Diagnostic Procedures (diagnostic + procedure)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Diagnostic Procedures

  • common diagnostic procedure
  • invasive diagnostic procedure
  • new diagnostic procedure
  • routine diagnostic procedure
  • standard diagnostic procedure

  • Selected Abstracts

    Evaluation of a Pediatric-sedation Service for Common Diagnostic Procedures

    Wendalyn K. King MD
    Abstract Background: Pediatric patients often require sedation for diagnostic procedures such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scanning. In October 2002, a dedicated sedation service was started at a tertiary care pediatric facility as a joint venture between pediatric emergency medicine and pediatric critical care medicine. Before this service, sedation was provided by the department of radiology by using a standard protocol, with high-risk patients and failed sedations referred for general anesthesia. Objectives: To describe the initial experience with a dedicated pediatric-sedation service. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of quality-assurance data collected on all sedations in the radiology department for 23-month periods before and after sedation-service implementation. Study variables were number and reasons for canceled or incomplete procedures, rates of referral for general anesthesia, rates of hypoxia, prolonged sedation, need for assisted ventilation, apnea, emesis, and paradoxical reaction to medication. Results are reported in odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Data from 5,444 sedations were analyzed; 2,148 before and 3,296 after sedation-service activation. Incomplete studies secondary to inadequate sedation decreased, from 2.7% before the service was created to 0.8% in the post,sedation-service period (OR, 0.29; 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.47). There also were decreases in cancellations caused by patient illness (3.8% vs. 0.6%; OR, 0.16; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.27) and rates of hypoxia (8.8% vs. 4.6%; OR, 0.50; 95% CI = 0.40 to 0.63). There were no significant differences between the groups in rates of apnea, need for assisted ventilation, emesis, or prolonged sedation. The implementation of the sedation service also was associated with a decrease in both the number of patients referred to general anesthesia without a trial of sedation (from 2.1% to 0.1%; OR, 0.33; 95% CI = 0.06 to 1.46) and the total number of general anesthesia cases in the radiology department (from 7.5% to 4.4% of all patients requiring either sedation or anesthesia; OR, 0.56; 95% CI = 0.45 to 0.71). Conclusions: The implementation of a dedicated pediatric-sedation service resulted in fewer incomplete studies related to inadequate sedation, in fewer canceled studies secondary to patient illness, in fewer referrals for general anesthesia, and in fewer recorded instances of sedation-associated hypoxia. These findings have important implications in terms of patient safety and resource utilization. [source]

    Testing Equality between Two Diagnostic Procedures in Paired-Sample Ordinal Data

    Kung-Jong Lui
    Abstract When a new diagnostic procedure is developed, it is important to assess whether the diagnostic accuracy of the new procedure is different from that of the standard procedure. For paired-sample ordinal data, this paper develops two test statistics for testing equality of the diagnostic accuracy between two procedures without assuming any parametric models. One is derived on the basis of the probability of correctly identifying the case for a randomly selected pair of a case and a non-case over all possible cutoff points, and the other is derived on the basis of the sensitivity and specificity directly. To illustrate the practical use of the proposed test procedures, this paper includes an example regarding the use of digitized and plain films for screening breast cancer. This paper also applies Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the finite sample performance of the two statistics developed here and notes that they can perform well in a variety of situations. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Clinical study of cats injured and killed in road traffic accidents in Cambridgeshire

    I. Rochlitz
    Data were collected on the injuries, treatment and outcome of 128 cats involved in road accidents and seen as first-opinion cases in veterinary practices in Cambridgeshire. Sixteen cats were dead on arrival; the mortality rate for the remaining cats was 16 per cent. Half of the cats were aged between seven months and two years, with more males than females affected. Most cats had moderate injuries; strays had more severe injuries than owned cats. Areas of the body most often injured were the extremities, head and neck, pelvis and thorax. Skeletal injuries were present in 67 cats and neurological signs in 29. Diagnostic procedures and medical treatment were necessary for the majority of cats; surgery was required in 51 cases. Most cats were hospitalised for between two and seven days and some required up to one month of treatment. The cost of treatment was less than £400 for 84 per cent of cats. [source]

