Dielectric Constant (dielectric + constant)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Dielectric Constant

  • effective dielectric constant
  • high dielectric constant
  • low dielectric constant
  • lower dielectric constant
  • relative dielectric constant

  • Selected Abstracts

    Polarizability, Susceptibility, and Dielectric Constant of Nanometer-Scale Molecular Films: A Microscopic View

    Amir Natan
    Abstract The size-dependence of the polarizability, susceptibility, and dielectric constant of nanometer-scale molecular layers is explored theoretically. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are compared to phenomenological modeling based on polarizable dipolar arrays for a model system of organized monolayers composed of oligophenyl chains. Size trends for all three quantities are primarily governed by a competition between out-of-plane polarization enhancement and in-plane polarization suppression. Molecular packing density is the single most important factor controlling this competition and it strongly affects the bulk limit of the dielectric constant as well as the rate at which it is approached. Finally, the polarization does not reach its "bulk" limit, as determined from the Clausius,Mossotti model, but the susceptibility and dielectric constant do converge to the correct bulk limit. However, whereas the Clausius,Mossotti model describes the dielectric constant well at low lateral densities, finite size effects of the monomer units cause it to be increasingly inaccurate at high lateral densities. [source]

    Enhanced Permeability and Dielectric Constant of NiZn Ferrite Synthesized in Nanocrystalline Form by a Combustion Method

    Sasanka Deka
    The performance parameters of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, synthesized in the nanocrystalline form by an autocombustion method, have been investigated. The sample sintered at 1200C, with Bi2O3 as additive shows a very high value of initial permeability ,,i of >400 at 1 MHz, with low loss. Similarly, a very high dielectric constant is obtained at lower frequencies. The results show that optimum magnetic and electrical properties can be achieved for the NiZn ferrite nanocrystalline powders synthesized by the present autocombustion method and sintered at a relatively lower temperature of 1200C when compared with a temperature of 1400C required for the materials synthesized by the conventional ceramic method. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: New Percolative BaTiO3,Ni Composites with a High and Frequency-Independent Dielectric Constant (,r , 80000).

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 51 2001
    Carlos Pecharroman
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Quantitative Analysis of Dielectric Constants from EFM Images of Multicomponent Polymer Blends

    Andrey V. Krayev
    Abstract Summary: A simple quantitative model for the analysis of EFM images of three- or more-component polymer blends is applied to determine the dielectric constants of the blend constituents. The value of the dielectric constant of PIPA calculated from the EFM images of POMA-PIPA-APP blend is determined in good agreement with the literature value. [source]

    Effect of Temperature (,5 to 130 C) and Fiber Direction on the Dielectric Properties of Beef Semitendinosus at Radio Frequency and Microwave Frequencies

    N. Basaran-Akgul
    ABSTRACT:, The dielectric properties must be defined to design efficient radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) processes by the food manufacturers. The objective of this study was to understand how frequency, temperature, and muscle fiber orientation influence the dielectric properties. The eye of round (Semitendinosus) muscle was selected because it contains large, relatively uniform muscle cells with similar muscle fiber orientation and relatively uniform chemical composition throughout the tissue. Dielectric properties were measured using an open-ended coaxial probe technique at 27, 915, and 1800 MHz and temperatures between ,5 and 130 C. Power penetration depth was calculated. Since many commercially prepared, thermally processed, ready-to-eat entrees are made with frozen meat, dielectric property measurements were started from ,5 C. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss factors were often higher for muscle with the muscle fiber measured in a parallel orientation to the probe compared to samples of the same treatment (for example, fresh or frozen) in a perpendicular tissue orientation at the same frequency and temperature. Dielectric constant and loss values for frozen beef tended to be higher than fresh beef at the same temperature and frequency. Tissue orientation appeared to have a greater effect on dielectric loss values at lower frequencies. Penetration depth tended to be greater when the direction of propagation was perpendicular to the muscle fiber. [source]

    Barium Holmium Zirconate, A New Complex Perovskite Oxide: I, Synthesis, Characterization, and Potential Use as a Substrate for High-Critical-Temperature Superconductors

