Diagnostic Guidelines (diagnostic + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prospective comparison of subjective arousal during the pre-sleep period in primary sleep-onset insomnia and normal sleepers

Summary Psychophysiological insomnia (PI) is the most common insomnia subtype, representing 12,15% of all sleep centre referrals. Diagnostic guidelines describe PI as an intrinsic sleep disorder involving both hyperarousal and learned sleep-preventing associations. Whilst evidence for the first component is reasonably compelling, evidence for learned (conditioned) sleep effects is markedly lacking. Indeed, to date no study has attempted to capture directly the conditioned arousal effect assumed to characterize the disorder. Accordingly, the present study explored variations in subjective arousal over time in 15 PI participants (sleep onset type) and 15 normal sleepers (NS). Self-report measures of cognitive arousal, somatic arousal and sleepiness were taken at three time points: 3 h before bedtime (early to mid-evening); 1 h before bedtime (late evening); and in the bedroom at lights out (bedtime) across four, 24-h cycles. Fluctuations in mean arousal and sleepiness values, and in day-to-day variation were examined using analyses of variance. Participants with PI were significantly more cognitive aroused and significantly less sleepy relative to NS, within the bedroom environment. These results support the tenet of conditioned mental arousal to the bedroom, although competing explanations cannot be ruled out. Results are discussed with reference to extant insomnia models. [source]

Phenotype of bipolar II depression: comment on ,Diagnostic guidelines for bipolar depression: a probabilistic approach'

Franco Benazzi
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

A 5-Year Prospective Evaluation of DSM-IV Alcohol Dependence With and Without a Physiological Component

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2003
M. A. Schuckit
Background: The DSM-III-R removed tolerance and withdrawal as required elements for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Although this practice was continued in DSM-IV, the more recent manual asked clinicians to note whether physiological aspects of withdrawal (tolerance and withdrawal) had ever been experienced. Few studies have determined the prognostic meaning of a history of a physiological component to DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Methods: Face-to-face structured interviews were used to evaluate the course of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric problems during the subsequent 5 years for 1094 alcohol-dependent men and women. These subjects had been classified into subgroups at the time of initial interview regarding evidence of tolerance or withdrawal, and all evaluations were based on DSM-IV criteria. At baseline, the application of DSM-IV diagnostic guidelines resulted in 649 (59.3%) individuals having a history of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, with or without tolerance (group 1); 391 (35.7%) with histories of tolerance but not withdrawal (group 2); and 54 (4.9%) with no lifetime histories of tolerance or withdrawal (group 3). Results: During the 5-year follow-up, both the broad (group 1 plus 2 versus group 3) and narrow (group 1 versus group 2 plus group 3) definitions of physiological dependence were associated with more alcohol and drug problems. However, for most items, this differential primarily reflected differences between groups 1 and 3, with a less impressive effect by group 2. Although no group differences were noted for the rate of independent major depressive episodes, substance-induced depressions did differentiate among groups, a finding also most closely related to the distinction between groups 1 and 3. Conclusions: These data support the prognostic importance of noting the presence of a physiological component in alcohol dependence and indicate the potential relevance of limiting the definition of a physiological component to withdrawal. [source]

Macrophage activation syndrome in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: A multinational multicenter study of thirty-eight patients

Alessandro Parodi
Objective To describe the clinical and laboratory features of macrophage activation syndrome as a complication of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Cases of juvenile SLE,associated macrophage activation syndrome were provided by investigators belonging to 3 pediatric rheumatology networks or were found in the literature. Patients who had evidence of macrophage hemophagocytosis on bone marrow aspiration were considered to have definite macrophage activation syndrome, and those who did not have such evidence were considered to have probable macrophage activation syndrome. Clinical and laboratory findings in patients with macrophage activation syndrome were contrasted with those of 2 control groups composed of patients with active juvenile SLE without macrophage activation syndrome. The ability of each feature to discriminate macrophage activation syndrome from active disease was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The study included 38 patients (20 with definite macrophage activation syndrome and 18 with probable macrophage activation syndrome). Patients with definite and probable macrophage activation syndrome were comparable with regard to all clinical and laboratory features of the syndrome, except for a greater frequency of lymphadenopathy, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in patients with definite macrophage activation syndrome. Overall, clinical features had better specificity than sensitivity, except for fever, which was highly sensitive but had low specificity. Among laboratory features, the best sensitivity and specificity was achieved using hyperferritinemia, followed by increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypofibrinogenemia. Based on the results of statistical analysis, preliminary diagnostic guidelines for macrophage activation syndrome in juvenile SLE were developed. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the occurrence of unexplained fever and cytopenia, when associated with hyperferritinemia, in a patient with juvenile SLE should raise the suspicion of macrophage activation syndrome. We propose preliminary guidelines for this syndrome in juvenile SLE to facilitate timely diagnosis and correct classification of patients. [source]

All mixed up: On the absence of diagnostic guidelines for mixed states in the ISBD Diagnostic Guidelines Task Force Report

S Nassir Ghaemi
No abstract is available for this article. [source]