    Misleading hallucinations in unrecognized narcolepsy

    A. Sz
    Objective: To describe psychosis-like hallucinatory states in unrecognized narcolepsy. Method: Two patients with hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations are presented. Results: Both patients had realistic and complex , multi-modal and scenic-daytime sexual hallucinations leading, in the first case, to a legal procedure because of false accusation, and in the second, to serious workplace conflicts. Both patients were convinced of the reality of their hallucinatory experiences but later both were able to recognize their hallucinatory character. Clinical data, a multiple sleep latency test, polysomnography, and HLA typing revealed that both patients suffered from narcolepsy. Conclusion: We suggest that in unrecognized narcolepsy with daytime hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations the diagnostic procedure may mistakenly incline towards delusional psychoses. Daytime realistic hypnagogic/hypnapompic hallucinations may also have forensic consequences and mislead legal evaluation. Useful clinical features in differentiating narcolepsy from psychoses are: the presence of other narcoleptic symptoms, features of hallucinations, and response to adequate medication. [source]

    Histological alterations following thyroid fine needle biopsy: A systematic review

    M.Sc., Stergios A. Polyzos M.D.
    Abstract Thyroid fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a simple, reliable, inexpensive, and generally safe diagnostic procedure in the management of thyroid nodules. However, the trauma inflicted by the needle may lead to various degrees of histological alterations, observed in histological specimens, if thyroidectomy follows. Post-FNB histological alterations of the thyroid (PFHAT) can generally be divided into acute and chronic. Hemorrhage is the most common acute and fibrosis the most common chronic PFHAT. Some of the PFHAT causes problems in histological assessment, making diagnosis difficult, even leading to misdiagnosis. In this review, we tried to collect and summarize all reported PFHAT cases and studies, aiming to make involved physicians, cytologists, and pathologists aware of the spectrum of PFHAT and to provide information to help in differential diagnosis and to avoid misdiagnoses, which could lead to unnecessary radical surgery and/or adjuvant therapy. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology of Sister Mary Joseph's (paraumbilical) nodules

    Uma Handa M.D.
    Abstract During a period of 5 years (2001,2005), six cases of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule (umbilical metastasis) were diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). In all the cases, FNAC of umbilical nodules was the first investigation and subsequently the patients were investigated for the primary tumor. The primary carcinoma was found in the stomach in three cases, ovary in two cases and one case was of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Based on our findings, we suggest FNAC as an initial diagnostic procedure in cases suspected of umbilical metastasis. It is not only simple, fast, accurate and inexpensive but can also save the patient from other invasive diagnostic procedures. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2008;36:348,350. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ultrasonographic examination of the caudal structures of the distal antebrachium in the horse

    J. S. Jorgensen
    Summary Evaluation of the caudal distal antebrachium using ultrasound is a very useful diagnostic procedure for identification of soft tissue abnormalities in flexor structures of the equine limb. In this article we describe how ultrasonographic imaging may be used to complement radiography of the carpus in evaluating horses that present with peri-carpal swelling and/or lameness localised to the carpal region. Ultrasonographic examination assists with the identification or exclusion of significant injuries to muscular, tendonous and ligamentous structures within the distal antebrachium and enables practitioners to proceed with appropriate therapeutic and rehabilitation plans for the immediate benefit for their patients while also recognising pathology that could progress to cause long-term, chronic lameness issues without aggressive and effective intervention. [source]

    Muscle biopsy: a routine diagnostic procedure

    A. Ledwith
    First page of article [source]

    Retrospective evaluation of equine prepurchase examinations performed 1991,2000

    L. M. van HOOGMOED
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Prepurchase examinations of horses are used increasingly as a means of evaluating future soundness. Data is lacking in the literature of the radiographic findings and results of the lameness examination of comprehensive prepurchase examinations. Objective: To summarise the clinical and radiographic findings of prepurchase examinations and determine if radiographic findings correlated with the lameness examination and sale outcome. Methods: Records of 510 cases were reviewed, radiographs evaluated and grades assigned the navicular bone, distal phalanx, and tarsus. Follow-up information on the horse status was obtained by telephone interviews for 173 horses. Results: Thoroughbred geldings represented the most common breed and sex, mean age 8 years, mean asking price $12,439.40, and 52.8% were lame. Radiography was the most common diagnostic procedure performed (61.6%), with views of the front feet requested most often (86.6%) followed by the tarsi (68.1%). Grade 1 was most common for the navicular bone while Grade 2 predominated for the distal phalanx. The number of sound horses decreased as grades became more severe. For the tarsi, Grades 0 and 1 were most common for the proximal intertarsal and distal intertarsal/metatarsal joints, respectively. Horses with significant tarsal changes were still able to compete at their expected level. With respect to the radiographic examination, the mean ± s.d. grade of the horses which were not lame at follow-up was 1.2 ± 0.9 for the navicular bone and 1.5 ± 0.8 for the third phalanx. The mean ± s.d. grade of sound horses for the distal intertarsal joint was 0.7 ± 0.6 and 1.14 ± 0.8 for the tarsometatarsal joint. Horses for which owner follow-up was available and which had a Grade 3 score were also evaluated. Forthe navicularbone, 17/31 with a Grade 3 remained in active use at follow-up and for the distal phalanx 21/27 were in active use. For the distal intertarsal and tarsometatarsal joints, 20/21 with a Grade 3 were still in active use. Conclusions: Prepurchase examinations can have a significant effect on the outcome of the sale. For the navicular bone and distal phalanx, higher grades were associated with lameness. In contrast, higher grades in the tarsus were less likely to be associated with lameness. Warmbloods tended to have more extensive changes in the navicular bone and distal phalanx relative to Thoroughbreds but were not as lame. Potential relevance: Radiographic changes detected in the navicular bone, distal phalanx and tarsus should be interpreted with consideration to the clinical examination. [source]