    Rajan Jose
    Barium holmium zirconate, a new complex perovskite ceramic oxide, has been synthesized through liquid-phase sintering for the first time. The conventional solid-state reaction method using constituent oxides and carbonates was found to be inadequate for the synthesis of Ba2HoZrO5.5 material. During high-temperature annealing, the development of stable BaZrO3 and BaHoO2.5 phases prevented the formation of Ba2HoZrO5.5 as a single-phase material, even at 1650C. However, an addition of a small amount of CuO (1 wt%) in the reaction mixture has resulted in the formation of an ordered complex perovskite Ba2HoZrO5.5 phase during the heating process. The structure of Ba2HoZrO5.5 was studied by X-ray diffraction and found to have a cubic perovskite structure with a lattice constant of a= 8.482 . Dielectric constant and loss factor values of Ba2HoZrO5.5 are also in the range suitable for use as a substrate for microwave applications. The X-ray diffraction and resistivity measurements have shown that there is no detectable chemical reaction in YBa2Cu3O7,,,Ba2HoZrO5.5 and Bi(2212),Ba2HoZrO5.5 composites, even under extreme processing conditions. Dip-coated and melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7,, and Bi(2212) thick films developed on polycrystalline Ba2HoZrO5.5 gave zero-resistivity transition temperatures of Tc(0) = 92 and 85 K, respectively. [source]

    Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Poly(, -caprolactone) with Tetramethyl Polycarbonate and Poly(styrene- co -acrylonitrile) Blends Using Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

    Samy A. Madbouly
    Abstract Summary: Phase behavior and isothermal crystallization kinetics of poly(, -caprolactone) (PCL) blends with tetramethyl polycarbonate (TMPC) and poly(styrene- co -acrylonitrile) with 27.5 wt.-% acrylonitrile content have been investigated using broadband dielectric spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimeter. An LCST-type phase diagram has been observed for PCL/SAN blend while all the different blend compositions of PCL/TMPC were optically clear without any phase separation structure even at high temperatures up to 300,C. The composition dependence of Tgs for both blends has been well described by the Gordon-Taylor equation. The phase diagram of PCL/SAN was theoretically calculated using the Flory-Huggins equation considering that the interaction parameter is temperature and composition dependent. The equilibrium melting point of PCL depressed in the blend and the magnitude of the depression was found to be composition dependent. The interaction parameters of PCL with TMPC and SAN could not be calculated from the melting point depression based on Nishi-Wang approach. The isothermal crystallization kinetics of PCL and in different blends was also investigated as a function of crystallization temperature using broadband dielectric spectroscopy. For pure PCL the rate of crystallization was found to be crystallization temperature (Tc) dependent, i.e., the higher the Tc, the lower the crystallization rate. The crystallization kinetics of PCL/TMPC blend was much slower than that of PCL/SAN at a constant crystallization temperature. This behavior was attributed to the fact that PCL is highly interacted with TMPC than SAN and consequently the stronger the interaction the higher the depression in the crystallization kinetics. It was also attributed to the different values of Tg of TMPC (191,C) and SAN (100,C); therefore, the tendency for crystallization decreases upon increasing the Tg of the amorphous component in the blend. The analysis of the isothermal crystallization kinetics was carried out using the theoretical approach of Avrami. The value of Avrami exponent was almost constant in the pure state and in the blends indicating that blending simply retarded the crystallization rate without affecting the crystallization mechanism. Dielectric constant, ,,, of pure PCL, blends of PCL/TMPC,=,80/20 and PCL/SAN,=,80/20 as a function of crystallization time at 47,C and 1 kHz. [source]

    Dielectric properties of pharmaceutical materials relevant to microwave processing: Effects of field frequency, material density, and moisture content

    Paul W.S. Heng
    Abstract The rising popularity of microwaves for drying, material processing and quality sensing has fuelled the need for knowledge concerning dielectric properties of common pharmaceutical materials. This article represents one of the few reports on the density and moisture content dependence of the dielectric properties of primary pharmaceutical materials and their relevance to microwave-assisted processing. Dielectric constants and losses of 13 pharmaceutical materials were measured over a frequency range of 1,MHz,1,GHz at 23,,1C using a parallel-electrode measurement system. Effects of field frequency, material density and moisture content on dielectric properties were studied. Material dielectric properties varied considerably with frequency. At microwave frequencies, linear relationships were established between cube-root functions of the dielectric parameters ( and ) and density which enabled dielectric properties of materials at various densities to be estimated by regression. Moisture content was the main factor that contributed to the disparities in dielectric properties and heating capabilities of the materials in a laboratory microwave oven. The effectiveness of a single frequency density-independent dielectric function for moisture sensing applications was explored and found to be suitable within low ranges of moisture contents for a model material. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 99:941,957, 2010 [source]

