Diagnostic Groups (diagnostic + groups)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Diagnostic Groups

  • other diagnostic groups

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Effect of Capitation on Switching Primary Care Physicians

    Melony E. S. Sorbero
    Objective To examine the relationship between patient case-mix, utilization, primary care physician (PCP) payment method, and the probability that patients switch their PCPs. Data Sources/Study Setting Administrative enrollment and claims/encounter data for 1994,1995 from four physician organizations. Study Design We developed a conceptual model of patient switching behavior, which we used to guide the specification of multivariate logistic analyses focusing on interactions between patient case-mix, utilization, and PCP reimbursement methods. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Claims data were aggregated to the encounter level; a switch was defined as a change in PCP since the previous encounter. The PCPs were reimbursed on either a capitated or fee-for-service (FFS) basis. Principal Findings Patients with stable chronic conditions (Ambulatory Diagnostic Groups [ADG] 10) and capitated PCPs were 36 percent more likely to switch PCPs than similar patients with FFS PCPs, controlling for patient age and sex and physician fixed effects. When the number of previous encounters was included in the model, this relationship was no longer significant. Instead high utilizers with capitated PCPs were significantly more likely to switch PCPs than were similar patients with FFS PCPs. Conclusions A patient's demographics and utilization are associated with the probability that the patient will switch PCPs. Capitated PCP payment was associated with higher rates of switching among high utilizers of health care resources. These findings raise concerns about the continuity and quality of care experienced by vulnerable patients in an era of changing financial incentives. [source]

    A comparison of Canadian and Australian paediatric occupational therapists

    AccOT Senior Lecturer, BScOT(Hons), Dr. G. Ted Brown PhD, OT(C)
    Abstract Paediatric occupational therapists were surveyed regarding their practices in Canada and Australia. Two hundred and eighty-nine Canadian occupational therapists and 330 Australian occupational therapists participated representing response rates of 28.9% and 55% respectively. The majority of respondents were female (98%), between 30 and 49 years of age (69%), had a bachelor's degree, worked on average 10.5 years in paediatrics and spent well over 50% of their work time in direct client care. The largest client diagnostic groups in both countries were those with developmental delays, learning disabilities and neurological disorders. Diagnostic groups were used as an organizing framework to portray theory, assessment and intervention use. Overall, the theoretical models cited most frequently in both countries were: Sensory Integration, Sensory Processing/Sensory Diet, Client-Centred Practice, and Occupational Performance Model. Australian therapists employed the Occupational Performance Model (Australia) for all groups, while it was rarely utilized in Canada. Common assessment tools in both Australia and Canada were the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales, Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration, and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Intervention methods focused on: parental/care-giver education; activities of daily living/self-care skills training; client education; environmental modification; assistive devices; sensory integration techniques; sensory stimulation and sensory diet treatment methods; and neurodevelopmental techniques. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Changes in patterns of excessive alcohol consumption in 25 years of high security hospital admissions from England and Wales

    Celia McMahon
    Background It is now generally acknowledged that alcohol abuse increases the risk of violence among people with major mental disorder. Studies in the 1980s and earlier, however, tended to report an inverse relationship between their alcohol use and violence. Aims A study was undertaken to test a hypothesis that among people with major mental disorder considered to pose a serious risk to others the likelihood of excessive alcohol consumption in a period leading up to a violent or dangerous act has increased over time. Methods Analysis was made of annual high security hospital admission cohort case register data of 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1999; alcohol use data were taken from interview and records, and problem drinking defined as consumption of alcohol in excess of 21 units per week during the 12 months prior to the index offence or act. Results There was a linear increase in the proportion of patients in five-year admission cohorts who had engaged in excessive alcohol consumption during the year prior to their index offence or act. The increase was steeper among women than men, but cut across all diagnosis and offending groups. It was strongly associated with increasing tendency to abuse illicit drugs. Conclusions The greater proportion of patients affected by excessive alcohol consumption occurred in spite of a reduction over the same period in admission of people in the diagnostic groups most likely to be implicated in substance misuse (personality disorder). This increased trend may simply reflect similar trends in the general population, but may also be associated with a lack of services or current consensus on appropriate treatment for patients whose mental illness is complicated by excessive alcohol use. Regardless, the trend suggests a growing need for ,dual diagnosis' services within and outside high security hospital. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Clinical characteristics of inpatient adolescents with severe obsessive,compulsive disorder

