Diabetes Duration (diabetes + duration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Diabetes Duration

  • mean diabetes duration

  • Selected Abstracts

    Efficacy and safety of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes

    T. Vilsbøll
    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sitagliptin when added to insulin therapy alone or in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: After a 2 week placebo run-in period, eligible patients inadequately controlled on long-acting, intermediate-acting or premixed insulin (HbA1c , 7.5% and , 11%), were randomised 1:1 to the addition of once-daily sitagliptin 100 mg or matching placebo over a 24-week study period. The study capped the proportion of randomised patients on insulin plus metformin at 75%. Further, the study capped the proportion of randomised patients on premixed insulin at 25%. The metformin dose and the insulin dose were to remain stable throughout the study. The primary endpoint was HbA1c change from baseline at week 24. Results: Mean baseline characteristics were similar between the sitagliptin (n = 322) and placebo (n = 319) groups, including HbA1c (8.7 vs. 8.6%), diabetes duration (13 vs. 12 years), body mass index (31.4 vs. 31.4 kg/m2), and total daily insulin dose (51 vs. 52 IU), respectively. At 24 weeks, the addition of sitagliptin significantly (p < 0.001) reduced HbA1c by 0.6% compared with placebo (0.0%). A greater proportion of patients achieved an HbA1c level < 7% while randomised to sitagliptin as compared with placebo (13 vs. 5% respectively; p < 0.001). Similar HbA1c reductions were observed in the patient strata defined by insulin type (long-acting and intermediate-acting insulins or premixed insulins) and by baseline metformin treatment. The addition of sitagliptin significantly (p < 0.001) reduced fasting plasma glucose by 15.0 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/l) and 2-h postmeal glucose by 36.1 mg/dl (2.0 mmol/l) relative to placebo. A higher incidence of adverse experiences was reported with sitagliptin (52%) compared with placebo (43%), due mainly to the increased incidence of hypoglycaemia (sitagliptin, 16% vs. placebo, 8%). The number of hypoglycaemic events meeting the protocol-specified criteria for severity was low with sitagliptin (n = 2) and placebo (n = 1). No significant change from baseline in body weight was observed in either group. Conclusion: In this 24-week study, the addition of sitagliptin to ongoing, stable-dose insulin therapy with or without concomitant metformin improved glycaemic control and was generally well tolerated in patients with type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Multiple mealtime administration of biphasic insulin aspart 30 versus traditional basal-bolus human insulin treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes

    J. -W.
    Aim:, The aim of this study was to compare the effect of multiple mealtime injections of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (30% fast-acting insulin aspart in the formulation, BIAsp30) to traditional basal-bolus human insulin regimen (HI) on glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods:, Twenty-three patients (eight women and 15 men) aged 44.8 (20.6,62.5) years (median and range) with a diabetes duration of 19.5 (1.6,44.6) years completed the study. All eligible patients were randomly assigned to BIAsp30 thrice daily supplied with bedtime NPH insulin when necessary, or basal-bolus HI for 12 weeks and then switched to the alternative regimen for another 12 weeks. The insulin dose adjustments were made by patients on the basis of advice from a diabetes nurse. At end of each treatment period, the patients attended two profile days, 1 week apart for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assessments. HbA1C was measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. A seven-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) was obtained twice weekly. Results:, In comparison with HI, multiple mealtime injections of BIAsp30 resulted in a significant reduction in HbA1C[HI vs. BIAsp30 (%, geometric mean and range): 8.6 (7.4,11.4) vs. 8.3 (6.7,9.8), p = 0.013]. During treatment with BIAsp30, nighttime glycaemic control was significantly improved. Day-to-day variation in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and the rate of hypoglycaemia were not increased with BIAsp30 compared with HI. Conclusions:, In type 1 diabetics, multiple mealtime administration of BIAsp30 compared with traditional basal-bolus human insulin treatment significantly improves long-term glycaemic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycaemia. Despite a higher proportion of intermediate-acting insulin, thrice-daily injections with BIAsp30 do not increase the day-to-day variations in insulin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. [source]

    Does ethnic origin have an independent impact on hypertension and diabetic complications?

