Diabetes Group (diabetes + group)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in the non-diabetic and newly diagnosed diabetic Chinese: Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-CVD

Lin Xu
Abstract Background Increased arterial stiffness is an important cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined determinants of arterial stiffness in subjects across strata of glycaemic status. Methods A total of 1249 subjects from a sub-study of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS-CVD) had brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measured by automatic oscillometric method. Major cardiovascular risk factors including glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fasting triglyceride, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and both fasting and post 2-h oral glucose-load glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were assessed. Results In all, 649, 479 and 121 subjects were classified into normoglycaemia, impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) and newly diagnosed diabetes groups, respectively. Both age and systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with increased baPWV in all three groups (all p < 0.001). In both normoglycaemic and IGM groups, hsCRP and HbA1c were positively associated with baPWV (p from 0.04 to < 0.001), whereas current smoking and triglyceride were associated with baPWV in the normoglycaemic and IGM group, respectively (p = 0.04 and 0.001). No gender difference in baPWV was observed in the normoglycaemic or IGM groups. However, in the newly diagnosed diabetes group, men had higher baPWV than women (p = 0.01). Conclusions In the normoglycaemic and IGM subjects, after adjusting for age, blood pressure and other confounders, increasing HbA1c was associated with increased baPWV, suggesting a pathophysiological role of chronic glycaemia that can contribute to vascular disease risk in persons without diabetes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Physical activity and energy intake in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes

S. Särnblad
Abstract Aims Girls with Type 1 diabetes often gain excessive weight during puberty. The aims of this study were to compare objectively assessed physical activity and energy intake in girls with Type 1 diabetes with those in healthy age-matched controls. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 26 girls with Type 1 diabetes and 49 control girls. The mean age of the diabetic girls was 15.7 ± 2.1 years and that of the control girls 15.8 ± 2.1 years. In the diabetic group, mean haemoglobin A1c was 7.6 ± 1.4% and daily insulin dosage was 1.1 ± 0.3 U/kg. Physical activity was measured during 7 consecutive days with a uniaxial accelerometer, and energy intake was assessed concurrently with a 7-day food diary. Results There was a tendency towards lower total amount of physical activity in the diabetes group but the difference between the study groups did not reach statistical significance (Diabetes: 464 ± 123 counts/min/day; Controls: 523 ± 138 counts/min/day; P = 0.06). No difference was found between the groups regarding total energy intake (Diabetes: 8.5 ± 1.8 MJ/day; Controls: 8.4 ± 2.6 MJ/day). The carbohydrate intake was lower and the protein and fibre intakes were higher in girls with diabetes. No association was observed between physical activity, energy intake and HbA1c. Conclusions In this prospective cohort study, we found a tendency towards lower physical activity but no differences in energy intake between girls with Type 1 diabetes and age-matched controls. Larger studies are needed to further explore the importance of the total amount of physical activity for excessive weight gain in adolescent girls with Type 1 diabetes. [source]

Serum paraoxonase activity in patients with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy controls

B. Mackness
Abstract Background The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is central to current theories on the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Type 1 diabetes is associated with an increase in oxidative stress, which may be responsible for the increased susceptibility to coronary heart disease seen in type 1 diabetes. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) associated paraoxonase (PON1) can retard the oxidation of LDL. Design Paraoxonase activity, concentration and genotype were therefore investigated in 152 people with type 1 diabetes and 282 healthy controls. These parameters were also investigated in the group with type 1 diabetes in relation to the presence of diabetic complications. Results Both PON1 activity and concentration were significantly lower by 16·7% and 19·2% (both P < 0·05) in the type 1 diabetes group. These differences were independent of the PON1 coding region polymorphisms. The distribution of PON1 activity and mass were the same in both populations, i.e. for the PON1-192 polymorphism RR > RQ > QQ and for the PON1-55 polymorphism LL > LM > MM. There were no differences in either the PON1 polymorphisms, PON1 activity and concentration in people with type 1 diabetes in the presence or absence of micro and macro vascular complications of diabetes. Conclusions Low PON1 activity may contribute to the increased atherosclerosis found in type 1 diabetes by reducing the ability of HDL to retard LDL oxidation despite the frequently-found increased HDL in type 1 diabetes when good glycaemic control is established. [source]