    Gal Shoval M.D.
    Abstract Obsessive,compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common disorder in adolescents, usually treated in the outpatient setting. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of adolescents with severe OCD that required hospitalization. A total of 342 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric adolescent inpatient unit and 87 healthy volunteers were assessed by a semistructured interview for clinical diagnosis, suicide risk factors, aggression, ego defense mechanisms, and intelligence. Patients with OCD (n=40) were compared to other four diagnostic patient groups with psychotic, affective, conduct, and eating disorders, as well as to normal controls. Adolescent inpatients with OCD experienced less separation anxiety than all the other psychiatric groups (P < .01) and were less impulsive than controls (P < .001). They differed in aggressive/impulsive traits and hospital-related behaviors from other diagnostic groups. Adolescent inpatients with OCD consist of a unique subgroup in the inpatient unit in terms of their clinical characteristics and risk factors for suicide. These characteristics should be taken into account when developing a treatment plan for these difficult-to-treat inpatients. Depression and Anxiety 23:62,70, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The relationship between childhood trauma history and the psychotic subtype of major depression

    B. A. Gaudiano
    Gaudiano BA, Zimmerman M. The relationship between childhood trauma history and the psychotic subtype of major depression. Objective:, Increasing evidence exists linking childhood trauma and primary psychotic disorders, but there is little research on patients with primary affective disorders with psychotic features. Method:, The sample consisted of adult out-patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) at clinic intake using a structured clinical interview. Patients with MDD with (n = 32) vs. without psychotic features (n = 591) were compared as to their rates of different types of childhood trauma. Results:, Psychotic MDD patients were significantly more likely to report histories of physical (OR = 2.81) or sexual abuse (OR = 2.75) compared with non-psychotic MDD patients. These relationships remained after controlling for baseline differences. Within the subsample with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder, patients with psychotic MDD were significantly more likely to report childhood physical abuse (OR = 3.20). Conclusion:, Results support and extend previous research by demonstrating that the relationship between childhood trauma and psychosis is found across diagnostic groups. [source]

    Incidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis

    R. Reay
    Reay R, Mitford E, McCabe K, Paxton R, Turkington D. Incidence and diagnostic diversity in first-episode psychosis. Objective:, To investigate the incidence and range of diagnostic groups in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) in a defined geographical area. Method:, An observational database was set up on all patients aged 16 years and over presenting with FEP living in a county in Northern England between 1998 and 2005. Results:, The incidence of all FEP was 30.95/100 000. The largest diagnostic groups were psychotic depression (19%) and acute and transient psychotic disorder (19%). Fifty-four per cent of patients were aged 36 years and over. Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder only accounted for 55% of cases. Conclusion:, This clinical database revealed marked diversity in age and diagnostic groups in FEP with implications for services and guidelines. These common presentations of psychoses are grossly under researched, and no treatment guidelines currently exist for them. [source]

    Cognitive performance of male adolescents is lower than controls across psychiatric disorders: a population-based study

    M. Weiser
    Objective:, Psychiatric patients, as well as humans or experimental animals with brain lesions, often concurrently manifest behavioral deviations and subtle cognitive impairments. This study tested the hypothesis that as a group, adolescents suffering from psychiatric disorders score worse on cognitive tests compared with controls. Method:, As part of the assessment for eligibility to serve in the military, the entire, unselected population of 16,17-year old male Israelis undergo cognitive testing and screening for psychopathology by the Draft Board. We retrieved the cognitive test scores of 19 075 adolescents who were assigned any psychiatric diagnosis, and compared them with the scores of 243 507 adolescents without psychiatric diagnoses. Results:, Mean test scores of cases were significantly poorer then controls for all diagnostic groups, except for eating disorders. Effect sizes ranged from 0.3 to 1.6. Conclusion:, As group, adolescent males with psychiatric disorders manifest at least subtle impairments in cognitive functioning. [source]

    A clinical profile of participants in an online support group

    Alison M. Darcy
    Abstract Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of users of an online support group for people with eating disorders (EDs). Method One hundred and thirty-eight support group participants were recruited online and completed measures that were specifically adapted for internet administration. These included two subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2); the 26-item version of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26); the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). Results Participants scored significantly higher than published normative data on all measures. In addition, while the group scored in line with traditional clinical samples, some self-reported diagnostic groups scored significantly higher on all of the factors. Discussion Participants demonstrated a clinical profile, in terms of reported distress, comparable to, and on some measures in excess of, samples diagnosed with an ED. Online support groups may be ideally placed to offer support and information to some people with EDs. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Special considerations for haematology patients in relation to end-of-life care: Australian findings

    P. MCGRATH bsocwk, senior research fellow
    Recent haematology clinical guidelines recommend that palliative care specialists should have central roles in haemato-oncology teams. However, the available research evidence indicates there are presently significant obstacles to the integration of palliative care in haematology. The following discussion presents findings from an Australian study designed to address the problems associated with lack of referral of haematology patients to the palliative system through the development of a best-practice model for end-of-life care for these diagnostic groups. The preliminary step in the development of such a model is to document the factors that denote the special characteristics of the end-of-life stage of haematological conditions and their treatments. This article presents the list of special considerations from a nursing perspective, including issues associated with the high-tech nature of treatments, the speed of change to a terminal event, the need for blood products and possibility of catastrophic bleeds, the therapeutic optimism based on a myriad of treatment options and the clinical indices of the terminal trajectory. The nursing insights provide an important foundation for building a practical, patient-centred model for terminal care in haematology. [source]

    Not Tonight, I Have a Headache?