    Physical Modeling and Electrodynamic Characterization of Dielectric Slurries by Impedance Spectroscopy (Part II)

    Vladimir Petrovsky
    Electrical characterization of dielectric slurries, as 0,3 composite systems, can provide valuable information on the dielectric properties of suspended particles. A new approach developed in our laboratory is based on impedance spectroscopy measurements of the slurries containing dispersed dielectric powders. Dielectric constants of the particles are determined through analysis of the low-frequency section of the impedance spectra. It was shown previously that this approach allows accurate and reliable measurement of dielectric constant of particles (,: ,100,2000) using host liquids (,: ,10,65). This study addresses the validation of this new method with physical model experiments using millimeter-sized sintered BaTiO3 model samples suspended in the liquid. Impedance spectra of barium titanate powder slurries were compared with the spectra of the model samples containing macroscopic cubes prepared by sintering of the same starting powder. This comparison shows a good agreement between the impedance spectra of powder and bulk BaTiO3 and validates the reliability of the new method to determine the dielectric constant of particulate materials. [source]

    Synthesis, characterization and dielectric properties of EuBa2SbO6 nanocrystals

    V. T. Kavitha
    Abstract Nanoparticles of EuBa2SbO6, a complex perovskite metal oxide were synthesized by a self-sustained combustion method employing citric acid as the complexing agent. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Nanocrystals of EuBa2SbO6 were sintered to 97 % of theoretical density at 1450 C for 4 h without any sintering aid. The dielectric properties (dielectric constant, ,r and loss factor, tan,) of the ceramics have been measured in the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at room temperature. The chemical non-reactivity of EuBa2SbO6 with YBa2Cu3O7-, makes it an ideal substrate for YBa2Cu3O7-, superconductors. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Optical properties of 2-aminopyridinium nitrato silver

    K. P. Bhuvana
    Abstract Crystals of 2-aminopyridinium nitrato silver have been synthesized by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals have been subjected to FTIR, Single crystal X-Ray diffraction and UV-Visible studies in order to investigate the structural and optical properties of the crystal. The FTIR spectrum reveals the presence of the functional group that corresponds to both 2-aminopyridine and silver nitrate, suggesting the formation of the compound, 2-aminopyridinium nitrato silver. From XRD it is observed that the crystal crystallizes in the structure of monoclinic with the space group of P21/c. The optical transmittance spectrum shows the maximum transparency of about 95% in the visible region is in consistent with the wide band gap, estimated as 4.738 eV. The optical constants n and k has also been determined from the transmittance data. The static dielectric constant is found to be 0.851. The wide band gap and the less dielectric constant suggest the suitability of this compound material for photoconductive applications. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Characterization of gel grown iron-manganese-cobalt ternary levo-tartrate crystals

    S. J. Joshi
    Abstract In the present investigation, iron,manganese,cobalt ternary levo-tartrate crystals of different compositions have been grown by single-diffusion gel growth technique in silica hydrogel medium. The metallic composition in the crystals was estimated by EDAX. The coloration of the crystals changed with composition of metallic content. The powder XRD study suggested the crystalline nature and indicated the presence of some extra phases. The grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, TGA, dielectric and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) studies. The FT-IR study suggested the presence of O-H, C=O, C-O and metal-oxygen bonds. The effect of composition of metallic content was observed in certain absorption regions in FT-IR spectra. The thermal stability of the crystals was studied by thermogravimetry and the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration were calculated. The effect of composition of ternary levo-tartrate was observed in dielectric study. The dielectric study was carried out in the frequency range of applied field from 500 Hz to 1 MHz. The variations in dielectric constant, dielectric loss, a.c. resistivity and a.c. conductivity with frequency of applied field were studied. VSM study suggested that all crystals were of paramagnetic nature. ( 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Optical and dielectric studies on pure and Ni2+, Co2+ doped single crystals of bis thiourea cadmium chloride

    R. Uthrakumar
    Abstract Good quality single crystals of Ni2+, Co2+ ions doped Bisthiourea Cadmium Chloride (BTCC) are some of the excellent and efficient non-linear optical materials grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals are determined by single crystal X-ray analysis. UV spectral analyses on these samples reveal the improved transparency of the doped crystals ascertaining the inclusion of metal ion in the lattice. FTIR spectral analysis carried out on the materials confirm the presence of functional groups. Dielectric measurements reveal that the dielectric constant of pure and doped crystals decreases with increase of frequency. ( 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Solubility studies on valdecoxib in the presence of carriers, cosolvents, and surfactants

