Diagnostic Odds Ratio (diagnostic + odds_ratio)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diagnostic value of FDG-PET in recurrent colorectal carcinoma: A meta-analysis

Chenpeng Zhang
Abstract Accurate detection of recurrent colorectal carcinoma remains a diagnostic challenge. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the diagnostic value of Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluor-18-deoxyglucose (FDG) in recurrent colorectal carcinoma with a meta-analysis. All the published studies in English relating the diagnostic value of FDG-PET in the detection of recurrent colorectal carcinoma were collected. Methodological quality of the included studies was evaluated. Pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio and SROC (summary receiver operating characteristic curves) were obtained by the statistical software. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for FDG-PET detecting distant metastasis or whole body involvement in recurrent colorectal carcinoma were 0.91 (95% CI 0.88,0.92) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.79,0.87), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for FDG-PET detecting hepatic metastasis were 0.97 (95% CI 0.95,0.98) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.97,0.99). The pooled sensitivity and specificity for pelvic metastasis or local regional recurrence were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91,0.97) and 0.94 (95% CI 0.92,0.96). FDG-PET is valuable for the assessment of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Comparison of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of temporomandibular joint disc displacement

summary, The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc position abnormalities compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants in this study were 41 consecutive patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. All 82 TMJs were evaluated to detect disc position abnormalities by means of ultrasonography and MRI, performed by blinded operators. The accuracy of ultrasonography was evaluated with respect to MRI. Ultrasonography demonstrated good accuracy in the evaluation of disc position, showing a sensitivity of 65·8% and a specificity of 80·4%, resulting in a positive likelihood ratio of 3·35, a negative likelihood ratio of 0·42, and a diagnostic odds ratio of 7·97. The predictive positive and negatives values were respectively 77·1% and 70·2% and the overall agreement between the two radiological techniques was 73·1%. Ultrasonography proved to be accurate in detecting normal disc position and the presence of abnormalities in disc,condyle relationship but not so useful for the distinction between disc displacement with and without reduction. [source]

Dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination for the diagnosis of primary melanoma: a meta-analysis of studies performed in a clinical setting

M.E. Vestergaard
Summary Background, Dermoscopy is a noninvasive technique that enables the clinician to perform direct microscopic examination of diagnostic features, not seen by the naked eye, in pigmented skin lesions. Diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy has previously been assessed in meta-analyses including studies performed in experimental and clinical settings. Objectives, To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy for the diagnosis of melanoma compared with naked eye examination by performing a meta-analysis exclusively on studies performed in a clinical setting. Methods, We searched for publications from 1987 to January 2008 and found nine eligible studies. The selected studies compare diagnostic accuracy of dermoscopy with naked eye examination using a valid reference test on consecutive patients with a defined clinical presentation, performed in a clinical setting. Hierarchical summary receiver operator curve analysis was used to estimate the relative diagnostic accuracy for clinical examination with, and without, the use of dermoscopy. Results, We found the relative diagnostic odds ratio for melanoma, for dermoscopy compared with naked eye examination, to be 15·6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·9,83·7, P = 0·016]; removal of two outlier studies changed this to 9·0 (95% CI 1·5,54·6, P = 0·03). Conclusions, Dermoscopy is more accurate than naked eye examination for the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma in suspicious skin lesions when performed in the clinical setting. [source]

Accuracy of an immune diagnostic assay based on RD1 selected epitopes for active tuberculosis in a clinical setting: a pilot study

D. Goletti
Abstract A previous case-control study reported that an in-vitro interferon (IFN)-, response to early secreted antigenic target (ESAT)-6 selected peptides was associated with active tuberculosis (A-TB). The objective of the present pilot study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this assay for TB disease in a clinical setting. An IFN-, ELISPOT assay was performed on samples from patients with suspected A-TB using two peptides selected from ESAT-6 protein and three peptides selected from culture filtrate 10 (CFP-10) proteins. The results were compared with those obtained by two commercially available assays approved for diagnosis of TB infection (T SPOT-TB and QuantiFERON-TB Gold) which use ESAT-6/CFP-10 (RD1) overlapping peptides. Sensitivity to the RD1 selected peptides was 70% (positive for 16 of 23 patients with microbiologically diagnosed A-TB) and specificity was 91% (positive for three of 32 controls). In contrast, the sensitivity and specificity were 91% and 59%, respectively, for T SPOT-TB, and were 83% and 59%, respectively, for QuantiFERON-TB Gold. The RD1 selected peptides assay had the highest diagnostic odds ratio for A-TB. Thus, the results suggest that an assay based on RD1 selected peptides has a higher diagnostic accuracy for A-TB in a clinical setting compared with commercially available assays based on RD1 overlapping peptides. [source]

