Diagnostic Imaging Modalities (diagnostic + imaging_modality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research,,

Sundeep Khosla (Chair)
Abstract ONJ has been increasingly suspected to be a potential complication of bisphosphonate therapy in recent years. Thus, the ASBMR leadership appointed a multidisciplinary task force to address key questions related to case definition, epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic imaging, clinical management, and future areas for research related to the disorder. This report summarizes the findings and recommendations of the task force. Introduction: The increasing recognition that use of bisphosphonates may be associated with osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) led the leadership of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) to appoint a task force to address a number of key questions related to this disorder. Materials and Methods: A multidisciplinary expert group reviewed all pertinent published data on bisphosphonate-associated ONJ. Food and Drug Administration drug adverse event reports were also reviewed. Results and Conclusions: A case definition was developed so that subsequent studies could report on the same condition. The task force defined ONJ as the presence of exposed bone in the maxillofacial region that did not heal within 8 wk after identification by a health care provider. Based on review of both published and unpublished data, the risk of ONJ associated with oral bisphosphonate therapy for osteoporosis seems to be low, estimated between 1 in 10,000 and <1 in 100,000 patient-treatment years. However, the task force recognized that information on incidence of ONJ is rapidly evolving and that the true incidence may be higher. The risk of ONJ in patients with cancer treated with high doses of intravenous bisphosphonates is clearly higher, in the range of 1,10 per 100 patients (depending on duration of therapy). In the future, improved diagnostic imaging modalities, such as optical coherence tomography or MRI combined with contrast agents and the manipulation of image planes, may identify patients at preclinical or early stages of the disease. Management is largely supportive. A research agenda aimed at filling the considerable gaps in knowledge regarding this disorder was also outlined. [source]

Assessment of middle ear disease in the dog: a comparison of diagnostic imaging modalities

R. Doust
Objectives: To compare radiography and ultrasound for the assessment of the tympanic bulla against computed tomography results. Methods: Thirty-one dogs had dorsoventral, left and right lateral oblique and rostrocaudal open mouth radiographs compared with ultrasound images and computed tomography scans of the tympanic bullae. Results: Radiography was superior to ultrasonography for the evaluation of the middle ear. However, computed tomography assessment was best predicted by a combination of radiographic and ultrasonographic findings. Clinical Significance: A combination of radiography and ultrasound can provide a more accurate assessment of the bulla than either of them alone. Ultrasound may have a role in the evaluation of middle ear disease in the dog. Results are operator dependent and not reproducible with current recording techniques. [source]

Focus on dysplastic nodules and early hepatocellular carcinoma: An Eastern point of view

Masamichi Kojiro
Although increasing numbers of equivocal nodular lesions have been detected in patients with liver cirrhosis with the development of various diagnostic imaging modalities, the pathological diagnosis of small, well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the early stage and of high-grade dysplastic nodules (DNs) is a controversial issue among both Japanese and Western pathologists. In particular, many of the vaguely nodular HCCs of well-differentiated HCC diagnosed by Japanese pathologists tend to be interpreted as high-grade DNs rather than HCC by Western pathologists. In contrast, many of the high-grade DNs diagnosed by Western pathologists are interpreted as well-differentiated HCC by Japanese pathologists. The reasons for the discrepancy between Japanese and Western pathologists can be explained by the following: for Western pathologists, most information comes from the study of HCC and advanced cirrhosis explanted at liver transplantation without detailed clinical information about the nodules; for Japanese pathologists, most information comes from the examination of surgical and biopsy materials together with detailed clinical information that includes meticulous follow-up data on the clinical course of the nodular lesions. To resolve the diagnostic confusion concerning equivocal nodular lesions in the cirrhotic liver, it is necessary to promote the active exchange of clinicopathologic information between Japan and Western countries. (Liver Transpl 2004;10:S3,S8.) [source]

Technical note: Terahertz imaging of ancient mummies and bone

Lena Öhrström
Abstract Ancient mummified soft-tissues are a unique source to study the evolution of disease. Diagnostic imaging of such historic tissues is of foremost interest in paleoanthropology or paleopathology, with conventional x-ray and computed tomography (CT) being the gold-standard. Longer wavelength radiation in the far-infrared or Terahertz region allows diagnostic close-to-surface tissue differentiation of bone morphology while being harmless to human cells. The aim of this study is to show the feasibility and the morpho-diagnostic impact of THz imaging of historic remains. Images of an artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian human mummy hand, an artificially embalmed ancient Egyptian mummified fish and a macerated human lumbar vertebra were obtained by THz-pulse imaging and compared with conventional X-ray and CT images. Although conventional x-ray imaging provides higher spatial resolution, we found that THz-imaging is well-suited for the investigation of ancient mummified soft tissue and embalming-related substances / wrappings. In particular, bone and cartilaginous structures can be well differentiated from surrounding soft-tissues and bandage-wrappings by THz imaging. Furthermore, THz-pulse imaging also measures the time-delay of the pulsed signal when passing through the sample, which provides supplementary information on the optical density of the sample that is not obtained by X-ray and CT. Terahertz radiation provides a completely non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality for historic dry specimens. We anticipate this modality also to be used for detection of hidden objects in historic samples such as funerary amulets still in situ in wrapped mummies, as well as potentially for the identification of spectral signatures from chemical substances, e.g., in embalming essences.. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]