    Kashappa Goud H. Desai
    Abstract Enhancement of the solubility of valdecoxib was examined using a series of hydrophilic carriers (mannitol, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000, PEG 6000, PEG 8000, and urea), surfactants (Tween-20, Tween-80, and sodium lauryl sulfate [SLS]) and cosolvents (ethanol, methanol, and glycerol) at 37C. The solubility of valdecoxib could be enhanced significantly using PEG 4000 as a carrier, ethanol as cosolvent, and SLS as a surfactant. Because the solubility of valdecoxib increased dramatically in the presence of polyethylene glycols, these are suitable dispersing agents for preparing solid dispersions containing valdecoxib. Gibbs free energy (,G) values were all negative for all hydrophilic carriers tested, indicating the spontaneous nature of valdecoxib solubilisation. Among the cosolvents, ethanol exhibited higher solubilization potential than methanol and glycerol. As the dielectric constant of the cosolvent,water mixtures decreased, the solubility of valdecoxib increased. Finally, SLS exerted maximum solubilization of valdecoxib when compared to Tween-20 or Tween-80. The crystallinity of valdecoxib was explored by X-ray diffraction study and showed numerous crystalline peaks. Examination of surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy depicted a near spherical shape of valdecoxib with irregular surface characteristics. Drug Dev. Res. 62:41,48, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Organic Phase PPO Biosensors Prepared by Multilayer Deposition of Enzyme and Alginate Through Avidin-Biotin Interactions

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 24 2004
    S. Cosnier
    Abstract Films of electrogenerated polypyrrole and hydrophilic alginate, both functionalized with biotin moieties, were used to allow for the transfer of polyphenol oxidase activity in organic media. Enzyme electrodes, based on multilayered structures, were protected at the molecular level by the affinity binding of alginate as a hydrophilic additive, and were then transferred into chlorobenzene, dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate or acetonitrile. The biosensor performance for the detection of catechol at ,0.2,V was investigated, highlighting the main influence of the hydrophobicity of the solvent and, to a lesser extent, the dielectric constant. The effect of the substrate hydrophobicity on the biosensor response was examined in chlorobenzene. [source]

    Microchip electrophoresis in low-temperature co-fired ceramics technology with contactless conductivity measurement

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 14 2009
    Georg Fercher
    Abstract In this paper a novel micromachined contactless conductivity CE device produced in low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is introduced. The application of LTCC multilayer technology provides a promising method for the contactless detection of conductive compounds because of its increased dielectric constant compared with glass or plastics. The capacitive coupling of the excitation signal into the microchannel across the LTCC substrate is improved, resulting in better detection sensitivity. Two silver electrodes located externally at opposite sides at the end of the separation channel act as detector. Impedance variations in the channel are measured without galvanic contact between electrodes and fluid. Inorganic ions are separated in less than 1,min with this novel ceramic device. The limit of detection is 10,,M for potassium. [source]

    Direct chiral resolution of tartaric acid by ion-pair capillary electrophoresis using an aqueous background electrolyte with (1R,2R)-(,)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane as a chiral counterion

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2003
    Shuji Kodama
    Abstract Chiral resolution of native DL -tartaric acid was achieved by ion-pair capillary electrophoresis (CE) using an aqueous-ethanol background electrolyte with (1R,2R)-(,)-1,2-diaminocyclohexane (R -DACH) as a chiral counterion. Factors affecting chiral resolution and migration time of tartaric acid were studied. By increasing the viscosity of the background electrolyte and the ion-pair formation, using organic solvents with a lower relative dielectric constant, resulted in a longer migration time. The optimum conditions for both high resolution and short migration time of tartaric acid were found to be a mixture of 65% v/v ethanol and 35% v/v aqueous solution containing 30 mMR -DACH and 75 mM phosphoric acid (pH 5.1) with an applied voltage of ,30 kV at 25C, using direct detection at 200 nm. By using this system, the resolution (Rs) of racemic tartaric acid was approximately 1. The electrophoretic patterns of tartaric and malic acids suggest that two carboxyl groups and two hydroxyl groups of tartaric acid are associated with the enantioseparation of tartaric acid by the proposed CE method. [source]

    Facile and Reproducible Synthesis of Nanostructured Colloidal ZnO Nanoparticles from Zinc Acetylacetonate: Effect of Experimental Parameters and Mechanistic Investigations