    V. Baskar
    Aim:, The morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular complications in diabetes reputedly differ with ethnicity. We have evaluated the prevalence of hypertension and vascular complications amongst Afro-Caribbean (AC), Caucasian (C) and Indo-Asian (IA) ethnic subgroups of a district's diabetes population to estimate the impact of ethnic origin as an independent risk variable. Methods:, Of the 6485 registered adult individuals, 6047 had ethnic data available and belonged to one of the three ethnic groups described (AC 9%, C 70% and IA 21%). Statistical analyses were performed using spss version 11.5. Results:, Results are presented as mean ± s.d. or percentage. IAs were younger (AC 63 ± 13, C 61 ± 15 and IA 57 ± 13 years), were less obese (body mass index 30 ± 8, 29 ± 9, 28 ± 6 kg/cm2) and had lower systolic blood pressure (155 ± 25, 149 ± 24, 147 ± 24 mmHg) and lower prevalence of hypertension (82%, 74% and 68%) compared with C, who had lower values than AC (all p < 0.01). Relative to C group, the AC group had higher prevalence of hypertension and microvascular complications but lower macrovascular disease burden, while the IA group had lower hypertension and macrovascular complications but with comparable microvascular disease burden [microvascular (51%, 44% and 46%; p < 0.01) and macrovascular (33%, 40% and 32%; p < 0.001)]. On logistic regression, this effect of ethnic origin on diabetic complications was found to be significant and independent of other risk variables. Conclusion:, Hypertension and diabetic complication rates were different amongst ethnic subgroups. On logistic regression, it was found that the difference in distribution of age and diabetes duration largely accounted for this difference, although ethnic origin remained an independent risk factor. [source]

    Comparison of additional metformin or NPH insulin to mealtime insulin lispro therapy with mealtime human insulin therapy in secondary OAD failure

    Y. Altuntas
    Aim:, It has been found that non-fasting plasma glucose is a better marker of diabetic control than fasting plasma glucose in type 2 diabetes. The main aim of treatment of type 2 diabetic patients is to control plasma glucose and HbA1c levels. In this study, we aimed to assess the effects of three different insulin regimens (group I: lispro insulin + NPH insulin, group II: lispro insulin + metformin and group III: regular insulin + NPH insulin) on overall glycaemic control and metabolic parameters in type 2 diabetic patients with secondary oral anti-diabetic drug failure. Methods:, Sixty type 2 diabetic patients with secondary OAD failure were randomly allocated into three different treatment groups equally. There were no significant differences between groups concerning age, body mass index, diabetes duration, HbA1c and serum lipid levels at the beginning of the study. During the 6-month treatment period, blood glucose levels were determined 10 times during 24 h at pre-meal, post-prandial 1 and 2 h and at bedtime. Results:, Group I was found to be the most effective treatment regimen in controlling HbA1c levels (group I vs. group II, p = 0.013; group I vs. group III, p = 0.001; group II vs. group III, p > 0.05). When the comparison was made in each group, change in HbA1c was statistically significant for all groups (,3.18%, p = 0.001; ,2.02%, p = 0.043 and ,2.66%, p = 0.008 respectively). Group I was found to be more effective in controlling fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels measured at all times during the day when compared with group II and group III. In group II triglyceride levels were found to be significantly reduced, whereas other groups had no effect on lipids. No serious hypoglycaemic episodes were observed in any of the cases, whereas in group I hypoglycaemic episode rates were increased (,2 = 8.843, p = 0.012). Conclusions:, Lispro insulin plus NPH insulin regimen is more effective in controlling both pre- and post-prandial glucose levels and HbA1c when compared to regular insulin plus NPH insulin combination. Mealtime lispro insulin plus metformin combination therapy should also be seriously considered as an effective and alternative treatment regimen. It is worthy of attention that insulin lispro plus metformin lowered triglyceride levels. [source]

    Stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus

    Boris N. Mankovsky
    Abstract The article's objective is to review the key advances in the scientific literature related to the association of stroke with diabetes mellitus and to summarize the current approaches to stroke prevention in diabetic patients. The key findings from the literature regarding stroke incidence in patients with diabetes, specific and nonspecific risk factors of stroke in the diabetic population, such as arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes duration, diabetic complications, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, course and outcome of stroke in subjects with diabetes and/or hyperglycemia, and the peculiarities of type, site and size of stroke in diabetic patients are discussed. The results of recent clinical trials aimed at correcting hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, to prevent stroke in people with diabetes, are reviewed. The medical database Medline along with original articles from peer-reviewed journals were used for analysis. There is convincing evidence suggesting that diabetes mellitus represents a strong independent risk factor of stroke. The contribution of hyperglycemia to increased stroke risk is not proven. Data suggest an association of the full cluster of the insulin resistance syndrome and stroke. Diabetes is a risk factor mainly for ischemic stroke, while its association with hemorrhagic stroke remains controversial. Hyperglycemia is common in stroke patients, but it is not known whether it independently influences the course and outcome of stroke or merely reflects stroke severity and location. Aggressive control of arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia allows to decrease the risk of stroke in diabetic patients substantially, while the importance of glucose control for stroke prevention remains unproven. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparing hormonal and symptomatic responses to experimental hypoglycaemia in insulin- and sulphonylurea-treated Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2009
    P. Choudhary
    Abstract Aims, Patients with diabetes rely on symptoms to identify hypoglycaemia. Previous data suggest patients with Type 2 diabetes develop greater symptomatic and hormonal responses to hypoglycaemia at higher glucose concentrations than non-diabetic controls and these responses are lowered by insulin treatment. It is unclear if this is as a result of insulin therapy itself or improved glucose control. We compared physiological responses to hypoglycaemia in patients with Type 2 diabetes patients treated with sulphonylureas (SUs) or insulin (INS) with non-diabetic controls (CON). Methods, Stepped hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemic clamps were performed on 20 subjects with Type 2 diabetes, 10 SU-treated and 10 treated with twice-daily premixed insulin, and 10 age- and weight-matched non-diabetic controls. Diabetic subjects were matched for diabetes duration, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and hypoglycaemia experience. We measured symptoms, counterregulatory hormones and cognitive function at glucose plateaux of 5, 4, 3.5, 3 and 2.5 mmol/l. Results, Symptomatic responses to hypoglycaemia occurred at higher blood glucose concentrations in SU-treated than INS-treated patients [3.5 (0.4) vs. 2.6 (0.5) mmol/l SU vs. INS; P = 0.001] or controls [SU vs. CON 3.5 (0.4) vs. 3.0 (0.6) mmol/l; P = 0.05]. They also had a greater increase in symptom scores at hypoglycaemia [13.6 (11.3) vs. 3.6 (6.1) vs. 5.1 (4.3) SU vs. INS vs. CON; P = 0.017]. There were no significant differences in counterregulatory hormone responses or impairment of cognitive function among groups. Conclusions, Sulphonylurea-treated subjects are more symptomatic of hypoglycaemia at a higher glucose level than insulin-treated subjects. This may protect them from severe hypoglycaemia but hinder attainment of glycaemic goals. [source]

    Severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic control in Type 1 diabetes: meta-analysis of multiple daily insulin injections compared with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2008
    J. C. Pickup
    Abstract Aims Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is a recommended treatment for reducing severe hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes, but the change in hypoglycaemia compared with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) is unclear. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis comparing severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic control during CSII and MDI. Methods Databases and literature (1996,2006) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and before/after studies of , 6 months' duration CSII and with severe hypoglycaemia frequency > 10 episodes/100 patient years on MDI. Results In 22 studies (21 reports), severe hypoglycaemia during MDI was related to diabetes duration (P = 0.038) and was greater in adults than children (100 vs. 36 events/100 patient years, P = 0.036). Severe hypoglycaemia was reduced during CSII compared with MDI, with a rate ratio of 2.89 (95% CI 1.45 to 5.76) for RCTs and 4.34 (2.87 to 6.56) for before/after studies [rate ratio 4.19 (2.86 to 6.13) for all studies]. The reduction was greatest in those with the highest initial severe hypoglycaemia rates on MDI (P < 0.001). The mean difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) between treatments was less for RCTs [0.21% (0.13,0.30%)] than in before/after studies [0.72% (0.55,0.90%)] but strongly related to the initial HbA1c on MDI (P < 0.001). Conclusions The severe hypoglycaemia rate in Type 1 diabetes was markedly less during CSII than MDI, with the greatest reduction in those with most severe hypoglycaemia on MDI and those with the longest duration of diabetes. The biggest improvement in HbA1c was in those with the highest HbA1c on MDI. [source]

    Flexible, intensive insulin therapy and dietary freedom in adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes: a prospective implementation study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2008
    A. Sämann
    Abstract Aims To assess the outcome of a Diabetes Treatment and Teaching Programme (DTTP) on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), severe hypoglycaemia (SH) and severe ketoacidosis (SKA) in adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes. Methods Quality-assurance project with assessment of participants 1 year after participation in a DTTP (5-day inpatient course, groups , 10 patients, fixed curriculum of education/training, introduction of dietary freedom). Before,after analyses of participants aged 12,15, 15,18, 18,21 and 21,24 years. Main outcome measures were HbA1c, SH and SKA. Results For the 1592 participants, aged 12 to 24 years, mean age at enrolment was 19 ± 3 years, mean duration of diabetes was 7.3 ± 5.4 (range 0.3,24) years, mean baseline HbA1c declined from 8.8 ± 2.3% to 8.1 ± 2.0%. The incidence of SH was 0.31 vs. 0.11 events/patient/year; the incidence of SKA 0.17 vs. 0.07 events/patient/year. In mixed effects models taking into account effects of centres, age and diabetes duration, the mean difference was ,0.64%[P < 0.001, 95% confidence interval (CI) ,0.79 to ,0.5] for HbA1c, ,0.2 events/patient/year (P < 0.0001, 95% CI ,0.28 to ,0.12) for SH and ,0.1 events/patient/year (P < 0.0001, 95% CI ,0.14 to ,0.06) for SKA. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes benefit from participation in a standard DTTP for flexible, intensive insulin therapy and dietary freedom. [source]

    Hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2008
    S. A. Amiel
    Abstract The primary cause of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes is diabetes medication,in particular, those which raise insulin levels independently of blood glucose, such as sulphonylureas (SUs) and exogenous insulin. The risk of hypoglycaemia is increased in older patients, those with longer diabetes duration, lesser insulin reserve and perhaps in the drive for strict glycaemic control. Differing definitions, data collection methods, drug type/regimen and patient populations make comparing rates of hypoglycaemia difficult. It is clear that patients taking insulin have the highest rates of self-reported severe hypoglycaemia (25% in patients who have been taking insulin for > 5 years). SUs are associated with significantly lower rates of severe hypoglycaemia. However, large numbers of patients take SUs in the UK, and it is estimated that each year > 5000 patients will experience a severe event caused by their SU therapy which will require emergency intervention. Hypoglycaemia has substantial clinical impact, in terms of mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The cost implications of severe episodes,both direct hospital costs and indirect costs,are considerable: it is estimated that each hospital admission for severe hypoglycaemia costs around £1000. Hypoglycaemia and fear of hypoglycaemia limit the ability of current diabetes medications to achieve and maintain optimal levels of glycaemic control. Newer therapies, which focus on the incretin axis, may carry a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. Their use, and more prudent use of older therapies with low risk of hypoglycaemia, may help patients achieve improved glucose control for longer, and reduce the risk of diabetic complications. [source]