Systematic review: prognostic tests of paracetamol-induced acute liver failure

Aliment Pharmacol Ther,31, 1064,1076 Summary Background, Paracetamol (acetaminophen) toxicity remains the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the developed world. In the UK, the recently modified King's College Criteria are used to list patients for emergency liver transplantation, but these criteria have been criticized for their low sensitivity and for spectrum bias in their application. Aim, To evaluate existing prognostic criteria critically for predicting death without transplantation in paracetamol-induced ALF. Methods, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched to identify studies containing adult patients with paracetamol-induced ALF. Selected studies were evaluated and data were pooled if appropriate, to calculate sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) of applied prognostic tests. Results, Of 6507 studies identified, 14 were eligible for inclusion, evaluating 1960 patients. The original King's College Criteria had a pooled sensitivity of 58.2% and specificity of 94.6%, with a DOR of 27.7. Addition of arterial lactate to the King's College Criteria reduced the DOR to 26.1. Several other clinical and laboratory variables had higher DORs than the King's College Criteria, but were only evaluated in single studies of limited quality. Conclusions, The original King's College Criteria remain well-validated criteria with high prognostic accuracy. Other potential prognostic variables should be prospectively assessed in multicentre studies to refine the criteria further. [source]

Accuracy of Ottawa Ankle Rules to Exclude Fractures of the Ankle and Midfoot in Children: A Meta-analysis

Shawn Dowling MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objectives were to conduct a systematic review to determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Ottawa Ankle Rules (OAR) to exclude ankle and midfoot fractures in children and the extent to which x-ray use could be reduced without missing significant fractures. Methods:, The authors conducted comprehensive searches of electronic databases and gray literature sources. Independent reviewers applied standard inclusion and exclusion criteria. The criterion standard diagnostic test was an ankle and/or foot x-ray or proxy measure to ensure no missed fractures. Standard 2 × 2 tables were constructed. Sensitivities and specificities were pooled using an approximation of the inverse variance; 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using the exact method. Likelihood ratios (LR ±) and diagnostic odds ratios were combined under DerSimonian and Laird random effects model. Results:, A pooled analysis of 12 studies (N = 3,130) identified 671 fractures (prevalence = 21.4%). Ten studies reported Salter-Harris Type I (SH-I) fractures. The pooled sensitivity was 98.5% (95% CI = 97.3 to 99.2), suggesting that the OAR can be used to rule out a fracture. Four of 10 missed fractures were characterized: 1 SH-I, 1 SH-IV, and 2 "insignificant fractures" (either SH-I or avulsion fractures <3 mm). The pooled estimate for rate of x-ray reduction was 24.8% (95% CI = 23.3% to 26.3%; range = 5% to 44%). Conclusions:, The OAR appear to be a reliable tool to exclude fractures in children greater than 5 years of age presenting with ankle and midfoot injuries. Employing the OAR would significantly decrease x-ray use with a low likelihood of missing a fracture. [source]

Prediction of recurrence after treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: the role of human papillomavirus testing and age at conisation

J Verguts
Objectives, The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA (HR-HPV DNA test) postconisation as prediction of recurrent or residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) after treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN2+) in a prospective study and to compare this with follow-up cytology and the marginal status of the excised tissue. Design, Prospective follow-up study. Setting, Unselected women presenting at colposcopy clinic of University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven. Population, Seventy-two women treated with conisation for CIN2 or CIN3. Methods, Women were followed by HR-HPV DNA test (Hybrid Capture II test of Digene®) every 3 to 6 months. The same vial was used for cytology and the HR-HPV DNA test (SurePathÔ). All women were further followed by colposcopy and cytology for 24 months at 6-month intervals. The outcome of the study was presence of >CIN2, proven with colposcopy-directed biopsy occurring within 24 months after treatment. HR-HPV status was correlated with recurrent or residual CIN2+. Main outcome measures, Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and diagnostic odds ratios to predict treatment failure or cure were computed for HR-HPV testing, marginal status and follow-up cytology. HR-HPV status was also correlated with section margins postconisation and with the first cervical smear. Results, In 6 of the 72 treated women (8%), residual or recurrent CIN occurred. Women with recurrence were significantly older than women without a recurrence (51.5 ± 9.6 versus 39.8 ± 12.2 years, P= 0.007). All six women with recurrence were HR-HPV positive, four had a positive follow-up smear (,atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance = ASCUS+) and only two had involved section margins. Among the 66 cured women, 15 were HR-HPV positive, 6 had an abnormal smear and 12 had positive section margins. Sensitivity of cytology, positive section margins and HR-HPV DNA positivity was 66.7, 33.3 and 100% to predict treatment failure. Specificity of the three tests was, respectively, 90.9, 81.8 and 77.3%. Women with HR-HPV DNA at 3 to 6 months showed recurrent or residual CIN in 15% (2/13) if they had normal follow-up Pap smears and in 50% (4/8) if they had abnormal Pap smears. Margin status was not statistically significantly associated with human papillomavirus status. Conclusion, Persistence or clearance of HR-HPV DNA is an early valid prognostic marker of failure or cure after treatment for CIN2+ and is more accurate than cytology or section margin status at the time of conisation. The absence of HR-HPV DNA has a 100% negative predictive value. Higher age at conisation may be a previously unrecognised risk factor for recurrence. [source]