    Alessia Famengo
    Abstract A facile and reproducible route to nanostructured colloidal ZnO nanoparticles was developed by controlled hydrolysis and condensation of zinc acetylacetonate in alkaline conditions. By reaction of an ethanolic solution of Zn(acac)2 with NaOH in a 1:2 molar ratio, after reflux, ZnO spherical nanoparticles were obtained that displayed a homogeneous size distribution; particle diameters ranged from 6 to 10 nm, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The same reaction was carried out also in water, glycerol and 1,2-propanediol, to investigate the effect of the solvent viscosity and dielectric constant on the final features of the obtained material. Irrespective of the nature of the solvent, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows the formation ofhexagonal ZnO, whereas the presence of residual unreacted Zn(acac)2 could be ruled out. Indeed, different particle sizes and very different morphologies were obtained. Also the reflux step was shown to be a key factor in avoiding the fast precipitation of a floc and achieving a pure compound, which was isolated and thoroughly characterised. The composition of the obtained ZnO was determined by elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), showing the formation of pure ZnO. IR spectroscopy evidenced the presence of adsorbed organic ligands on the colloid surfaces. Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) revealed the presence of medium- to high-strength acidic sites on the ZnO surface. To gain a deeper insight into the formation mechanisms of these nanostructures, time-resolved UV/Vis and XAS studies were performed on the ethanol solution used for the synthesis of the oxide and also on the solid specimen, obtained after the refluxing step. No remarkable changes could be evidenced in the solution after the addition of an understoichiometric amount of NaOH, but the growth of the ZnO nanoparticles could be followed by UV/Vis spectra. ( Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Determination of moisture content in a deformable soil using time-domain reflectometry (TDR)

    D. J. Kim
    Summary Time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is being used increasingly for measuring the moisture content of porous media. However, successful application for measuring water in soil has been limited to non-deformable soils, and it would be a valuable extension of the technique if it could be used for soils that shrink on drying. We have recently investigated its application to soils rich in clay and organic matter and peats. Here we propose a method for determining moisture content in deformable soils based on the relation between the dielectric constant, K, and the volumetric moisture content, ,, measured by TDR. Parallel TDR probes with a length of 15 cm and a spacing of 2 cm were placed horizontally in soil cores with a diameter of 20 cm and height of 10 cm taken from a forest. The soil is very porous with large proportions of both silt and clay. The sample weight and travel time of the electromagnetic wave guided by parallel TDR probes were simultaneously measured as a function of time, from saturation to oven-dryness during which the core samples shrank considerably. Vertical and horizontal components of shrinkage were also measured to take the air-exposed region of TDR probe into account in the determination of K. The effect of deformation on volumetric moisture content was formulated for two different expressions, namely actual volumetric moisture content (AVMC) and fictitious (uncorrected) volumetric moisture content (FVMC). The effects of air-exposure and expressions of volumetric moisture content on the relation between K and, were examined by fitting the observations with a third-order polynomial. Neglecting the travel time in the air-exposed part or use of the FVMC underestimated the , for a given K. The difference was more pronounced between AVMC and FVMC than between two different dielectric constants, i.e. accounting for air-exposure, Kac, and not accounting for air-exposure, Kau. When the existing empirical models were compared with the fitted results, most underestimated the relation based on the AVMC. This indicates that published empirical models do not reflect the effect of deformation on the determination of , in our forest soil. Correct use of the , expression has more impact on determining moisture content of a deformable soil than the accommodation of travel time through the air-exposed region of TDR probe. [source]

    High Breakdown Field Dielectric Elastomer Actuators Using Encapsulated Polyaniline as High Dielectric Constant Filler

    Martin Molberg
    Abstract A novel method allowing rapid production of reliable composites with increased dielectric constant and high dielectric strength for dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) is reported. The promising approach using composites of conductive particles and insulating polymers generally suffers from low breakdown fields when applied to DEA devices. The present publication shows how to overcome this deficiency by using conductive polyaniline (PANI) particles encapsulated into an insulating polymer shell prior to dispersion. PANI particles are encapsulated using miniemulsion polymerization (MP) of divinylbenzene (DVB). The encapsulation process is scaled up to approximately 20 g particles per batch. The resulting particles are used as high dielectric constant (,,) fillers. Composites in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix are prepared and the resulting films characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and tensile tests, and evaluated in electromechanical actuators. The composite films show a more than threefold increase in ,,, breakdown field strengths above 50 V ,m,1, and increased strain at break. These novel materials allow tuning the actuation strain or stress output and have potential as materials for energy harvesting. [source]