    The locus of control in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes managed by individual and group care

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 1 2008
    M. Trento
    Abstract Aims The locus of control theory distinguishes people (internals) who attribute events in life to their own control, and those (externals) who attribute events to external circumstances. It is used to assess self-management behaviour in chronic illnesses. Group care is a model of systemic group education that improves lifestyle behaviour and quality of life in patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the locus of control in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes and the possible differences between patients managed by group care and control subjects followed by traditional one-to-one care. Methods Cross-sectional administration of two questionnaires (one specific for diabetes and one generic for chronic diseases) to 83 patients followed for at least 5 years by group care (27 Type 1 and 56 Type 2) and 79 control subjects (28 Type 1 and 51 Type 2) of similar sex, age and diabetes duration. Both tools explore internal control of disease, the role of chance in changing it and reliance upon others (family, friends and health professionals). Results Patients with Type 1 diabetes had lower internal control, greater fatalistic attitudes and less trust in others. Patients with either type of diabetes receiving group care had higher internal control and lower fatalism; the higher trust in others in those with Type 1 diabetes was not statistically significant. The differences associated with group care were independent of sex, age and diabetes duration. Conclusions Patients with Type 1 diabetes may have lower internal control, fatalism and reliance upon others than those with Type 2 diabetes. Receiving group care is associated with higher internal control, reduced fatalism and, in Type 1 diabetes, increased trust in others. [source]

    QT interval prolongation in association with impaired circadian variation of blood pressure and heart rate in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2007
    K. Karavanaki
    Abstract Aims, The aim of our study was to assess diurnal blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability and their possible relationship to the duration of the QT interval in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Methods, In 48 normotensive, normoalbuminuric diabetic adolescents, with a mean (± sd) age of 17.3 (± 4.1) years and a mean (± sd) diabetes duration of 8.5 (± 3.3) years, 24-h ambulatory BP was recorded. In addition, 24-h heart rate (HR) monitoring was performed and QT and corrected QT (QTc) intervals were estimated as indices of autonomic function. The patients were divided into two groups according to the absence of a decrease (non-dippers) or the presence of a decrease (dippers) in nocturnal diastolic BP (DBP). Results, In comparison with the dippers, the non-dippers showed reduced mean 24-h HR (79.6 vs. 84.0 beats/min, P = 0.05) and reduced mean daytime HR (81.3 vs. 86.0 beats/min, P = 0.05). The QT interval was prolonged in the non-dippers (366.3 vs. 347.5 ms, P = 0.015), and end systolic (28.7 vs. 25.9 mm, P = 0.004) and end diastolic left ventricular diameters (47.8 vs. 45.5 mm, P = 0.037) were greater. In stepwise multiple regression, HR variables were the most important factors affecting DBP ratio or the duration of the QT interval. Conclusions, In conclusion, normotensive diabetic adolescents with impaired nocturnal BP reduction also have impaired autonomic function tests, in association with prolonged QT interval and increased left ventricular diameters. These findings suggest that diabetic adolescents who have the ,non-dipper' phenomenon may need close follow-up for the possible development of vascular complications, such as cardiac arrhythmias and left-ventricular hypertrophy. [source]

    Nocturnal hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetic patients, assessed with continuous glucose monitoring: frequency, duration and associations