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2006
    Timothy T. Houle PhD
    Objective.,The present study examined the relationship between the diagnosis of migraine and self-reported sexual desire. Background.,There is evidence for a complex relationship between sexual activity and headache, particularly migraine. The current headache diagnostic criteria even distinguish between several types of primary headaches associated with sexual activity. Methods.,Members of the community or students at the Illinois Institute of Technology (N = 68) were administered the Brief Headache Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Desire Inventory (SDI). Based on the revised diagnostic criteria established by the International Headache Society (ICHD-II), participants were placed in 1 of the 2 headache diagnostic groups: migraine (n = 23) or tension-type (n = 36). Results.,Migraine subjects reported higher SDI scores, and rated their own perceived level of desire higher than those suffering from tension-type headache. The presence of the symptom "headache aggravated by routine physical activity" significantly predicted an elevated SDI score. Conclusions.,Migraine headaches and sexual desire both appear to be at least partially modulated by serotonin (5-HT). The metabolism of 5-HT has been shown to covary with the onset of a migraine attack, and migraineurs appear to have chronically low systemic 5-HT. As sexual desire also has been linked to serotonin levels, the results are consistent with the hypothesis that migraine and sexual desire both may be modulated by similar serotonergic phenomena. [source]

    The geography of hospital admission in a national health service with patient choice

    HEALTH ECONOMICS, Issue 9 2010
    Daniele Fabbri
    Abstract Each year about 20% of the 10 million hospital inpatients in Italy get admitted to hospitals outside the Local Health Authority of residence. In this paper we carefully explore this phenomenon and estimate gravity equations for ,trade' in hospital care using a Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood method. Consistency of the PPML estimator is guaranteed under the null of independence provided that the conditional mean is correctly specified. In our case we find that patients' flows are affected by network autocorrelation. We correct for it by relying upon spatial filtering. Our results suggest that the gravity model is a good framework for explaining patient mobility in most of the examined diagnostic groups. We find that the ability to restrain patients' outflows increases with the size of the pool of enrollees. Moreover, the ability to attract patients' inflows is reduced by the size of pool of enroless for all LHAs except for the very big LHAs. For LHAs in the top quintile of size of enrollees, the ability to attract inflows increases with the size of the pool. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Quantitative evaluation of automated skull-stripping methods applied to contemporary and legacy images: Effects of diagnosis, bias correction, and slice location

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 2 2006
    Christine Fennema-Notestine
    Abstract Performance of automated methods to isolate brain from nonbrain tissues in magnetic resonance (MR) structural images may be influenced by MR signal inhomogeneities, type of MR image set, regional anatomy, and age and diagnosis of subjects studied. The present study compared the performance of four methods: Brain Extraction Tool (BET; Smith [2002]: Hum Brain Mapp 17:143,155); 3dIntracranial (Ward [1999] Milwaukee: Biophysics Research Institute, Medical College of Wisconsin; in AFNI); a Hybrid Watershed algorithm (HWA, Segonne et al. [2004] Neuroimage 22:1060,1075; in FreeSurfer); and Brain Surface Extractor (BSE, Sandor and Leahy [1997] IEEE Trans Med Imag 16:41,54; Shattuck et al. [2001] Neuroimage 13:856,876) to manually stripped images. The methods were applied to uncorrected and bias-corrected datasets; Legacy and Contemporary T1 -weighted image sets; and four diagnostic groups (depressed, Alzheimer's, young and elderly control). To provide a criterion for outcome assessment, two experts manually stripped six sagittal sections for each dataset in locations where brain and nonbrain tissue are difficult to distinguish. Methods were compared on Jaccard similarity coefficients, Hausdorff distances, and an Expectation-Maximization algorithm. Methods tended to perform better on contemporary datasets; bias correction did not significantly improve method performance. Mesial sections were most difficult for all methods. Although AD image sets were most difficult to strip, HWA and BSE were more robust across diagnostic groups compared with 3dIntracranial and BET. With respect to specificity, BSE tended to perform best across all groups, whereas HWA was more sensitive than other methods. The results of this study may direct users towards a method appropriate to their T1 -weighted datasets and improve the efficiency of processing for large, multisite neuroimaging studies. Hum. Brain Mapping, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Validity and utility of the current definition of binge eating