    Assessment of the nitrogen status of grassland

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    A. Farruggia
    Abstract Two types of diagnostics are used for N management in grasslands: diagnostics based on N concentration of shoots and diagnostics based on soil mineral N. The Nitrogen Nutrition Index (NNI) is an example of the first type. However, its evaluation requires the determination of shoot dry weight per unit area and, thus, constitutes a practical limit to its utilization in the context of farm studies. In order to simplify its evaluation, a method based on the N concentration of the upper sward layer (Nup) has been proposed. The objectives of this study were to test the relationship between NNI and Nup in the context of permanent grassland and to examine the relationship between Nup and soil mineral status. The study was conducted as two experiments, one on small cut-plots receiving contrasting rates of mineral N fertilization, and a second on plots of an existing field-scale lysimeter experiment. In each plot and at several dates, shoot biomass within quadrats was measured, N concentration was determined on the upper leaves and on the entire shoots, and mineral nitrogen of the soil below the vegetation sampled was determined. N concentration of the upper lamina layer of the canopy was linearly related to the NNI determined on the entire shoots. Therefore, determining N concentration in leaves at the top of canopy appears to be an alternative means to evaluate NNI without having to measure shoot biomass. The absence of an overall significant correlation between soil mineral N content and sward N index, observed over the two studies, indicates that each of these two indicators has to be considered specifically in relation to the objective of the diagnostic procedure. As sward N index may vary independently of soil mineral N content, the sward N indicator does not appear to be a suitable indicator for diagnosis of environmental risks related to nitrate leaching. However, soil mineral N content does not allow the prediction of sward N status and thus is not a suitable indicator of sward growth rate. Although soil mineral N content is an important environmental indicator for nitrate-leaching risks during potential drainage periods, it has a limited diagnosis value with respect to the herbage production function of grasslands. [source]

    Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy of the Cognitive Performance Scale (Minimum Data Set) and the Mini-Mental State Exam for the detection of cognitive impairment in nursing home residents

    Louis Paquay
    Abstract Objective To compare the diagnostic accuracy of an outcome measurement scale of the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument for nursing homes (MDS/RAI-NH), the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) for the detection of cognitive impairment. The Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly , Revised (CAMDEX-R) was used as the reference standard. Study design and setting This study was part of a larger prospective study (QUALIDEM) involving a diagnostic procedure and two-year follow-up on the quality of primary care for demented patients. CAMDEX-R and MDS/RAI-NH were administered to 198 residents, aged 65 or more, living in 42 low and high care institutions for aged people. Main outcome measures Indicators of diagnostic accuracy: sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, odds ratio and area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Results The CAMDEX-based prevalence of cognitive impairment was 75%. The diagnostic values of a CPS score of two or more for the detection of cognitive impairment were: sensitivity,=,0.81; specificity,=,0.80; PPV,=,0.92; NPV,=,0.57. The diagnostic values of a MMSE score of less than or equal 23 were: sensitivity,=,0.97; specificity,=,0.59; PPV,=,0.88; NPV,=,0.85. For CPS, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.81,0.91), and not significantly different (p,=,0.63) from the MMSE score, 0.88 (0.83,0.93). Conclusions CPS and MMSE demonstrated similar performance to detect cognitive impairment in nursing home residents. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Psychometric characteristics of Cloninger's criteria for personality disorder in a population of French prisoners