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2007
    I. M. E. Wentholt
    Abstract Aims, We quantified the occurrence and duration of nocturnal hypoglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) or multiple-injection therapy (MIT) using a continuous subcutaneous glucose sensor. Methods, A microdialysis sensor was worn at home by 24 patients on CSII (mean HbA1c 7.8 ± 0.9%) and 33 patients on MIT (HbA1c 8.7 ± 1.3%) for 48 h. Occurrence and duration of nocturnal hypoglycaemia were assessed and using multivariate regression analysis, the association between HbA1c, diabetes duration, treatment type (CSII vs. MIT), fasting and bedtime blood glucose values, total daily insulin dose and mean nocturnal glucose concentrations, and hypoglycaemia occurrence and duration was investigated. Results, Nocturnal hypoglycaemia , 3.9 mmol/l occurred in 33.3% of both the CSII- (8/24) and MIT-treated patients (11/33). Mean (± sd; median, interquartile range) duration of hypoglycaemia , 3.9 mmol/l was 78 (± 76; 57, 23,120) min per night for the CSII- and 98 (± 80; 81, 32,158) min per night for the MIT-treated group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that bedtime glucose value had the strongest association with the occurrence (P = 0.026) and duration (P = 0.032) of nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Conclusions, Microdialysis continuous glucose monitoring has enabled more precise quantification of nocturnal hypoglycaemia occurrence and duration in Type 1 diabetic patients. Occurrence and duration of nocturnal hypoglycaemia were mainly associated with bedtime glucose value. [source]

    Prevalence of autoimmune diseases in islet transplant candidates with severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic lability: previously undiagnosed coeliac and autoimmune thyroid disease is identified by screening

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
    M. Walter
    Abstract Aims, Autoimmune diseases such as Addison's or coeliac disease can contribute to hypoglycaemia or malabsorption and are more common in Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This brief report describes the prevalence of known and newly detected autoimmune disease in clinical islet transplant candidates with longstanding T1DM and severe hypoglycaemia and/or glycaemic lability who are routinely screened for coexisting autoimmune disease. Methods, One hundred and twenty-four C-peptide negative T1DM subjects [77 (62%) female, mean age 44 ± 9 years, diabetes duration 28 ± 11 years, body mass index 24.9 ± 3.5 kg/m2] with indications for clinical islet transplantation at the University of Alberta were screened for autoimmune disease by history and measurement of anti-transglutaminase antibodies (positive > 10 U/ml), 09.00 h cortisol (followed by adrenocorticotrophic hormone-stimulation if < 495 nmol/l) and thyroid-stimulating hormone to determine the prevalence of coeliac disease, Addison's disease and autoimmune thyroid disease, respectively. Results, Forty per cent of subjects had one or more coexisting autoimmune disease. The prevalence of autoimmune disease was 35%, coeliac disease 8% and Addison's disease 1.6%. In 11 individuals (9%), one or more autoimmune disease were newly detected (seven coeliac disease and five thyroid disease). Seven of 10 cases of coeliac disease were newly detected. A gluten-free diet in individuals with newly diagnosed coeliac disease reduced gastrointestinal symptoms, but indications for clinical islet cell transplantation persisted. Conclusions, Coexisting autoimmune disease is common in candidates for clinical islet cell transplantation. Screening in this group identified a substantial number of previously unrecognized cases. Clinicians should consider the presence of autoimmune disease even in the absence of classical symptoms. [source]

    Evaluation of a programme of group visits and computer-assisted consultations in the treatment of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2005
    M. Graue
    Abstract Aim To examine the effects of group visits and computer-assisted consultations on quality of life and glycaemic control in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Methods A total of 116 adolescents, aged 11,17 years, and their parents were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 62) or a control group (n = 54). The intervention group was invited to a 15-month programme comprising group visits and computer-assisted consultations. The control group was offered traditional out-patient consultations. Outcomes included changes in HbA1c and the adolescents' assessment of generic and disease-specific health-related quality of life measured by the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF87) and the Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire (DQOL), respectively. Results One hundred and one adolescents (55/46) agreed to participate, mean age 14.2 years (sd 1.5), mean diabetes duration 6.5 years (sd 3.6, range 1,16 years), mean HbA1c 9.3% (sd 1.4, range 6.1,12.8%). Eighty-three (72%) completed the questionnaires at follow-up (intervention/control 45/38). There were significant age by randomization group interactions for diabetes-related impact (P = 0.018), diabetes-related worries (P = 0.004), mental health (P = 0.046) and general behaviour (P = 0.029), implying that the intervention was effective in older adolescents (above 13,14 years). No significant effects on mean HbA1c were identified. Conclusions Group visits and computer-assisted consultations had beneficial effects on health-related quality of life in older adolescents, the role of this intervention being questionable in younger adolescents. [source]

