Diagnostic Rate (diagnostic + rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Letters for inclusion in Cytopathology must be with the Editor at least 6 weeks before the issue in which they are to appear is published
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

The Application of Magnetic Cell Sorter (MACS) to Detect Fetal Cells in Maternal Peripheral Blood

Dr. Akimune Fukushima
Abstract Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of sorting fetal nucleated red blood cells (FNRBC) from maternal peripheral blood, particularly during early gestation periods, by a combination of specific gravity centrifugation and magnetic cell sorter (MACS). Methods: Without prior knowledge of the gender of the fetus, we determined gender by analyzing a Y-chromosome specific sequence by nested-PCR, using 10 ml of the peripheral blood of healthy primigravida women at different stages of gestation (first trimester: n = 17, second trimester: n = 13, and third trimester: n = 19). The results of this prenatal sex determination were compared to the sex of newborns. Results: The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the present method during the first trimester were 100, 81.8, 100, and 75%, respectively; during the second trimester, 80, 50, 80, and 50%, respectively; and during the third trimester, 25, 63.6, 53.8, and 33.3%, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that this prenatal sex determination method has a highly accurate diagnostic rate during the first trimester, suggesting that it could be developed as a practical, non-invasive prenatal diagnostic technique for use during early gestation periods. [source]

The Investigation on the Value of Repeat and Combination Test of ACA and Anti-,2 -GPI Antibody in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

Shi Hua Bao
Problem In order to investigate the value of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA) and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies detection in screening autoimmune type recurrent spontaneous abortion and its clinic application in antiphospholipid syndrome diagnosis, we adopt repeat combined ACA and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies detection in this study. Method of study Sera were collected from patients and work-up was done for detection of ACA and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The work-up was done for detection of antibodies once in every 6 weeks for 14 times consecutively. Results The repeated and combined detection of ACA and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies detection could raise the positivity rate up to 21.8% (P < 0.05) in comparison with positive for ACA alone (14.1%), positive for anti-,2 -GPI alone (3.1%), and concurrently positive for both ACA and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies (4.6%). In 91 confirmed positive antiphospholipid antibodies (APA) patients, with more frequent screening for ACA and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies, more patients with APA were found. The positive rate of five and more screenings was over 81.32%, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05), in comparison with that of four or less screenings (68.13%). Conclusion Our data implied that it would be appropriate to take over five or more screenings of combined ACA and anti-,2 -GPI antibodies detection in suspect patients to facilitate the positive diagnostic rate for autoimmune type RSA. [source]


Motoki Sakuraba
Background: We find pleural effusion in clinical practice frequently. However, it is difficult to make a diagnosis definitively by thoracocentesis or closed pleural biopsy. We directly examine the thoracic cavity by thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia, carry out pleural biopsy and make a definitive pathological diagnosis in pleurisy. Method: A retrospective study of 138 patients who had been diagnosed by thoracoscopy in our hospital was carried out between January 1995 and January 2005. Results: The patients were 114 men and 24 women, ranging in age from 21 to 85 years, with a mean of 59 years. The right side was involved in 83 patients and the left side in 55. The operations took 11,145 min, with a mean of 46 min. Thoracoscopy directly without thoracocenteses was carried out in 28 of 138 patients. Lung cancer with pleural dissemination was diagnosed in 27, malignant pleural mesothelioma in 10, tuberculous pleurisy in 32, non-specific pleurisy in 58, other tumour in 2 and pyothorax in 9 patients. The overall diagnostic efficacy was 97.1% (134/138). The diagnostic efficacy in the cases of carcinoma was 92.6% (25/27), in malignant pleural mesothelioma it was 100% (10/10) and in tuberculosis it was 93.8% (30/32). No major complications occurred during the examination. Conclusion: Pleural biopsy by thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia should be actively carried out in patients with pleurisy, because the technique has a high diagnostic rate and can be easily and safely carried out. [source]

Comparison of diagnostic accuracy for cutaneous malignant melanoma between general dermatology, plastic surgery and pigmented lesion clinics