    Barbara E. Wolfe PhD, FAAN
    Abstract Objective Binge eating, a cardinal symptom of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), continues to pose challenges in terms of its definition and thus construct validity and clinical utility. This article reviews the available empirical data that support or refute the current DSM-IV-TR defined characteristics of a binge episode. Method A systematic literature review was conducted using Medline/PubMed electronic database on DSM-IV-TR defined binge characteristics and associated attributes. Results Data support the current DSM guidelines indicating that binge episodes typically occur in less than 2 h. Size of binge episodes has variability across BN and BED diagnostic groups. Loss of control (LOC) continues to be a core feature of binge eating. Negative affect is the most widely reported antecedent. Strikingly, little is known about binge episodes among individuals with anorexia nervosa-binge/purge subtype. Discussion Available empirical evidence supports the current DSM duration and LOC attributes of a binge episode in BN and BED. However, a more controversial issues is the extent to which size is important in the definition of a binge episode (e.g., subjective vs. objective episodes) across diagnostic categories and the extent to which binge size informs prognosis, treatment, and clinical outcomes. Further study of binge eating attributes in AN is needed. © 2009 American Psychiatric Association. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    Accuracy of reported weight and menstrual status in teenage girls with eating disorders

    Ingemar Swenne MD
    Abstract Objective The current study investigated the accuracy of reported current and historical weights and of menstrual status in teenage girls with eating disorders. Method Reported current weight in one interview was compared with measured weight at another occasion. Reported historical weights were compared with documented weights from growth charts of the school health services. Reports of menstrual status from two different interviews were compared. Results The overall correlation between reported and measured/documented weight was high. Current weight was reported with high accuracy in all diagnostic groups and without tendencies to underreport. Patients with bulimia nervosa, but not those with anorexia nervosa, underreported their historical top weight. The most common reason for large discrepancies between reported and documented historical weights was that the two weights compared referred to different time points. The reports on menstrual status were divergent for 13% of the patients, most notably 4 of 15 patients on oral contraceptives had been categorized as having menstruations in one of the interviews. Conclusion Reported weight history and menstrual status are of high accuracy in teenage girls with eating disorders. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Degree of discrepancy between self and other-reported everyday functioning by cognitive status: dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy elders

    Sarah Tomaszewski Farias
    Abstract Background Previous studies show individuals with dementia overestimate their cognitive and functional abilities compared to reports from caregivers. Few studies have examined whether individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) also tend to underestimate their deficits. In this study we examined whether degree of discrepancy between patient and informant-reported everyday functioning was associated with cognitive status. Methods The sample consisted of 111 ethnically diverse community-dwelling older adults (46 Caucasians and 65 Hispanic individuals), which was divided into four diagnostic categories: cognitively normal, MCI-memory impaired, MCI-nonmemory impaired, and demented. Everyday functional abilities were measured using both a self-report and informant-report version of the Daily Function Questionnaire (DFQ). A Difference Score was calculated by subtracting patients' DFQ score from their informants' score. Results DFQ Difference Scores were significantly higher in the demented group compared to normals and both of the MCI groups. However, the Difference Scores for the MCI groups were not significantly different than the normals. Further, while patient reported everyday functioning did not differ among the four diagnostic groups, informant reported functional status was significantly different across all diagnostic groups except MCI-nonmemory impaired vs normals. Performance on objective memory testing was associated with informant-rated but not patient-rated functional status. Demographic characteristics of the patients and informants, including ethnicity, had no association with the degree of discrepancy between raters. Conclusions Although there may be some mild functional changes associated particularly with the MCI-memory impaired subtype, individuals with MCI do not appear to under-report their functional status as can often been seen in persons with dementia. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An examination of frequent nursing interventions and outcomes in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient unit

    Candace Bobier
    ABSTRACT:, Little is known about which nursing interventions used in adolescent psychiatric inpatient treatment demonstrate improvements in outcome in the ,real world' setting, despite an increase in external outcomes reporting requirements. This paper examines nursing and other multidisciplinary interventions commonly used at the Youth Inpatient Unit, Christchurch, New Zealand, in relation to improvements in outcomes as measured by the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents, utilizing data gathered prospectively as part of an ongoing quality assurance and outcomes project. We found the majority of interventions investigated were utilized equally across diagnostic groups, although stress management and problem-solving education was used more for patients with mixed affective disorders. Further, the results contribute to growing evidence toward the value of providing medication and problem-solving education to this population. Mental health nurses working with children and adolescents should be supported to utilize and develop their unique skill set to offer targeted interventions and to examine their practice to identify the most valuable interventions for their patients within this developmental context. [source]

