Diagnostic Framework (diagnostic + framework)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The behaviour of soil process models of ammonia volatilization at contrasting spatial scales

R. Corstanje
Summary Process models are commonly used in soil science to obtain predictions at a spatial scale that is different from the scale at which the model was developed, or the scale at which information on model inputs is available. When this happens, the model and its inputs require aggregation or disaggregation to the application scale, and this is a complex problem. Furthermore, the validity of the aggregated model predictions depends on whether the model describes the key processes that determine the process outcome at the target scale. Different models may therefore be required at different spatial scales. In this paper we develop a diagnostic framework which allows us to judge whether a model is appropriate for use at one or more spatial scales both with respect to the prediction of variations at those scale and in the requirement for disaggregation of the inputs. We show that spatially nested analysis of the covariance of predictions with measured process outcomes is an efficient way to do this. This is applied to models of the processes that lead to ammonia volatilization from soil after the application of urea. We identify the component correlations at different scales of a nested scheme as the diagnostic with which to evaluate model behaviour. These correlations show how well the model emulates components of spatial variation of the target process at the scales of the sampling scheme. Aggregate correlations were identified as the most pertinent to evaluate models for prediction at particular scales since they measure how well aggregated predictions at some scale correlate with aggregated values of the measured outcome. There are two circumstances under which models are used to make predictions. In the first case only the model is used to predict, and the most useful diagnostic is the concordance aggregate correlation. In the second case model predictions are assimilated with observations which should correct bias in the prediction, and errors in the variance; the aggregate correlations would be the most suitable diagnostic. [source]

A model for helping people hit their performance targets

Fred Nickols CPT
This article presents the target model of human behavior and performance. The model is a closed-loop, feedback-governed view of human behavior and performance, which is to say it acknowledges that the performer controls his or her performance. The model provides a useful diagnostic framework for examining problems of human performance in the workplace. An example of its application is included. [source]

Decentralization in Kerala: Panchayat government discretion and accountability,

Varsha Venugopal
Kerala is regarded as one of the most decentralized states in India. Through a ,big bang' approach, Kerala implemented a significant fiscal decentralization program and then built the capacity of its local governments. We employ a diagnostic framework to analyze its local government discretion and accountability in political, administrative and fiscal domains. We find that Kerala's local governments have a very high degree of discretionary power accompanied by a high degree of accountability towards citizens. But the areas of administrative accountability and financial management need to be strengthened. Also there may have been excessive focus and investment on social accountability mechanisms at the cost of local government discretion and formal public sector accountability mechanisms. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Modulations in the planetary wave field induced by upward-propagating Rossby wave packets prior to stratospheric sudden warming events: A case-study

Kazuaki Nishii
Abstract A diagnostic framework is introduced in which anomalous zonally averaged Rossby wave-activity injection into the stratosphere is decomposed into a contribution solely from zonally confined upward-propagating Rossby wave packets and another from interaction of the wave packets with the climatological planetary waves. To pinpoint the tropospheric sources of the wave packets, a particular form of wave-activity flux is evaluated for the associated circulation anomalies. The framework is applied to reanalysis data for the period prior to a stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) event in January 2006, which was associated with two successive events of above-normal wave-activity injection from the troposphere. In the earlier event, a pair of wave packets that emanated from tropospheric anomalies over the North Pacific and over Europe enhanced the upward wave-activity injection, which was augmented further by their interaction with the climatological planetary wave. In contrast, in the later period a wave packet that emanated from an anticyclonic anomaly over the North Atlantic is found to be the primary contributor to the enhanced planetary wave-activity injection, while its interaction with the climatological planetary wave contributed negatively. The predominant importance of the sole contribution from a single wave packet is also found in a major SSW event observed over Antarctica in September 2002. These results indicate that the diagnostic framework presented in this study is a useful tool for understanding the interaction between anomalies associated with zonally confined wave packets and climatological-mean planetary waves in the study of stratosphere--troposphere dynamical coupling. Copyright 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]