    Unchanged incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes: a nation-wide study in Iceland

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2005
    G. Tryggvason
    Abstract Aims Diabetic nephropathy is an uncommon cause of end-stage renal disease in Iceland in contrast to most industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Iceland. Methods All patients diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in Iceland before 1992 were studied retrospectively. Patients diagnosed before age 30, who were insulin dependent from the onset, were defined as having Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as persistent proteinuria measured with a dipstick test (Albustix) on three consecutive clinic visits at least 2 months apart. Patients were followed to the end of year 1998, to their last recorded outpatient visit, or until death. The cumulative incidence of diabetic nephropathy was calculated with the Kaplan,Meier method and presented according to the duration of diabetes divided into 5-year intervals. Results A total of 343 patients with Type 1 diabetes were identified. The mean follow-up period was 20.2 ± 11.4 (mean ± sd) years. Only 9.3% of patients were lost to follow-up. Sixty-five patients developed diabetic nephropathy. The cumulative incidence was 22.6% at 20 years and levelled off at 40.3% after approximately 35 years of diabetes duration. No significant changes in cumulative incidence were observed over time. Mean glycated haemoglobin was 8.4% in patients with proteinuria and 7.8% in a group of patients without proteinuria that was matched for age, gender and duration of diabetes (P = 0.04). Conclusions The cumulative incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Iceland is comparable with previously reported cumulative incidence rates and has remained unchanged. Glycaemic control was significantly better in patients without proteinuria. [source]

    The value of the Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork as a predictor of diabetic polyneuropathy compared with a neurothesiometer

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 6 2004
    T. Kästenbauer
    Abstract Aims The aim of the study was to investigate the predictive value of the Rydel-Seiffer tuning fork for detecting diabetic neuropathy and to compare it with an electronic neurothesiometer. Methods In 2022 consecutive diabetic subjects, peripheral polyneuropathy was diagnosed by vibration perception threshold (VPT) at the tip of both great toes using a 128-Hz tuning fork and a neurothesiometer, by simple bedside tests and by the presence of neuropathic symptoms. These evaluations were further combined to diagnose peripheral nerve dysfunction (abnormal bedside tests) and symptomatic neuropathy. VPT was also measured in 175 non-diabetic control subjects to define normal values. Results VPT was normal in 1917 subjects and abnormal in 105 (5.2%) patients when measured by the tuning fork. Patients with an abnormal vibration test were significantly (P < 0.0001) older than subjects with a normal vibration sense, while diabetes duration and HbA1c of the former were also significantly elevated. The same was true for the percentages of an abnormal 10-g monofilament test (66.7% vs. 7.2%, P < 0.0001) and a missing Achilles' tendon reflex (68.6% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.0001). Finally, the VPT measured by the neurothesiometer was 2.5 times higher in patients with an abnormal tuning fork test (32.0 ± 9.8 vs. 12.5 ± 6.4 V, P < 0.0001). The plot of the difference of both methods against their mean yielded a good agreement of the two VPT measurements, and the tuning fork had a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the diagnosis of abnormal bedside tests and for symptomatic neuropathy. Conclusion The tuning fork reliably detected peripheral neuropathy in comparison with the neurothesiometer. A tuning fork is a useful screening test for diabetic neuropathy. [source]

    How should peripheral neuropathy be assessed in people with diabetes in primary care?