    Evaluation of a computer-adaptive test for the assessment of depression (D-CAT) in clinical application

    Herbert Fliege
    Abstract In the past, a German Computerized Adaptive Test, based on Item Response Theory (IRT), was developed for purposes of assessing the construct depression [Computer-adaptive test for depression (D-CAT)]. This study aims at testing the feasibility and validity of the real computer-adaptive application. The D-CAT, supplied by a bank of 64 items, was administered on personal digital assistants (PDAs) to 423 consecutive patients suffering from psychosomatic and other medical conditions (78 with depression). Items were adaptively administered until a predetermined reliability (r , 0.90) was attained. For validation purposes, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered. Another sample of 114 patients was evaluated using standardized diagnostic interviews [Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI)]. The D-CAT was quickly completed (mean 74 seconds), well accepted by the patients and reliable after an average administration of only six items. In 95% of the cases, 10 items or less were needed for a reliable score estimate. Correlations between the D-CAT and the HADS, CES-D, and BDI ranged between r = 0.68 and r = 0.77. The D-CAT distinguished between diagnostic groups as well as established questionnaires do. The D-CAT proved an efficient, well accepted and reliable tool. Discriminative power was comparable to other depression measures, whereby the CAT is shorter and more precise. Item usage raises questions of balancing the item selection for content in the future. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of the Cardiovascular Limitations and Symptoms Profile in patients with coronary heart disease

    Violeta Lopez
    Aims and objectives., The aim of this study was to translate from English and evaluate the validity, reliability and cultural relevance of the Cardiovascular Limitations and Symptoms Profile (CLASP) as a health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) measure in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. Background., Improvement in HRQL is increasingly used as a primary outcome in determining the treatment benefit using a generic instrument. However, disease-specific instruments are being cited as more responsive and sensitive in detecting even the smallest changes in health status. Therefore, valid and reliable disease-specific measures for patients with coronary heart disease are now being developed and evaluated. Design., Questionnaire design. Methods., The translation equivalence and content validity of the Chinese version of CLASP were evaluated by an expert panel. Measurement performance was tested on a convenience sample of 369 Chinese coronary heart disease patients. Results., The instrument demonstrated good content validity (content validity index 0·94), acceptable internal consistency (>0·70), except for two subscales of angina and tiredness and significant positive correlations among the subscales of CLASP, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Principal components analysis revealed nine factors that together explained 69% of the variance. Conclusions., The results of this study support that CLASP is a valid and reliable disease-specific health status measure for Chinese patients with coronary heart disease. However, further item modifications and testings are needed when considering the cross-cultural context. Relevance to clinical practice., The use of disease-specific HRQL measures could effectively evaluate nursing interventions in clinical practice. Further validations of CLASP among different diagnostic groups, such as patients with heart failure and those who have survived an acute myocardial infarction, would provide further empirical support for its use with all patients with heart disorders. [source]

    SCL-90-R profiles in a sample of severely violent psychiatric inpatients

    Stål Bjørkly
    Abstract A sample of 39 patients who had committed serious violent acts toward others were assessed with the revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). The SCL-90-R is a self-report symptom inventory for the measurement of psychopathology in psychiatric and medical patients. In addition to the patients' self-report, an observer-rated SCL-90-R was obtained. This was accomplished by letting one pair of nurses complete SCL-90-R ratings for each patient. The first aim of the study was to compare the SCL-90-R self-report scores of the patient sample with the psychiatric inpatient norms [Derogatis LR (1992): Clinical Psychometric Research Inc]. Another purpose of this study was to explore possible trends of discordance between the observer ratings and the self-reports of the study group. Always considering the limitations of the small sample, it was nevertheless also of interest to look for possible sex differences and differences between violent subgroups and between diagnostic groups in the self-reported scores as well as in the observer ratings. The most striking findings of the present study were that the self-reported scores were lower than the inpatient norms for SCL-90-R and that the patients' self-reported levels of distress were significantly lower than those found in the observer ratings. Underreporting of psychopathology as a marker of violence risk is discussed in light of these findings. In this study, women reported higher distress levels than men in the Interpersonal Sensitivity symptom dimension. There were no significant differences concerning SCL-90-R ratings between patients who had committed homicide, attempted homicide, or physically assaulted another person in a serious but not life-threatening way. Aggr. Behav. 28:446,457, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sleep in individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome: a comparative study