    Antoine Pelissolo
    Abstract Cloninger has proposed a new procedure to assess personality disorders on the basis of his model of temperament and character. We explored the psychometric characteristics of this instrument in 560 male prisoners, using factor analyses. Results showed that the 20 items relating to the general personality criteria have acceptable internal consistency and that the three-factor structure of the temperament items used to subtype personality disorder are correctly identified by a maximum likelihood factor analysis model with varimax rotation. Overall, 32% of prisoners had a personality disorder according to this model, and it was possible to subtype 68% of these. This new diagnostic procedure for personality disorder seemed to have satisfactory basic psychometric characteristics but further study is required to explore the concurrent validity and the reliability of this instrument. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Validation of a new diagnostic procedure for DSM IV axis I disorders

    Jean-Yves Loze
    Abstract Despite the fact that, in today's psychiatric research and especially in epidemiological studies, diagnostic assessments are made with reliable standardized clinical interviews, recent articles have shown discrepancies in prevalence rates of DSM IV axis I disorders assessed with different, yet reliable, clinical standardized interviews, raising the problem of the clinical relevance of some of these instruments. Within an epidemiological study, we developed a simple method for evaluating DSM IV axis I disorders with the aim of improving the clinical relevance of assessed diagnoses. This method is based on an evaluation performed by two clinicians. The first one used a short structured clinical interview (MINI v 5.0) and the second one completed the procedure with an open clinical interview, intended to be more clinically relevant. Finally, a consensus diagnosis is given by the two investigators. We conducted a survey in order to validate this method by measuring the agreement of diagnoses reported by two pairs of clinicians on a population of 20 inpatients. Results show that this double evaluation led to a high agreement (kappa ranging between 0.76 and 1.00) suggesting that the proposed evaluation procedure, which is intended to be more clinically relevant, is also highly reliable. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Combined histology and molecular biology for diagnosis of early stage gastric MALT lymphoma

    Zhi Hui YI
    OBJECTIVE: To establish a sequential diagnostic procedure of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and provide evidence for selected optimal cases to be treated in the early stage. METHODS: Thirty-one cases of gastric lymphoid hyperplasia (GLH) were selected and multiple investigations including histology, protein level, DNA and chromosome levels, combined with clinical follow-up were performed. Histological grade was according to Isaacson's criteria of GLH; CD20, UCHL-1 (CD45RO), anti-kappa (,), anti-lambda (,) and Ki-67 were used for immunohistochemical staining; semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect IgH gene rearrangement and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect API2-MALT1 fusion of the chromosome translocation t(11;18)(q21;q21). Twenty-nine cases underwent eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Changes in histological grade, endoscopic appearance, expression of Ki-67 and IgH gene rearrangement were compared after eradication treatment. RESULTS: Of the 31 cases of GLH with predominant chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer most were histological grade 2 and 3. Only one case had , light chain restriction and 10 cases had monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement. Expression of Ki-67 and monoclonal IgH gene rearrangement were significantly increased with increased lymphoid hyperplasia (P < 0.05). Two cases had API2-MALT1 fusion. Helicobacter pylori was eradicated in 25 cases and another course of treatment had to be given in 4 cases. All cases were followed up for 1.5,37 months. Of the 27 successful eradication cases, 18 showed complete regression both histologically and endoscopically, 4 had partial regression and 7 were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: A sequential diagnostic procedure based on histology, expression of Ki-67 combined with clonality of IgH rearrangement and API2-MALT1 fusion helps to diagnosis of early stage gastric MALT lymphoma and choose the best treatment strategy. [source]

    Multilevel factors affecting tuberculosis diagnosis and initial treatment

    Wilawan Thongraung BSc
    Abstract Objectives, The study aims to assess provider adherence to national tuberculosis programme guidelines on diagnosis, initial regimens and dosages, and to examine independent effects of factors at patient, staff and hospital levels influencing adherence. Methods, A review of 383 medical records of new tuberculosis (TB) patients and interviews with related staff were carried out. The study was conducted in 16 public hospitals of seven provinces of southern Thailand. The outcome variables were provider adherence to the guidelines on diagnostic procedure, initial regimen and dosage. Independent variables consisted of patient, staff and hospital factors. Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with adherence. Results, The proportions of adherence to the diagnostic procedure, initial regimen and initial dosage prescribed were 70.0%, 100.0% and 57.1%, respectively. Most of diagnosis non-adherence was anti-TB drugs being prescribed for smear-negative patients without prior antibiotic trial (12.5%). The anti-TB drug with the highest percentages of patients receiving non-adhered dosage was ethambutol (33.6%). In contrast to single-level analysis, which showed significant influence of up to five factors, multilevel analysis confirmed only strong effect of male patients receiving better adhered diagnosis and of non-doctors and TB clinics providing better dosage adherence. Conclusions, Adherence to TB diagnostic procedures was not good, and adherence to initial dosage, especially for ethambutol, was poor. TB clinics, the key factor of adherence, should be expanded. Female patients should be reviewed more carefully because they tend to receive poorer diagnosis adherence. [source]