    Capacitors with an Equivalent Oxide Thickness of <0.5 nm for Nanoscale Electronic Semiconductor Memory

    Seong Keun Kim
    Abstract The recent progress in the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor technology is reviewed in terms of the materials and processes mostly for dynamic random access memory (DRAM) applications. As TiN/ZrO2 -Al2O3 -ZrO2/TiN (ZAZ) type DRAM capacitors approach their technical limits, there has been renewed interest in the perovskite SrTiO3, which has a dielectric constant of >100, even at a thickness ,10 nm. However, there are many technical challenges to overcome before this type of MIM capacitor can be used in mass-production compatible processes despite the large advancements in atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology over the past decade. In the mean time, rutile structure TiO2 and Al-doped TiO2 films might find space to fill the gap between ZAZ and SrTiO3 MIM capacitors due to their exceptionally high dielectric constant among binary oxides. Achieving a uniform and dense rutile structure is the key technology for the TiO2 -based dielectrics, which depends on having a dense, uniform and smooth RuO2 layer as bottom electrode. Although the Ru (and RuO2) layers grown by ALD using metal-organic precursors are promising, recent technological breakthroughs using the RuO4 precursor made a thin, uniform, and denser Ru and RuO2 layer on a TiN electrode. A minimum equivalent oxide thickness as small as 0.45 nm with a low enough leakage current was confirmed, even in laboratory scale experiments. The bulk dielectric constant of ALD SrTiO3 films, grown at 370 C, was ,150 even with thicknesses ,15 nm. The recent development of novel group II precursors made it possible to increase the growth rate largely while leaving the electrical properties of the ALD SrTiO3 film intact. This is an important advancement toward the commercial applications of these MIM capacitors to DRAM as well as to other fields, where an extremely high capacitor density and three-dimensional structures are necessary. [source]

    Polarizability, Susceptibility, and Dielectric Constant of Nanometer-Scale Molecular Films: A Microscopic View

    Amir Natan
    Abstract The size-dependence of the polarizability, susceptibility, and dielectric constant of nanometer-scale molecular layers is explored theoretically. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory are compared to phenomenological modeling based on polarizable dipolar arrays for a model system of organized monolayers composed of oligophenyl chains. Size trends for all three quantities are primarily governed by a competition between out-of-plane polarization enhancement and in-plane polarization suppression. Molecular packing density is the single most important factor controlling this competition and it strongly affects the bulk limit of the dielectric constant as well as the rate at which it is approached. Finally, the polarization does not reach its "bulk" limit, as determined from the Clausius,Mossotti model, but the susceptibility and dielectric constant do converge to the correct bulk limit. However, whereas the Clausius,Mossotti model describes the dielectric constant well at low lateral densities, finite size effects of the monomer units cause it to be increasingly inaccurate at high lateral densities. [source]

    Control of Optical Hysteresis in Block Copolymer Photonic Gels: A Step Towards Wet Photonic Memory Films

    Eunjoo Kim
    Abstract Polystyrene- block -poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (PS- b -P2VP) block copolymer photonic gels are fabricated that exhibit controllable optical hysteresis in response to a cyclic pH sweep. The optical hysteresis is tuned by controlling the ion-pairing affinity between various anions and the protonated pyridinium ions on the P2VP block, which is highly dependent on the hydration energy of the ions, the dielectric constant of the solvent, and the ionic strength of the medium. The pH coercivity defining the magnitude of hysteresis of the photonic gels could be varied from 0.26 to 7.4. Photonic gel films with strong optical hysteresis can serve as wet photonic memory films where information can be cyclically recorded and erased at least 15 times and maintained for at least 96,h. The memory colors can be further tuned by selection of the copolymer molecular weight. [source]

    Ultralow Dielectric Constant Tetravinyltetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane Films Deposited by Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD)