    A. P. H. M. Maas
    Abstract Background Sleep problems are common in individuals with intellectual disability. Little is known about sleep in children and adults with Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC). Method Sleep was investigated in 30 individuals with CDC using a sleep questionnaire. Sleep problems and sleep behaviours in individuals with CDC were compared with individuals with non-specific intellectual disabilities (NS) (n = 30) and Down's syndrome (DS) (n = 30). Results Nine individuals with CDC (i.e. 30%) had a sleep problem, compared with seven individuals with NS (i.e. 23%) and three individuals with DS (i.e. 10%). Though there were few differences between diagnostic groups, night waking problems were most common in CDC. Individuals with CDC frequently showed behaviours related to disordered breathing and poor-quality sleep. Several behaviours related to sleep had a higher occurrence in CDC than in DS (P < 0.05) but not in NS. Conclusions It is concluded that individuals with CDC do not have an increased probability of sleep problems as compared with other individuals who share similar demographic characteristics. Hypotheses about causes of night waking problems in CDC are generated and suggestions for future research of sleep in individuals with CDC are given. [source]

    Syndrome specificity and behavioural disorders in young adults with intellectual disability: cultural differences in family impact

    J. Blacher
    Background This study examined whether behaviour problems and adaptive behaviour of low functioning young adults, and well-being of their families, varied by diagnostic syndrome [intellectual disability (ID) only, cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, autism], as well as by cultural group. Methods Behaviour disorders in young adults with moderate to severe ID were assessed from information provided by 282 caregivers during in-home interviews. The sample consisted of 150 Anglo participants, and 132 Latino, primarily Spanish-speaking, participants drawn from Southern California. Results Behaviour disorders and maternal well-being showed the same pattern across disability syndromes. Autism was associated with the highest scores in multiple behaviour problem areas as well as maternal reports of lower well-being. Down syndrome was associated with the lowest behaviour problem scores and the highest maternal well-being. When behaviour problems were controlled for, diagnostic groups accounted for no additional variance in maternal stress or depression. The pattern of behaviour problems and well-being did not differ by sample (Anglo vs. Latino), although level on well-being measures did. Latina mothers reported significantly higher depression symptoms and lower morale, but also higher positive impact from their child than did Anglo mothers. Conclusions Caregivers of young adults with autism report more maladaptive behaviour problems and lower personal well-being, or stress, relative to other diagnostic groups, regardless of cultural group. However, cultural differences exist in caregiver reports of depression, morale, and positive perceptions. Implications for service provision aimed at families of children with challenging behaviour problems are discussed in the context of culture. [source]

    Women With High-Risk Pregnancies, Problems, and APN Interventions

    Dorothy Brooten
    Purpose: To (a) describe women's prenatal and postpartum problems and advanced practice nurses (APN) interventions; and (b) determine if problems and APN interventions differed by women's medical diagnosis (diabetes, hypertension, preterm labor). Design and Methods: Content analysis of 85 interaction logs created by APNs during a randomized clinical trial in which half of physician-provided prenatal care was substituted with APN-provided prenatal care in the women's homes. Patients' problems and APN interventions were classified with the Omaha Classification System. Findings: A total of 212,835 health problems and 212,835 APN interventions were identified. The dominant antenatal problems were physiologic (59.2%) and health-related behaviors (33.3%); postpartum were physiologic (44.0%) and psychosocial problems (31.6%). Antenatally, women with diabetes had significantly more health-related behavior problems; women with preterm labor had more physiologic problems. APN surveillance interventions predominated antenatally (65.6%) and postpartum (66.0%), followed by health teaching, guidance, and counseling both antenatally (25.4%) and postpartum (28.1%). Women with chronic hypertension required significantly more case-management interventions. Conclusions: The categories of women's problems were largely similar across medical diagnostic groups. Interventions to address women's problems ranged from assessing maternal and fetal physiologic states to teaching interpersonal relationships and self-care management to assisting with transportation and housing. Data show the range of APN knowledge and skills needed to improve maternal and infant outcomes and ultimately reduce healthcare costs in women with high-risk pregnancies. [source]

    Mood and anxiety psychopathology and temporomandibular disorder: a spectrum approach

    D. Manfredini
    summary, Psychological factors play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of temporomandibular disorders (TMD), as demonstrated by an increase in stress, anxiety, depression and somatization in TMD patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of mood and panic-agoraphobic symptoms in different groups of TMD patients by means of a spectrum approach to psychopathology. A total of 131 subjects were included in this study and TMD signs and symptoms were investigated by means of a standardized clinical examination. Two self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate mood (MOODS-SR) and panic-agoraphobic (PAS-SR) spectrum. anova and Bonferroni's post hoc test for multiple comparisons were used to compare mean scores of all TMD groups for MOODS-SR, PAS-SR and all their domains. Results revealed a significantly higher prevalence of both mood (P < 0·001) and panic-agoraphobic (P < 0·01) symptoms in myofascial pain patients than in all other diagnostic groups (TMD-free, disc displacement and joint disorders). With regard to mood spectrum, strong differences emerged for all domains evaluating depressive symptoms. As for the panic-agoraphobic spectrum, myofascial pain patients differed from the other groups for the presence of stress sensitivity, panic, separation anxiety, hypochondriac and agoraphobic symptoms. It was concluded that myofascial pain patients differed from those with disc displacement, joint disorders and no TMD in relation to some psychopathological symptoms, while the last three groups presented very similar profiles. [source]