    Detection of koi herpesvirus in common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., by loop-mediated isothermal amplification

    I Gunimaladevi
    Abstract Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel method that amplifies DNA with high specificity and rapidity under isothermal conditions. In this study, using the LAMP method, a protocol for koi herpes virus (KHV) detection in common carp was designed. A set of four primers, two inner and two outer, were designed based on the sequence of the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of KHV. Time and temperature conditions for detection of KHV were optimized for 60 min at 65 °C. The detection limit using LAMP was found to be similar to that by polymerase chain reaction. In this study, we have developed a highly sensitive and rapid diagnostic procedure for detection of KHV infection in common carp. [source]

    Diagnostic Coronary Angiography in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease: A Sub-study of the Coronary Artery Revascularization Prophylaxis Trial

    Background: Although patients in need of elective vascular surgery are often considered candidates for diagnostic coronary angiography, the safety of this invasive study has not been systematically studied in a large cohort of patients scheduled for an elective vascular operation. The goal of this sub-study of the Coronary Artery Revascularization Prophylaxis (CARP) trial was to assess the safety of coronary angiography in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods: The CARP trial tested the long-term benefit of coronary artery revascularization prior to elective vascular operations. Among those patients who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography during screening for the trial, the associated complications were determined at 24 hours following the diagnostic procedure. Results: Over 5,000 patients were screened during a 4-year recruitment period at 18 major VA medical centers and the present cohort consists of 1,298 patients who underwent preoperative coronary angiography. Surgical indications for vascular surgery included an expanding aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n = 446; 34.4%) or arterial occlusive disease with either claudication (n = 457; 35.2%) or rest pain (n = 395; 30.4%). A total of 39 patients had a confirmed complication with a major complication identified in 17 patients (1.3%). Complication rates were higher in patients with arterial occlusive symptoms compared with expanding aneurysms (1.8% vs. 0.5%; P = 0.07) and were not dissimilar with femoral (2.8%) versus nonfemoral (4.7%) access sites (P = 0.42). Conclusions: Coronary angiography is safe in patients with peripheral arterial disease undergoing preoperative coronary angiography. The complication rate is higher in patients with symptoms of arterial occlusive disease. [source]

    Evaluation of Quantitative Portal Venous, Hepatic Arterial, and Total Hepatic Tissue Blood Flow Using Xenon CT in Alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis,Comparison With Liver Cirrhosis Related to Hepatitis C Virus and Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2010
    Hideaki Takahashi
    Background/Aims:, Xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT) is a noninvasive method of quantifying and visualizing tissue blood flow (TBF). For the liver, Xe-CT allows separate measurement of hepatic arterial and portal venous TBF. The present study evaluated the usefulness of Xe-CT as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for measuring hepatic TBF in alcoholic liver cirrhosis (AL-LC), compared with liver cirrhosis related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), (NASH-LC), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), (C-LC). Methods:, Xe-CT was performed on 22 patients with AL-LC, 7 patients with NASH-LC, and 24 patients with C-LC. Severity of LC was classified according to Child-Pugh classification. Correlations between hepatic TBF, Child-Pugh classification, and indocyanin green retention (ICG) rate after 15 minutes (ICG15R) were examined. Correlations of hepatic TBF in Child-Pugh class A to AL-LC, NASH-LC, and C-LC were also examined. Results:, Portal venous TBF (PVTBF) displayed a significant negative correlation with Child-Pugh score and ICG15R (r = ,0.432, p < 0.01, r = ,0.442, p < 0.01, respectively). Moreover, ICG15R displayed a significant positive correlation with Child-Pugh score (r = 0.661, p < 0.001). Meanwhile, mean PVTBF and total hepatic TBF (THTBF) was significantly lower in AL-LC than in C-LC (p < 0.05). Mean PVTBF was significantly lower in Child-Pugh class A to AL-LC and NASH-LC than in that to C-LC (p < 0.05). Similarly, mean THTBF was significantly lower in Child-Pugh class A to NASH-LC than in that to C-LC (p < 0.05). Conclusions:, Measurement of hepatic TBF using Xe-CT is useful as a noninvasive, objective method of assessing the state of the liver in chronic liver disease. [source]

