework for these foods. This has proved difficult in a number of countries. The control through health claims is generally accepted as the most appropriate measure. Activity in this area has been developing both at the national and international levels. However, the regulations and proposals from a number of national authorities and other nongovernmental sectors are varied and difficult to reconcile. This paper examines the range of health claim controls being used in the food area. They are considered in detail so as to establish a better understanding of the claims. In this paper, the claims have been classified into six categories: nutrient content claims, comparative claims, nutrient function claims, claims related to dietary guidelines or healthy diets, enhanced function claims, and reduction of disease risk claims. Of these, the latter four claims are considered to have significant implications for functional foods. [source]


Global nutritional recommendations: a combination of evidence and food availability?

PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 1 2008
K Kapur BSc, PGDipDiet Dietitian/Diabetes Educator
Abstract Diet and exercise are vital diabetes management strategies. Health professionals (HPs) use dietary guidelines to advise their clients but the current macronutrient recommendation in the guidelines varies. The aim of this study was to explore the similarities and differences in macronutrient dietary advice in different parts of the world and suggest some reasons for any differences identified. The study was undertaken in two phases: (1) a one-shot cross-sectional survey of HPs and global diabetes organisations using self-completed, anonymous questionnaires (n=40), and (2) a review of dietary guidelines from relevant diabetes associations (the American Diabetes Association [ADA], the Diabetes and Nutrition Study Group [DNSG] of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD], the Canadian Diabetes Association [CDA], the Joslin Diabetes Center, Diabetes UK, and the Indian Council of Medical Research [ICMR]). Dietary recommendations differed among countries and from the guidelines, and reflected socioeconomic factors and local food availability. With regard to macronutrient recommendations, carbohydrate ranged from 40,70%, protein 12,20% and fat 15,40% of total energy intake. Nations with higher gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) per capita tended to recommend a much lower ratio of carbohydrate than those with lower GDP PPP per capita. However, all guidelines stressed the importance of healthy eating. It was concluded that socioeconomic factors and local food availability appear to influence HPs' dietary recommendations. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons. [source]