    Sensory processing disorder: Any of a nurse practitioner's business?

    DrNPc, Elise D. Fish Professor of Clinical Health Care for the Underserved, FAAN Stone Foundation, Mary W. Byrne PhD
    Abstract Purpose: Children who exhibit the confusing symptom patterns associated with sensory processing deficits are often seen first by primary care providers, including family and pediatric nurse practitioners (NPs). The purpose of this article is to alert NPs to the state of the science for these disorders and to the roles NPs could play in filling the knowledge gaps in assessment, treatment, education, and research. Data sources: Literature searches using PubMed and MedLine databases and clinical practice observations. Conclusions: Sensory integration disorders have only begun to be defined during the past 35 years. They are not currently included in the DSM IV standard terminology, and are not yet substantively incorporated into most health disciplines' curricula or practice, including those of the NP. Implications for practice: NPs are in a unique position to test hypothesized terminology for Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) by contributing precise clinical descriptions of children who match as well as deviate from the criteria for three proposed diagnostic groups: Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD), Sensory Discrimination Disorder (SDD), and Sensory-Based Motor Disorder (SBMD). Beyond the SPD diagnostic debate, for children with sensory deficit patterns the NP role can incorporate participating in interdisciplinary treatment plans, refining differential diagnoses, providing frontline referral and support for affected children and their families, and making both secondary prevention and critical causal research possible through validation of consistently accepted diagnostic criteria. [source]

    Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients with chronic liver disease

    Summary Background, Patient-reported outcomes like health-related quality of life (HRQL) have become increasingly important for full assessment of patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). Aim, To explore the relative impact of different types of liver disease on HRQL as well as predictors of HRQL domains in CLD. Methods, Our HRQL databases with Short-Form 36 (SF-36) data were used. Scores for each of SF-36 scales (PF , physical functioning, RP , role functioning, BP , bodily pain, GH , general health, VT , vitality, SF , social functioning, RE , role emotional and MH , mental health, MCS , mental component score, PCS , physical component score) were compared between different types of CLD as well as other variables. Results, Complete data were available for 1103 CLD patients. Demographic and clinical data included: age 54.2 ± 12.0 years, 40% female, 761 (69%) with cirrhosis. Analysis revealed that age correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with worsening HRQL on every scale of the SF-36. Female patients had more HRQL impairments in PF, RP, BP, GH, VT and MH scales of SF-36 (, scale score: 6.6,10.7, P < 0.05). Furthermore, cirrhotic patients had more impairment of HRQL in every scale of SF-36 (, scale score: 6.6,43.0, P < 0.05). In terms of diagnostic groups, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients showed more impairment of HRQL. Conclusions, Analysis of this large CLD cohort suggests that a number of important clinicodemographic factors are associated with HRQL impairment. These findings contribute to the full understanding of the total impact of CLD on patients' health. [source]

    Symptoms in patients on long-term proton pump inhibitors: prevalence and predictors

    Summary Background, Symptom control in primary care patients on long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment is poorly understood. Aim, To explore associations between symptom control and demographics, lifestyle, PPI use, diagnosis and Helicobacter pylori status. Methods, A cross-sectional survey (n = 726) using note reviews, questionnaires and carbon-13 urea breath testing. Determinants of symptom control [Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ), Carlsson and Dent Reflux Questionnaire (CDRQ), health-related quality-of-life measures (EuroQoL: EQ-5D and EQ-VAS)] were explored using stepwise linear regression. Results, Moderate or severe dyspepsia symptoms occurred in 61% of subjects (LDQ) and reflux symptoms in 59% (CDRQ). Age, gender, smoking and body mass index had little or no influence upon symptom control or PPI use. Average symptom scores and PPI use were lower in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and gastro-protection than gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and uninvestigated dyspepsia. H. pylori infection was associated with lower reflux symptom scores only in patients with GERD and uninvestigated dyspepsia. EQ-5D was not able to discriminate between diagnostic groups, although the EQ-VAS performed well. Conclusions, A majority of patients suffered ongoing moderate or severe symptoms. GERD and uninvestigated dyspepsia were associated with poorer long-term symptom control; H. pylori appeared to have a protective effect on reflux symptoms in these patients. [source]