J.E. Osborne
SummaryBackground Since the 1980s there have been dedicated pigmented lesion clinics (PLCs) in the U.K. Important considerations when comparing the efficacy of the PLC with other referral clinics include diagnostic accuracy. Objectives To compare the false-negative rate of clinical diagnosis (FNR) in the PLC with that in the other clinics of primary referral of malignant melanoma (MM) in the same geographical area. We have previously shown that certain clinical features are risk factors for diagnostic failure of MM. A further aim of this study was to correct for any differences in frequency of these factors in the melanoma populations between clinics and to estimate the false-positive diagnostic rate (FPR) in the PLC. Methods To compare the FNR between clinics, the case notes of all patients presenting with histologically proven cutaneous MM in Leicestershire between 1987 and 1997 were examined retrospectively. A false-negative diagnosis was defined as documentation of another diagnosis and/or evidence in the case notes that the diagnosis was not considered to be MM. The FNR was estimated as the number of false-negative clinical diagnoses/number of true-positive histological diagnoses. To estimate the diagnostic FPR, which was defined as the number of false-positive clinical diagnoses of MM/total number of positive clinical diagnoses, in the PLC, the outcome of 500 consecutive patients attending the PLC was surveyed. Results The case notes of 731 patients were available, of whom approximately two-thirds initially attended the PLC, one-fifth the General Dermatology clinics (D) and the remainder were divided approximately equally (one-twentieth each) between Plastic Surgery clinics (P), other clinics (O) and the surgery of the general practitioner (GP). The last was regarded as the primary referral clinic if the lesion were excised there prior to any referral. The FNR was lowest for the PLC, at 10%, compared with 29% (D), 19% (P), 55% (O) and 54% (GP) (P < 00001). Lesions with risk factors for diagnostic failure were under-represented in the PLC (P < 00001), the mean frequencies of the risk factors being 20% (PLC), 25% (D), 22% (P), 31% (O) and 30% (GP). Differences were not large but still could partially explain the lower FNR of the PLC. However, when the FNR was estimated for lesions exhibiting each of these risk factors, the PLC was found to have the lowest rate in every case (PLC vs. all clinics combined, P = 004 to P < 00001). The mean FNR for the risk factors combined was 18% (PLC), 45% (D), 50% (P), 68% (O) and 71% (GP). Also on logistic multivariable analysis of the PLC vs. all the other clinics on FNR and the above factors, the higher FNR of the other clinics retained significance (odds ratio 59, P < 00001). In the 500 patients surveyed separately in the PLC, the MM pick-up rate on biopsy was 32% and the diagnostic FPR was 41%. Conclusions The FNR of MM was lower in the PLC than in the other clinics, while the pick-up rate for MM on biopsy and the FPR were acceptably low. [source]

Measurement non-invariance of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder criteria across age and sex in a population-based sample of Norwegian twins

Thomas S. Kubarych
Abstract We investigated measurement non-invariance of DSM-IV narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) criteria across age and sex in a population-based cohort sample of 2794 Norwegian twins. Age had a statistically significant effect on the factor mean for NPD. Sex had a statistically significant effect on the factor mean and variance. Controlling for these factor level effects, item-level analysis indicated that the criteria were functioning differently across age and sex. After correcting for measurement differences at the item level, the latent factor mean effect for age was no longer statistically significant. The mean difference for sex remained statistically significant after correcting for item threshold effects. The results indicate that DSM-IV NPD criteria perform differently in males and females and across age. Differences in diagnostic rates across groups may not be valid without correcting for measurement non-invariance. [source]

Epidemiological study of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease in China: Beijing and Shanghai

Pan Guozong
OBJECTIVE: To explore the 1-year point prevalences (July,September 1996) of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and reflux esophagitis (RE) in the adult population of two Chinese city-regions (Beijing and Shanghai) and to identify the conditions that predispose patients to GERD. METHODS: Phase I: 5000 residents of the two regions aged between 18 and 70 years were studied via a questionnaire. The study was carried out by cluster sampling from city, suburban and rural areas by using simple random sampling. Symptom scores (Sc) of the intensity and frequency of heartburn, acid reflux and regurgitation within 1 year of the time of study were taken as indices of acid reflux (highest score, Sc = 18) and Sc , 6 indicated the presence of symptomatic GER. Phase II: a small number of patients who were identified as having symptomatic GER in the survey were enrolled in a case, control study using gastroscopy and 24-h pH monitoring to obtain correct diagnostic rates of GERD and RE. Estimates of the prevalence of GERD and RE were then adjusted according to the rates of correct diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 4992 subjects completed the survey, 2.5% had heartburn once daily, 8.97% had symptomatic GER (Sc , 6) and the male to female ratio was 1:1.11. Point prevalences for the year for GERD and RE were 5.77 and 1.92%, respectively. Stratified analysis indicated that the prevalence of symptomatic GER in Beijing (10.19%) was higher than that in Shanghai (7.76%) and there was also a higher prevalence of GER in males, manual laborers, people from rural areas and people older than 40 years of age in Beijing as compared with Shanghai. Stepwise logistic analysis indicated that GER had a close relationship with dental, pharyngolaryngeal disorders and respiratory diseases. The conditions that predispose patients to GERD are (OR, odds ratio): age > 40 (OR = 1.01), eating greasy/oily food (OR = 6.56), overeating (OR = 1.99), tiredness (OR = 2.35), emotional stress (OR = 2.22), pregnancy (OR = 6.80) and constipation (OR = 1.65). CONCLUSIONS: Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common disease in the adult Chinese population and it is more common in Beijing than in Shanghai. [source]