    Nathan J. Trujillo
    Abstract Simultaneous improvement of mechanical properties and lowering of the dielectric constant occur when films grown from the cyclic monomer tetravinyltetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (V4D4) via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) are thermally cured in air. Clear signatures from silsesquioxane cage structures in the annealed films appear in the Fourier transform IR (1140,cm,1) and Raman (1117,cm,1) spectra. The iCVD method consumes an order of magnitude lower power density than the traditional plasma-enhanced CVD, thus preserving the precursor's delicate ring structure and organic substituents in the as-deposited films. The high degree of structural retention in the as-deposited film allows for the beneficial formation of intrinsically porous silsesquioxane cages upon annealing in air. Complete oxidation of the silicon creates ,Q' groups, which impart greater hardness and modulus to the films by increasing the average connectivity number of the film matrix beyond the percolation of rigidity. The removal of labile hydrocarbon moieties allows for the oxidation of the as-deposited film while simultaneously inducing porosity. This combination of events avoids the typical trade-off between improved mechanical properties and higher dielectric constants. Films annealed at 410,C have a dielectric constant of 2.15, and a hardness and modulus of 0.78 and 5.4,GPa, respectively. The solvent-less and low-energy nature of iCVD make it attractive from an environmental safety and health perspective. [source]

    Functional Chromium Wheel-Based Hybrid Organic,Inorganic Materials for Dielectric Applications

    Vito Di Noto
    Abstract The first example of organic,inorganic hybrid materials based on the embedding of a chromium,nickel wheel cluster {[(n-C3H7)2NH2]- [Cr7NiF8(O2C4H5)16]} (Cr7Ni) into poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the characterization of the dielectric properties of the obtained material is described. By an optimized copolymerization of the methacrylate-functionalized chromium,nickel wheel with methyl methacrylate in a cluster/monomer 1:200 molar mixture, a homogeneous hybrid material CrNi_MMA200 is obtained. The electrical responses of the non-doped PMMA and of the hybrid material were studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) from 0.01,Hz to 10,MHz and over the temperature range of 5,115,C. The permittivity profiles reveal two relaxation peaks in the materials, which correspond to the , and , relaxation modes of the PMMA matrix. The position of these modes shifts toward higher frequencies as temperature increases. BDS is a powerful tool revealing the intimate miscibility of the various components of the hybrid material, thus indicating that, on a molecular scale, the material proposed is a homogeneous system. Finally, a value of the dielectric constant of 2.9 at 25,C and 1,kHz is determined. This value is noticeably lower than the value of 3.2 obtained for pristine PMMA prepared following the same synthesis protocol. Thus, these results classify the hybrid CrNi_MMA200 as an appealing starting material for the development of dielectric polymeric layers for the development of innovative capacitors, transistors, and other microelectronic devices. The vibrational properties of the hybrid materials are investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, whereas the thermal behavior is analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Swelling experiments are used to qualitatively evaluate the crosslinking density of the hybrid materials. The integrity of the wheels once embedded in the macromolecular backbone is confirmed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron spin resonance (EPR) spectroscopic measurements. [source]

    Aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 1-2 2010
    Abstract The general major component composition of aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature conditions can be represented by H2O, different non-polar gases like CO2 and different dissolved metal halides like NaCl or CaCl2. At high pressure, the mutual solubility of H2O and silicate melts increases and also silicates may form essential components of aqueous fluids. Given the huge range of P,T,x regimes in crust and mantle, aqueous fluids at elevated pressure and temperature are highly variable in composition and exhibit specific physicochemical properties. This paper reviews principal phase relations in one- and two-component fluid systems, phase relations and properties of binary and ternary fluid systems, properties of pure H2O at elevated P,T conditions, and aqueous fluids in H2O,silicate systems at high pressure and temperature. At metamorphic conditions, even the physicochemical properties of pure water substantially differ from those at ambient conditions. Under typical mid- to lower-crustal metamorphic conditions, the density of pure H2O is , the ion product Kw = 10,7.5 to approximately 10,12.5, the dielectric constant , = 8,25, and the viscosity , = 0.0001,0.0002 Pa sec compared to , Kw = 10,14, , = 78 and , = 0.001 Pa sec at ambient conditions. Adding dissolved metal halides and non-polar gases to H2O significantly enlarges the pressure,temperature range, where different aqueous fluids may co-exist and leads to potential two-phase fluid conditions under must mid- to lower-crustal P,T conditions. As a result of the increased mutual solubility between aqueous fluids and silicate melts at high pressure, the differences between fluid and melt vanishes and the distinction between fluid and melt becomes obsolete. Both are completely miscible at pressures above the respective critical curve giving rise to so-called supercritical fluids. These supercritical fluids combine comparably low viscosity with high solute contents and are very effective metasomatising agents within the mantle wedge above subduction zones. [source]

    Modelling of GPR waves for lossy media obeying a complex power law of frequency for dielectric permittivity