    Levels of empathy in undergraduate occupational therapy students

    Ted Brown
    Abstract Empathy is an important attribute for occupational therapists in establishing rapport and in better understanding their clients. However, empathy can be compromised by high workloads, personal stressors and pressures to demonstrate efficacy. Occupational therapists also work with patients from a variety of diagnostic groups. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of empathy and attitudes towards clients amongst undergraduate occupational therapy students at one Australian University. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a written survey of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and the Medical Condition Regard Scale. Overall, a strong level of empathy was reported amongst students. Four medical conditions that occupational therapists work with (stroke, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury and depression) were held in high regard. Substance abuse, however, was held in comparatively low regard. Overall, the year of study appeared to have no significant impact on the students' empathy. Despite having a lower reported empathy level than found in health professions from other studies using the JSPE, occupational therapy students were found to have a good level of empathy. Of concern, however, was the bias reported against the medical condition of substance abuse, highlighting that the there may be a need to reinforce that patients from this diagnostic group are equally deserving of quality care irrespective of their clinical condition. Recommendations for future research include completing a longitudinal study of occupational therapy students' empathy levels and investigating the empathy levels of occupational therapists working with different client groups. Limitations of the study include the convenience sampling of occupational therapy students enrolled at one university which limits the generalizability of the results to groups of participants with similar characteristics. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hand-held turbine spirometer: Agreement with the conventional spirometer at baseline and after exercise

    Korhonen Harri
    Portable hand-held spirometers are widely used in outpatient clinics and in field surveys when examining children for asthma. However, the validity of the results obtained from the hand-held spirometers has not been assessed in population-based studies. We evaluated the agreement between the forced expiratory volume (FEV1) values got by the conventional flow volume spirometer (FVS) and the pocket-sized turbine spirometer (TS) at baseline and after exercise, among the 212 children screened for asthma and asthma-like symptoms from a population of 1633 school-aged children. The comparison was made between and within three diagnostic groups: clinical asthma (n = 34), possible asthma (n = 31), and controls (n = 147). In general, the differences in FEV1 between the FVS and the TS were small. For all children, the mean difference in FEV1 and the limits of agreement (difference ±2 s.d.) was 0.05 l (0.23 to ,0.13) at baseline and 0.06 l (0.24 to ,0.12) after exercise. No significant differences were observed in the agreement between the diagnostic groups. In conclusion, although FEV1 results obtained by the hand-held spirometer are not interchangeable with those by the conventional spirometer, they are in reasonable agreement. The agreement is similar both at baseline and after exercise, and is not influenced by the presence of asthma. [source]

    Epidemiology of cancer in adolescents,

    PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER, Issue 3 2002
    Charles Stiller MA
    Abstract In western populations, the annual incidence rate of cancer among adolescents aged 15,19 years is around 150,200 per million, intermediate between the rates for older children and young adults. The most frequent diagnostic groups are acute leukemia, lymphomas, central nervous system tumors, bone and soft tissue sarcomas, germ cell tumors, thyroid carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. While the causes of most cancers in teenagers are still unknown, health education and promotion and public health programs offer some scope for prevention among people of this age group. Reduction in sun exposure should lead to a reduction in incidence of melanoma, and elimination of hepatitis B in regions where it is endemic should result in a decrease in hepatic carcinoma. Five-year survival of patients diagnosed around 1990 exceeded 70% in the USA and UK. Entry to clinical trials appears to be much less frequent for adolescents with cancer than for children. There is some evidence that higher survival is associated with entry to trials or centralized treatment for certain cancers in this age group. Med Pediatr Oncol 2002;39:149,155. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the adolescent dissociative experiences scale

    Abstract The Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES) is designed to measure dissociation in adolescents. The present study aimed to assess the reliability, validity, and psychometric characteristics of the Turkish version of the A-DES. The Turkish version of the A-DES was administered to 20 patients with a dissociative disorder, 24 patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 31 patients with anxiety disorder, 31 patients with mood disorder, 24 patients with attention deficit,hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 201 non-clinical participants. The internal consistency and the test,retest correlation of the A-DES were excellent. The mean total score of A-DES was 6.2 in dissociative disorder, 3.9 in PTSD, 2.1 in anxiety disorder, 2.4 in mood disorder, 2.5 in ADHD groups and 2.4 in non-clinical participants. There was a statistically significant difference between dissociative patients and other diagnostic groups on the A-DES total score. The good psychometric characteristics of the A-DES among Turkish participants support its cross-cultural validity. [source]