Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester (diacetate + succinimidyl_ester)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Diacetate Succinimidyl Ester

  • carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester

  • Selected Abstracts

    Isolation and functional identification of a novel human hepatic growth factor: Hepatopoietin Cn,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Chun-Ping Cui
    Hepatic stimulating substance (HSS) was first isolated from weanling rat liver in 1975 and found to stimulate hepatic DNA synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. Since then, mammalian and human HSS have been investigated for their potential to treat hepatic diseases. However, the essential nature in composition and structure of HSS remain puzzling because HSS has not been completely purified. Heating, ethanol precipitation, and ion-exchange chromatographies had been carried out to isolate the protein with specific stimulating activity from newborn calf liver, and [3H]thymidine deoxyribose (TdR)/bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based proliferation assay to determine the bioactivity in vitro and in vivo. We report the purification of a novel 30-kDa protein from a crude extract of calf liver HSS. This protein is a member of the leucine-rich acidic nuclear protein family (LANP) and has been named hepatopoietin Cn (HPPCn). Studies of partially hepatectomized (PH) mice show that levels of HPPCn messenger RNA (mRNA) increase after liver injury. Furthermore, the recombinant human protein (rhHPPCn) was shown to stimulate hepatic DNA synthesis and activate signaling pathways involved in hepatocyte proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: HPPCn is a novel hepatic growth factor that plays a role in liver regeneration. (HEPATOLOGY 2008;47:986,995.) [source]

    Differential regulation of platelet-derived growth factor stimulated migration and proliferation in osteoblastic cells,

    Meenal Mehrotra
    Abstract Osteoblastic migration and proliferation in response to growth factors are essential for skeletal development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair, as well as pathologic processes, such as metastasis. We studied migration in response to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, 10 ng/ml) in a wounding model. PDGF stimulated a twofold increase in migration of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and murine calvarial osteoblasts over 24,48 h. PDGF also stimulated a tenfold increase in 3H-thymidine (3H-TdR) incorporation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Migration and DNA replication, as measured by BrdU incorporation, could be stimulated in the same cell. Blocking DNA replication with aphidicolin did not reduce the distance migrated. To examine the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in migration and proliferation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). For these signaling studies, proliferation was measured by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) using flow cytometry. Inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway by SB203580 and SB202190 blocked PDGF-stimulated migration but had no effect on proliferation. Inhibition of the ERK pathway by PD98059 and U0126 inhibited proliferation but did not inhibit migration. Inhibition of JNK activity by SP600125 inhibited both migration and proliferation. Hence, the stimulation of migration and proliferation by PDGF occurred by both overlapping and independent pathways. The JNK pathway was involved in both migration and proliferation, whereas the p38 pathway was predominantly involved in migration and the ERK pathway predominantly involved in proliferation. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Doublecortin-expressing cells in the ischemic penumbra of a small-vessel stroke

    Rui Hua
    Abstract A cortical lesion was induced by disrupting the medium-size pial vessels, which led to a cone-shaped cortical lesion and turned into a fluid-filled cavity surrounded by a glial acidic fibrillary protein-positive (GFAP+) glia limitans 21 days after injury. Therefore, it mimics conditions of lacunar infarctions, one of the most frequent human stroke pathologies. Doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells were present in the neocortex and corpus callosum at the base of the lesion. The number of DCX-positive cells in the corpus callosum was significantly increased from day 5 to day 14 compared with the control group. In contrast, there were no DCX-positive cells in neocortex of control animals; the DCX-positive cells appeared in the neocortex after lesioning and were maintained until 14 days postlesioning. Some of the DCX-positive cells were also immunoreactive for ,III-tubulin, another marker of immature neurons. They did not stain positively for markers of glia cells. The presence of these DCX-positive cells near the lesion might indicate a migratory pathway for developing neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) through the corpus callosum to the lesion. SVZ cells were labeled with a lipophilic molecule, 5- (and 6-) carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) stereotaxical injections. Although rostral migratory stream and olfactory bulb were intensely labeled, no CFSE-containing cells were found in the cortex beneath the lesion. These results do not support the idea that the DCX-positive cells were originating from neural precursors of the SVZ, but they might be generated from local progenitor cells. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    T-Lymphocytes Modulate the Microvascular and Inflammatory Responses to Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion

    MICROCIRCULATION, Issue 2 2002
    Takeharu Shigematsu
    Objective: The overall objective of this study was to define the contribution of T-lymphocytes to the microvascular and inflammatory responses of the intestine to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Methods: The superior mesenteric artery of wild-type (WT) and SCID mice was occluded for 45 minutes, followed by 30 minutes or 6 hours of reperfusion. Intravital fluorescence microscopy was used to monitor the extravasation of FITC-labeled albumin or the adhesion of carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labeled T-lymphocytes in mucosal venules of the postischemic intestine. Tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) was used to monitor neutrophil accumulation in the intestine of WT and SCID mice. Results: Although the number of adherent T-cells was not increased above baseline at 1 hour after reperfusion, significant T-cell adhesion (both CD4+ and CD8+) was noted at 6 hours of reperfusion. The latter response was prevented by pretreatment with a blocking antibody directed against MAdCAM-1, but not ICAM-1 or VCAM-1. A significant increase in MAdCAM-1 expression was noted in both lymphoid (Peyer's patch) and nonlymphoid regions of the postischemic small bowel. The early (30 minutes after reperfusion) albumin extravasation elicited by gut I/R in WT mice was reduced in SCID mice. Reconstitution of SCID mice with T-lymphocytes restored the albumin leakage response to WT levels. The increased intestinal MPO caused by I/R (6 hours of reperfusion) in WT mice was attenuated in SCID mice; with reconstitution of SCID mice with T-cells the MPO response was restored. Conclusions: These findings indicate that intestinal I/R is associated with the recruitment of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, which is mediated by endothelial MAdCAM-1. T-cells seem to modulate the recruitment of neutrophils that occurs hours after reperfusion as well as the increased albumin extravasation that occurs within minutes after reperfusion. [source]

    PAN,DR-Binding Hsp60 self epitopes induce an interleukin-10,mediated immune response in rheumatoid arthritis

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 7 2009
    Huib de Jong
    Objective Human Hsp60 is expressed in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can elicit a regulatory T cell response in the peripheral blood and synovial fluid. However, Hsp60 can also trigger strong proinflammatory pathways. Thus, to understand the nature of these Hsp60-directed responses in RA, it is necessary to study such responses at the molecular, epitope-specific level. This study was undertaken to characterize the disease specificity and function of pan,DR-binding Hsp60,derived epitopes as possible modulators of autoimmune inflammation in RA. Methods Lymphocyte proliferation assays (using 3H-thymidine incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester [CFSE] staining) and measurement of cytokine production (using multiplex immunoassay and intracellular staining) were performed after in vitro activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with RA, compared with healthy controls. Results A disease (RA),specific immune recognition, characterized by T cell proliferation as well as increased production of tumor necrosis factor , (TNF,), interleukin-1, (IL-1,), and IL-10, was found for 3 of the 8 selected peptides in patients with RA as compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05). Intracellular cytokine staining and CFSE labeling showed that CD4+ T cells were the subset primarily responsible for both the T cell proliferation and the cytokine production in RA. Interestingly, the human peptides had a remarkably different phenotype, with a 5,10-fold higher IL-10:TNF, ratio, compared with that of the microbial peptides. Conclusion These results suggest a disease-specific immune-modulatory role of epitope-specific T cells in the inflammatory processes of RA. Therefore, these pan,DR-binding epitopes could be used as a tool to study the autoreactive T cell response in RA and might be suitable candidates for use in immunotherapy. [source]

    Crucial role of the interleukin-6/interleukin-17 cytokine axis in the induction of arthritis by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 3 2008
    Keiichi Iwanami
    Objective To clarify the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI),specific CD4+ T cell lineage involved in GPI-induced arthritis and to investigate their pathologic and regulatory roles in the induction of the disease. Methods DBA/1 mice were immunized with GPI to induce arthritis. CD4+ T cells and antigen-presenting cells were cocultured with GPI, and cytokines in the supernatant were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Anti,interferon-, (anti-IFN,) monoclonal antibody (mAb), anti,interleukin-17 (anti,IL-17) mAb, or the murine IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) mAb MR16-1 was injected at different time points, and arthritis development was monitored visually. After MR16-1 was injected, percentages of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry, and CD4+ T cell proliferation was analyzed using carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester. Results GPI-specific CD4+ T cells were found to be differentiated to Th1 and Th17 cells, but not Th2 cells. Administration of anti,IL-17 mAb on day 7 significantly ameliorated arthritis (P < 0.01), whereas administration of anti-IFN, mAb exacerbated arthritis. Neither anti,IL-17 mAb nor anti-IFN, mAb administration on day 14 ameliorated arthritis. Administration of MR16-1 on day 0 or day 3 protected against arthritis induction, and MR16-1 administration on day 8 significantly ameliorated existing arthritis (P < 0.05). After administration of MR16-1, there was marked suppression of Th17 differentiation, without an increase in Th1, Th2, or Treg cells, and CD4+ T cell proliferation was also suppressed. Conclusion IL-6 and Th17 play an essential role in GPI-induced arthritis. Since it has previously been shown that treatment with a humanized anti,IL-6R mAb has excellent effects in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we propose that the IL-6/IL-17 axis might also be involved in the generation of RA, especially in the early effector phase. [source]