    A rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of Treponema pallidum

    G Karakatsanis

    Eczematous reactions to food in atopic eczema: position paper of the EAACI and GA2LEN

    ALLERGY, Issue 7 2007
    T. Werfel
    Food allergy and atopic eczema (AE) may occur in the same patient. Besides typical immediate types of allergic reactions (i.e. noneczematous reactions) which are observed in patients suffering from AE, it is clear that foods, such as cow's milk and hen's eggs, can directly provoke flares of AE, particularly in sensitized infants. In general, inhaled allergens and pollen-related foods are of greater importance in older children, adolescents and adults. Clinical studies have revealed that more than 50% of affected children with AE that can be exacerbated by certain foods will react with a worsening of skin eczema either alone or in addition to immediate symptoms. Adolescents and adults may also react to foods, but reactions to ,classical' food allergens, such as hen's eggs and cow's milk, are not as common as in childhood. Some patients with AE do react to pollen-associated foods. Food-induced eczema should not be neglected by the allergologist: On the one hand, food can be a relevant trigger factor of persistent moderate-to-severe AE; on the other hand, unnecessary diets which are not based on a proper diagnosis may lead to malnutrition and additional psychological stress on patients suffering from AE. Eczematous reactions to food can only be diagnosed by a thorough diagnostic procedure, taking into account the patient's history, the degree of sensitization and the clinical relevance of the sensitization. The latter has often to be proven by oral food challenges. Upon oral food challenge it is most important to evaluate the status of the skin with an established score (e.g. SCORAD, EASI) after 24 h and later because otherwise worsening of eczema will be missed. [source]

    Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases

    ALLERGY, Issue 8 2004
    B. Niggemann
    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy. [source]

    Differential effect of environmental risk factors on postural instability gait difficulties and tremor dominant Parkinson's disease,,

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 12 2010
    G.O. Skeie MD
    Abstract Both environmental and genetic factors contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have examined environmental risk factors in a Norwegian population of incident PD patients and controls, the Norwegian ParkWest study. All five neurological wards in the study area of Western Norway participated in the study. A 4-step diagnostic procedure was used to establish a representative cohort of patients with incident PD at a high level of diagnostic accuracy. 212 incident PD patients and 175 age- and gender-matched controls were included. PD patients and controls were asked for information on occupation, education, exposure to pesticides, tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Agricultural work was associated with a higher risk of PD (OR 1.75 (1.03,3.0) P = 0.009). There were no differences as to other occupations. Smoking (OR 0.63 (0.42,0.95) P = 0.016) and alcohol use (OR 0.55 P = 0.008) were associated with a lower risk for PD. Interestingly, this inverse association was only seen in postural instability gait difficulties (PIGD) PD (P = 0.046 for smoking, P = 0.07 for alcohol consumption), and not in tremor dominant (TD) PD which was similar to controls. Consumption of coffee was lower in PD patients (3.3 ± 1.8 cups per day vs. 3.8 ± 2.0 in controls P = 0.02). In the regression model including intake of alcohol, coffee, and smoke, only coffee (P = 0.007) and alcohol intake (P = 0.021) remained significant whereas smoking was no longer significant. Thus, it seems as though only coffee intake reduces the risk of PD in general while associations to alcohol and smoking differ between PIGD and TD-PD patients. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Sputum induction as a diagnostic tool for community-acquired pneumonia in infants and young children from a high HIV prevalence area

    H.J. Zar MD
    Abstract Sputum induction is a standard diagnostic procedure to identify pathogens in lower respiratory tract secretions in adults with pneumonia, but has rarely been studied or used in infants and young children. Our aim was to determine the usefulness of induced sputum (IS) as a diagnostic method for infants and children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a high HIV prevalence area. Children hospitalized for CAP were prospectively enrolled over a year. IS was obtained by nebulization with hypertonic (5%) saline, physiotherapy, and suctioning. Sputum was submitted for bacterial and mycobacterial culture and P. carinii detection. Gastric lavages (GLs) were done for M. tuberculosis culture; a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) was obtained for bacterial culture and P. carinii detection. IS was obtained in 210 children (median age, 7 (25th to 75th percentile, 3,18) months); 138 (66%) were HIV-infected; 148 (70%) were receiving supplemental oxygen. Bacteria were isolated from 101 (50%) IS and 141 (70%) NPA paired specimens (P,<,0.001). A significantly higher rate of S. aureus, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. pneumoniae was found in NPAs compared to IS; this pattern was particularly evident in HIV-infected children. M. tuberculosis was cultured from sputum in 19 patients (9%); GLs performed in 142 children were positive in only 9 (6%). The difference (95% confidence interval) between yields for M. tuberculosis from culture of IS compared to GL was 4.3% (95% CI, 0,5.6%; P,=,0.08). P. carinii was identified from IS in 12 (5.7%) children; all corresponding NPAs were negative. Seven (3%) children could not tolerate sputum induction. Side effects included increased coughing in 4%, epistaxis in 3%, and wheezing responsive to bronchodilators in 1%. In conclusion, induced sputum is a useful and safe diagnostic procedure in infants and children with CAP from a high HIV prevalence area. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2003; 36:58,62. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sources of urinary proteins and their analysis by urinary proteomics for the detection of biomarkers of disease

