Diabetes Incidence (diabetes + incidence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Diabetes trends in Europe

Philippe Passa
Abstract Estimates and projections suggest an epidemic expansion of diabetes incidence and prevalence in Europe. To evaluate trends in type 1 and type 2 diabetes in seven European countries (Finland, Denmark, the UK, Germany, France, Spain, and Italy), a variety of information is available, including population-based studies on small or large cohorts of subjects representative of the general population in a particular country, European co-operative studies, and sales figures for insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents that allow extrapolation of the number of pharmacologically treated diabetic patients. The incidence of type 1 diabetes in young people is increasing in most European countries, as is its prevalence in all age groups. Type 2 diabetes is the major contributor to the epidemic rise in diabetes. From 1995 to 1999, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increased considerably, particularly in the UK, Germany, and France. Costs of ambulatory and in-hospital diabetic care (including antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and hypolipidemic agents) have increased even more rapidly than has the number of affected patients. Diabetes trends in Europe are alarming; health care professionals involved in diabetes care must be made aware of these detrimental trends, and health care delivery to patients with diabetes must be improved. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of weight-reducing agents on glycaemic parameters and progression to Type 2 diabetes: a review

C. Lloret-Linares
Abstract Weight loss is associated with improvements in glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, in the diabetic population, weight management is more challenging, in part because of the weight-promoting effects of the majority of glucose-lowering therapies. This review summarizes evidence from 23 placebo-controlled randomized trials, of at least 1 year duration, on the effects of drugs promoting weight loss (orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant) on glycaemic variables, diabetes incidence and diabetes control. Fifteen studies of non-diabetic subjects were found, eight of which included a longer treatment period. Eight studies in diabetic patients were reviewed. In non-diabetic subjects, weight loss agents led to a significant improvement in fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance. In the diabetic population, glycated haemoglobin decreased by 0.28,1.1% with orlistat and 0.6% with sibutramine and rimonabant. Orlistat reduces progression to diabetes in patients with glucose intolerance treated for 4 years (risk reduction of 45%). In summary, despite leading to only modest weight loss after 12 months, agents promoting weight loss have beneficial effects on glycaemic parameters, glycaemic control and progression to diabetes. These additional benefits of weight loss agents need to be highlighted in order to increase their judicious use in clinical practice, although this may be limited by their well-known adverse side effects. The longer-term safety of these agents beyond a few years is yet to be established. [source]

Genetic and phenotypic diversity of echovirus 30 strains and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

A. Paananen
Abstract Several enterovirus serotypes should be considered as potentially diabetogenic. The capacity of an enterovirus to kill or impair the functions of human ,-cells can vary among the strains within a given serotype as shown previously for echovirus 9 and 30 (E-30). The evolution of E-30 has also shown patterns correlating with the global increase of type 1 diabetes incidence. In the present study, antigenic properties of a set of E-30 isolates were investigated and the results correlated with the previously documented ,-cell destructive phenotype of the strains, or to genetic clustering of the strains. No simple correlation between the three properties was observed. A full-length infectious clone was constructed and sequenced from one of the isolates found to be most destructive to ,-cells (E-30/14916net87). Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that this strain was closely related to the E-30 prototype strain at the capsid coding region while outside the capsid region prototype strains of several other human enterovirus B serotypes clustered more closely. This suggests that the relatively greater pathogenicity of the strain might be based on properties of the genome outside of the structural protein coding region. Neutralizing antibody assays on sera from 100 type 1 diabetic patients and 100 controls using three different E-30 strains did not reveal differences between the groups. This finding does not support a previous proposition of aberrant antibody responses to E-30 in diabetic patients. It is concluded that identification of the genetic counterparts of pathogenicity of E-30 strains requires further studies. J. Med. Virol. 79:945-955, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Escher's stairs and type 1 diabetes incidence in childhood

Wayne S Cutfield
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Worldwide childhood type 1 diabetes incidence , what can we learn from epidemiology?

G Soltesz
Abstract:, Type 1 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes in most part of the world, although reliable data are still unavailable in several countries. Wide variations exist between the incidence rates of different populations, incidence is lowest in China and Venezuela (0.1 per 100 000 per year) and highest in Finland and Sardinia (37 per 100 000 per year). In most populations girls and boys are equally affected. In general, the incidence increases with age, the incidence peak is at puberty. After the pubertal years, the incidence rate significantly drops in young women, but remains relatively high in young adult males up to the age 29,35 years. Prospective national and large international registries (DIAMOND and EURODIAB) demonstrated an increasing trend in incidence in most regions of the world over the last few decades and increases seem to be the highest in the youngest age group. Analytical epidemiological studies have identified environmental risk factors operating early in life which might have contributed to the increasing trend in incidence. These include enteroviral infections in pregnant women, older maternal age (39,42 years), preeclampsia, cesarean section delivery, increased birthweight, early introduction of cow's milk proteins and an increased rate of postnatal growth (weight and height). Optimal vitamin D supplementation during early life has been shown to be protective. Some of these environmental risk factors such as viruses may initiate autoimmunity toward the beta cell, other exposures may put on overload on the already affected beta cell and thus accelerate the disease process. [source]

Projecting the burden of diabetes in Australia , what is the size of the matter?

Dianna J. Magliano
Abstract Objective: To analyse the implications of using different methods to predict diabetes prevalence for the future. Approach: Different methods used to predict diabetes were compared and recommendations are made. Conclusion: We recommend that all projections take a conservative approach to diabetes prevalence prediction and present a ,base case' using the most robust, contemporary data available. We also recommend that uncertainty analyses be included in all analyses. Implications: Despite variation in assumptions and methodology used, all the published predictions demonstrate that diabetes is an escalating problem for Australia. We can safely assume that unless trends in diabetes incidence are reversed there will be at least 2 million Australian adults with diabetes by 2025. If obesity and diabetes incidence trends, continue upwards, and mortality continues to decline, up to 3 million people will have diabetes by 2025, with the figure closer to 3.5 million by 2033. The impact of this for Australia has not been measured. [source]