Variation in enterovirus receptor genes

Åse Karttunen
Abstract The increased incidence of a enterovirus infections observed in patients with type 1 diabetes preceding the development of the clinical disease could be partially explained by variation in the genes coding for enterovirus receptors. We carried out sequence analysis of the most common enterovirus receptor molecules in 21 diabetic children and 20 healthy adults. DNA was isolated from the leukocytes, and gene regions known to code for virus-recognizing domains in major enterovirus receptors were amplified and sequenced. Heterozygous single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Ala 67 (GCG),,,Thr (ACG), was detected in the poliovirus receptor gene in four individuals in the diabetes group, but not in the control group. However, serological studies could not confirm that this substitution would convey different susceptibility to poliovirus infection. A heterozygous SNP, Lys 29 (AAG),,,Met (ATG), was found in the intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) (receptor for rhinoviruses and some coxsackie A viruses) in one individual in both groups. A silent SNP in the ,2 integrin subunit gene (echovirus 1 receptor) was frequently found in both groups, a silent heterozygotic SNP in coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (coxsackie B virus receptor) gene was seen in one individual in the diabetes group, whereas no variation was found in the DAF (echovirus receptor) and ,3 integrin subunit sequences (receptor for coxsackievirus A9) studied. In conclusion, both synonymous and nonsynonymous sequence variability of genes coding for enterovirus and rhinovirus receptors was shown to occur, but no pattern directly specific for type 1 diabetes was found. J. Med. Virol. 70:99,108, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Salivary matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) levels and gelatinase (MMP-9) activities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Hanna-Leena Collin
We studied the salivary levels and activities of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9 in 45 type 2 diabetic patients and 77 control subjects. The patients' mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbAlc) was 8.7%, indicating an unsatisfactory metabolic control of the disease. The MMP levels were further related to the clinical and microbiological periodontal findings as well as to salivary flow rate and other factors. The salivary flow rate, albumin and amylase concentrations were similar in type 2 diabetic patients to those in the control group. The mean gingival and periodontal pocket indexes were higher in the diabetes group. The number of potential periodontopathogenic bacteria was lower, however, in the diabetic than in the control group. Zymography and immunoblotting revealed that the major MMPs in the type 2 diabetic patients' saliva were MMP-8 and MMP-9. Salivary MMP levels and activities in type 2 diabetic patients were in general similar to those in the control group. However, the correlation coefficients using multiple regression analysis revealed that gingival bleeding, pocket depths and HbAlc were associated with increased MMP-8 levels which, in turn, were negatively predicted by elevated plasma lipid peroxide levels in the diabetic group. Our data on salivary MMP-8 and -9 do not support the concept of generalized neutrophil dysfunction in unbalanced diabetes. Moreover, plasma lipid peroxidation levels reflecting the increased oxidative burden, which is generated mainly by triggered neutrophils, do not indicate neutrophil dysfunction due to diabetes, but may rather be related to the increased tissue damage in an uncontrolled disease. However, advanced periodontitis in type 2 diabetes seems to be related to elevated salivary MMP-8 levels which might be useful in monitoring periodontal disease in diabetes. [source]

Diabetes attenuates the minimum anaesthetic concentration (MAC) and MAC-blocking adrenergic response reducing actions of clonidine in rats

T. Kita
Background: It is well known that clonidine, an ,2 agonist, reduces anaesthetic requirement and attenuates haemodynamic responses against noxious stimuli. However, the diabetic state is known to affect several functions of ,2 adrenoceptors. We investigated the effects of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) on these beneficial actions of clonidine in halothane-anaesthetized rats. Methods: The rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: diabetes (n=24, induced by 50 mg · kg,1 IV STZ), diabetes treated with insulin (n=24), or control (n=24). We evaluated the effects of clonidine on minimum anaesthetic concentration (MAC) and minimum concentration of halothane needed to suppress cardiovascular responses evoked by a noxious stimulus (MAC-blocking adrenergic responses: MAC-BAR) in each group. MAC and MAC-BAR of halothane were determined by the tail clamp method. MAC-BAR was defined as the MAC which attenuated haemodynamic responses within 10% following the tail clamp. Results: The diabetic state decreased MAC of halothane by approximately 10%, while MAC-BAR of halothane had been little affected. In the diabetes group, MAC reducing action of clonidine (30 and 100 ,g · kg,1, IV) was completely abolished and MAC-BAR reducing action of clonidine was partially reduced (30 but not 100 ,g · kg,1, IV). Insulin treatment preserved these actions of clonidine. Conclusion: It is suggested that the diabetic state attenuates the beneficial actions of clonidine and that insulin treatment of diabetes preserves these actions of clonidine. [source]