    Bruce A. Julian
    Abstract Renal disorders account for a substantial fraction of the budget for health care in many countries. Proteinuria is a frequent manifestation in afflicted patients, but the origin of the proteins varies based on the nature of the disorder. The emerging field of urinary proteomics has the potential to replace kidney biopsy as the diagnostic procedure of choice for patients with some glomerular forms of renal disease. To fully realize this potential, it is vital to understand the basis for the urinary excretion of protein in physiological and pathological conditions. In this review, we discuss the structure of the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney, and the process by which proteins/peptides enter the urine. We discuss several aspects of proteinuria that impact the proteomic analysis of urine of patients with renal diseases. [source]

    Nasal Provocation Testing as an International Standard for Evaluation of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 3 2005
    Jan Gosepath MD
    Abstract Standardized nasal provocation testing (NPT) has been shown to be a safe and very useful tool in the diagnosis of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. However, in the United States, its use has been mostly limited to scientific investigations, and it has not yet been widely accepted as a standard diagnostic procedure in clinical practice. NPT aims to identify and quantify the clinical relevance of inhalant allergens or occupational irritants. During NPT, nasal respiratory mucosa is exposed to an airborne substance suspected to cause symptoms in the respective individual. Clinical reactions are monitored in a controlled and standardized fashion. Nasal secretions, symptoms such as itching, sneezing and, most importantly, nasal obstruction are assessed as well as ocular, bronchial, cutaneous, and systemic reactions. To achieve objective data on changes in nasal airflow and patency after the challenge, anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry have been included in the standard protocol of NPT. By monitoring changes of nasal airflow on one hand and of nasal geometry on the other hand, these methods display nasal function in a graphic way just as speech and pure tone audiometry do for auditory function. Also, by their objective nature, these methods offer a clear and internationally comparable standard. This review outlines a protocol for NPT and discusses practical applications and clinical indications. The use of rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry as objective diagnostic tools is emphasized. For the diagnosis of allergic and occupational rhinitis, standardized NPT should be regarded as an international diagnostic standard. [source]

    Effect of epilepsy magnetic source imaging on intracranial electrode placement,

    ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Issue 6 2009
    MSPH, Robert C. Knowlton MD
    Objective Intracranial electroencephalography (ICEEG) with chronically implanted electrodes is a costly invasive diagnostic procedure that remains necessary for a large proportion of patients who undergo evaluation for epilepsy surgery. This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic source imaging (MSI), a noninvasive test based on magnetoencephalography source localization, can supplement ICEEG by affecting electrode placement to improve sampling of the seizure onset zone(s). Methods Of 298 consecutive epilepsy surgery candidates (between 2001 and 2006), 160 patients were prospectively enrolled by insufficient localization from seizure monitoring and magnetic resonance imaging results. Before presenting MSI results, decisions were made whether to proceed with ICEEG, and if so, where to place electrodes such that the hypothetical seizure-onset zone would be sampled. MSI results were then provided with allowance of changes to the original plan. Results MSI indicated additional electrode coverage in 18 of 77 (23%) ICEEG cases. In 39% (95% confidence interval, 16.4,61.4), seizure-onset ICEEG patterns involved the additional electrodes indicated by MSI. Sixty-two patients underwent surgical resection based on ICEEG recording of seizures. Highly localized MSI was significantly associated with seizure-free outcome (mean, 3.4 years; minimum, >1 year) for the entire surgical population (n = 62). Interpretation MSI spike localization increases the chance that the seizure-onset zone is sampled when patients undergo ICEEG for presurgical epilepsy evaluations. The clinical impact of this effect, improving diagnostic yield of ICEEG, should be considered in surgery candidates who do not have satisfactory indication of epilepsy localization from seizure semiology, electroencephalogram, and magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Neurol 2009;65:716,723 [source]