    Maksim Bano
    ABSTRACT The attenuation of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) energy in the subsurface decreases and shifts the amplitude spectrum of the radar pulse to lower frequencies (absorption) with increasing traveltime and causes also a distortion of wavelet phase (dispersion). The attenuation is often expressed by the quality factor Q. For GPR studies, Q can be estimated from the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity. We consider a complex power function of frequency for the dielectric permittivity, and show that this dielectric response corresponds to a frequency-independent- Q or simply a constant- Q model. The phase velocity (dispersion relationship) and the absorption coefficient of electromagnetic waves also obey a frequency power law. This approach is easy to use in the frequency domain and the wave propagation can be described by two parameters only, for example Q and the phase velocity at an arbitrary reference frequency. This simplicity makes it practical for any inversion technique. Furthermore, by using the Hilbert transform relating the velocity and the absorption coefficient (which obeys a frequency power law), we find the same dispersion relationship for the phase velocity. Both approaches are valid for a constant value of Q over a restricted frequency-bandwidth, and are applicable in a material that is assumed to have no instantaneous dielectric response. Many GPR profiles acquired in a dry aeolian environment have shown a strong reflectivity inside dunes. Changes in water content are believed to be the origin of this reflectivity. We model the radar reflections from the bottom of a dry aeolian dune using the 1D wavelet modelling method. We discuss the choice of the reference wavelet in this modelling approach. A trial-and-error match of modelled and observed data was performed to estimate the optimum set of parameters characterizing the materials composing the site. Additionally, by combining the complex refractive index method (CRIM) and/or Topp equations for the bulk permittivity (dielectric constant) of moist sandy soils with a frequency power law for the dielectric response, we introduce them into the expression for the reflection coefficient. Using this method, we can estimate the water content and explain its effect on the reflection coefficient and on wavelet modelling. [source]

    Ultra Low- k Films Derived from Hyperbranched Polycarbosilanes (HBPCS),

    Jitendra S. Rathore
    Abstract Dense and porous hyperbranched carbosiloxane thin films (HBCSO) are obtained by sol,gel processing using methylene-bridged hyperbranched polycarbosilanes (HBPCSs) with the general compositional formula {(OMe)2Si(CH2)}. Introduction of porosity is achieved using a porogen templating approach, allowing the control of the films' dielectric constant from 2.9 to as low as 1.8. Over the entire dielectric range, the HBCSO films exhibit exceptional mechanical properties, 2,3 times superior to those obtained for non-alkylene bridged organosiloxanes such as methylsilsesquioxanes (MSSQs) of similar densities and k -values. [source]

    Fabrication of radial ZnO nanowire clusters and radial ZnO/PVDF composites with enhanced dielectric properties,

    Guangsheng Wang
    Abstract Using an improved microemulsion process novel ZnO nanostructures can be prepared on a large scale. These radial ZnO nanowires grow on hexagonal prism tips and form nanowire clusters. A detailed study of variations in dielectric properties dependent on frequency and temperature shows that composites of radial ZnO and PVDF have significantly higher dielectric constants and exhibit better thermal stability than bulk ZnO/PVDF composites as well as showing a low percolation threshold. Already a low content of radial ZnO increases the dielectric constant of the polymer matrix significantly to a value above 100. [source]

    Origin of the Reduced Fill Factor and Photocurrent in MDMO-PPV:PCNEPV All-Polymer Solar Cells,

    M. Mandoc
    Abstract The photogeneration mechanism in blends of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,,7,-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4 - phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and poly[oxa-1,4-phenylene-(1-cyano-1,2-vinylene)-(2-methoxy-5-(3,,7,-dimethyloctyloxy)-1,4-phenylene)-1,2-(2-cyanovinylene)-1,4-phenylene] (PCNEPV) is investigated. The photocurrent in the MDMO-PPV:PCNEPV blends is strongly dependent on the applied voltage as a result of a low dissociation efficiency of the bound electron,hole pairs. The dissociation efficiency is limited by low carrier mobilities, low dielectric constant, and the strong intermixing of the polymers, leading to a low fill factor and a reduced photocurrent at operating conditions. Additionally, electrons trapped in the PCNEPV phase recombine with the mobile holes in the MDMO-PPV phase at the interface between the two polymers, thereby affecting the open-circuit voltage and increasing the recombination losses. At an intensity of one,sun, Langevin recombination of mobile carriers dominates over trap-assisted recombination. [source]