Assessment of fetal liver volume and umbilical venous volume flow in pregnancies complicated by insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

Simona M. Boito
Objectives To determine fetal liver volume and its relation with umbilical venous volume flow and maternal glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus type I. Design A cross sectional matched control study. Setting Obstetric out patient clinic, Erasmus MC,University Medical Centre, Rotterdam. Population Data from fetuses of diabetic women (n = 32; 18,36 weeks) were compared with data from normal controls (n = 32) matched for gestational age. Methods Umbilical venous cross sectional area (mm2) and time-averaged velocity (mm/s Doppler) were determined for calculation of volume flow (mL/min) and flow per kilogram fetal weight (mL/min/kg). Umbilical artery pulsatility index was determined. Fetal liver volume measurements were obtained using a Voluson 530-D. Main outcome measures Fetal liver volume, umbilical venous volume flow and downstream impedance. Results A statistically significant difference between fetuses of diabetic women and normal controls was found for liver volume (mean [SD]: 45.9 [34.0] vs 38.3 [28.7] mL), abdominal circumference (22.2 [6.6] vs 21.3 [5.6] cm), estimated fetal weight (1162 [898] vs 1049 [765] g) and fetoplacental weight ratio (0.22 vs 0.19) and liver volume/estimated fetal weight ratio (4.13% [0.007] vs 3.62% [0.009]). Umbilical venous volume flow (mL/min) and umbilical artery pulsatility index were not essentially different between the two study groups, but umbilical venous volume flow per kilogram fetal weight was lower (P < 0.05) in the diabetes group (94.3 [26.1] mL/min kg) compared with normal controls (109.5 [28.0] mL/min/kg). A positive correlation existed between fetal liver volume and maternal HbA1c (P = 0.002). Conclusions Measurement of fetal liver volume by three-dimensional ultrasound may play a role in identifying fetal growth acceleration in diabetic pregnancies. Fetal liver volume increase is positively related to maternal HbA1c levels reflecting degree of maternal glycemic control. Fetal liver volume normalised for estimated fetal weight is significantly higher in the fetuses of diabetic women. In the present study, umbilical venous volume flow and fetoplacental downstream impedance are not different between diabetic and normal pregnancies. [source]

Adolescents with type 1 diabetes and risky behaviour

AE Scaramuzza
Abstract Aim:, The aim of the student is to assess whether adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Italy differ from their healthy peers in regard to risky behaviour. Methods:, Data were collected from 215 patients, aged 14 ± 2 years with a mean disease duration of 7 ± 5 years. The control group was comprised of 464 healthy adolescents recruited among high school students. Each patient completed an anonymous confidential questionnaire to determine the prevalence of sexual behaviour, alcohol and tobacco consumption, illicit drug use, and, among patients with diabetes and frequency of mismanagement related to diabetes care. Results:, Compared with controls, subjects with diabetes showed a similar rate of sexual intercourse among males and lower rates among females (34.8% vs 35.5%, p NS and 29.4% vs 41.4%, p < 0.05, respectively). Males in the diabetes group reported a higher rate of tobacco use, whereas females showed similar or higher rates of use for every illicit drug studied. Among patients with diabetes, those who are engaged in risky behaviour showed a higher rate of treatment mismanagement (76% vs 34%, p < 0.01). Conclusion:, Adolescents with T1DM are as likely as their healthy peers to engage in risky behaviour, indicating the potential benefit of anticipatory guidance concerning glycaemic control and increased risk of acute and chronic complications. [source]