    Model for Ultrasound-Assisted Lumbar Puncture Training

    Melissa Bollinger
    Lumbar puncture is an important diagnostic procedure in emergency medicine. Data have been published showing improved success rate with ultrasound assistance and the ability of emergency medicine physicians to recognize sonographic lumbar spinous anatomy. However, with educational models and the push for improved patient safety, procedural skills should be practiced on phantoms rather than the "see one, do one, teach one" of the past. There are no currently available phantoms for ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture training. We have produced a phantom that can be used to train physicians on ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture with respect to both imaging and procedural competency. A plastic fluid-filled bladder was immersed in gelled opacified mineral oil, a safe and easily used tissue mimic that obscures direct visualization of structures. Spinous anatomy is replicated with the use of wooden struts supporting wooden disks that mimic lumbar spinous processes. The spine analog was mounted over the plastic bladder and surrounded with gelled mineral oil. The phantom produces images similar to human lumbar anatomy. The phantom allows insertion of spinal needles into the "interspinous spaces" with inability to pass the needle outside of those locations. Fluid collection and repeated punctures can be performed on the phantom. Appearance and performance of the phantom were evaluated by physicians with expertise in ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture. The only limitation is that external appearance is not realistic. This model performs well, is made from readily available materials, and can be used to train physicians in ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture. [source]

    Treatment of rectovaginal fistula: A 5-year review

    Damian CASADESUS
    This paper presents a chart review of 17 patients who had been treated for rectovaginal fistula (RVF) from 1996 to 2000. In most cases (13; 76.5%), the fistula was the result of post-surgical complications. Following vaginal mucosa advancement flap repair or repair after conversion to a fourth-degree perineal laceration, 16 (94%) of the rectovaginal fistulae (during the first attempted repair or after failed treatment) were successfully treated. In all patients but one, faecal diversion was avoided. In two patients, fistulography was both a diagnostic procedure and the method of treatment. [source]

    Testing Equality between Two Diagnostic Procedures in Paired-Sample Ordinal Data

    Kung-Jong Lui
    Abstract When a new diagnostic procedure is developed, it is important to assess whether the diagnostic accuracy of the new procedure is different from that of the standard procedure. For paired-sample ordinal data, this paper develops two test statistics for testing equality of the diagnostic accuracy between two procedures without assuming any parametric models. One is derived on the basis of the probability of correctly identifying the case for a randomly selected pair of a case and a non-case over all possible cutoff points, and the other is derived on the basis of the sensitivity and specificity directly. To illustrate the practical use of the proposed test procedures, this paper includes an example regarding the use of digitized and plain films for screening breast cancer. This paper also applies Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the finite sample performance of the two statistics developed here and notes that they can perform well in a variety of situations. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Microarray analysis of aberrant gene expression in actinic keratosis: effect of the Toll-like receptor-7 agonist imiquimod

    A. Torres
    Summary Background, The molecular events leading to actinic keratosis (AK) are not well understood. Objective, To identify and compare gene expression changes in AK lesions and in sun-exposed nonlesional skin and to determine the effect of imiquimod 5% cream on these changes. Method, A double-blind, vehicle-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate the molecular changes in AK treated with imiquimod. Seventeen male subjects with , 5 AK lesions on the scalp applied vehicle or imiquimod three times a week for 4 weeks. Gene expression analysis using Affymetrix® oligonucleotide arrays was performed on shave biopsies of lesions taken before and after treatment. Confocal microscopy was performed on the study area as an adjunctive diagnostic procedure. Results, We identified gene expression changes which occur in sun-exposed, nonlesional skin as well as in AK lesions. These changes include, but are not limited to, the overexpression of oncogenic and proliferative genes and diminished expression of tumour suppressor genes. The gene expression changes observed in AK lesions and in sun-exposed, nonlesional skin were consistent with the confocal microscopy observations, which showed abnormalities in the sun-exposed, nonlesional skin, similar in nature but less pronounced than abnormalities seen in AK. Imiquimod partially or totally reversed the aberrant expression of some of the genes observed in AK, consistent with clearing of lesions and normalization of confocal cellular images. Conclusions, The data show that profound gene expression changes occur in sun-exposed, nonlesional skin which progress further in AK lesions. The data also suggest that imiquimod may play a role in normalizing gene expression and cellular morphology in sun-damaged skin. [source]