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2003
    A population-based comparison of four measures
    Abstract Aims To test the accuracy of four measures of peripheral diabetic neuropathy in a primary care population. Methods Type 2 diabetic (n = 544) and 544 non-diabetic participants aged 45,76 years were randomly selected from general practice registers. Neuropathy was assessed using vibration threshold (VT) and scores for light touch, thermal sense and modified Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire. These measures were assessed for variation with diabetes status, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, and presence of retinopathy and nephropathy. Light touch, thermal sense and questionnaire scores were assessed against VT using ROC curve analysis. Results Only VT and light touch were different between diabetic and non-diabetic groups (P = 0.02 and < 0.0001, respectively). All measures were significantly associated with diabetes duration and retinopathy, and all except questionnaire score (P = 0.14) with age. None was associated with nephropathy and only questionnaire score was associated with HbA1c (P = 0.033). VT varied as expected across scores of light touch (,2 = 41.65, P = 0.0001), thermal sense (,2 = 15.86, P = 0.015) and questionnaire (,2 = 21.22, P = 0.047). Area under the curve values for light touch, thermal and questionnaire scores were 0.72 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63, 0.82), 0.63 (95% CI 0.52, 0.73) and 0.64 (95% CI 0.53, 0.74), respectively. Conclusions All measures had associations with risk factors for neuropathy, but light touch score (monofilament) had the strongest association with vibration threshold (the chosen gold standard) and thus appeared the most appropriate tool for use in primary care, because of its validity and simplicity of use. Diabet. Med. 20, 368,374 (2003) [source]

    Autoantibodies to the islet cell antigen SOX-13 are associated with duration but not type of diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2003
    T. M. E. Davis
    Abstract Aims The autoantigen SOX-13 of the SRY-related high mobility group box is a low-frequency reactant in sera from patients with Type 1 diabetes. We further investigated the potential diagnostic role of anti-SOX-13, and in particular its ability to distinguish Type 1 from Type 2 diabetes, in two large, well-characterized cohorts. Methods SOX-13 autoantibody status was ascertained using a radioimmunoprecipitation assay in (i) a random sample of 546 participants in an Australian community-based study (the Fremantle Diabetes Study; FDS) of whom 119 had Type 1 and 427 Type 2 diabetes, and (ii) a sample of 333 subjects with Type 2 diabetes from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) stratified by age, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and islet cell antibody (ICA) status, and requirement for insulin therapy within 6 years of diagnosis. Results The frequencies of anti-SOX-13 in the FDS subjects were 16.0% and 14.8% for Type 1 and Type 2 patients, respectively, and levels were similar. In the UKPDS subjects, the frequency was 4.5%. In a logistic regression model involving demographic, anthropometric and metabolic variables, only diabetes duration was significantly associated with anti-SOX-13 positivity, especially for duration > 5 years (P < 0.002). When the coexistence of autoantibodies was assessed in the two study samples, there were no significant associations between anti-SOX-13 and ICA, anti-GAD or ICA512/IA-2. Conclusions Whilst the frequency of anti-SOX-13 may be increased in some populations of diabetic patients, this reactivity does not usefully distinguish Type 1 from Type 2 diabetes. However, the association with diabetes duration suggests that anti-SOX-13 may be a non-specific marker of tissue damage associated with chronic hyperglycaemia. Diabet. Med. 20, 198,204 (2003) [source]

    Impairment of cerebral autoregulation in diabetic patients with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and orthostatic hypotension

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2003
    B. N. Mankovsky
    Abstract Aims Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and autoregulation has been previously reported in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the contribution of cardiovascular diabetic autonomic neuropathy and orthostatic hypotension to the pathogenesis of such disturbances is not known. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cerebral blood flow velocity in response to standing in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with or without orthostatic hypotension. Methods We studied 27 patients with diabetes,eight had cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and orthostatic hypotension (age 46.4 ± 13.5 years, diabetes duration 25.0 ± 11.0 years), seven had autonomic neuropathy without hypotension (age 47.3 ± 12.7 years, diabetes duration 26.4 ± 12.1 years), and 12 had no evidence of autonomic neuropathy (age 44.1 ± 13.8 years, diabetes duration 17.1 ± 10.2 years),and 12 control subjects (age 42.6 ± 9.7 years). Flow velocity was recorded in the right middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler sonography in the supine position and after active standing. Results Cerebral flow velocity in the supine position was not different between the groups studied. Active standing resulted in a significant drop of mean and diastolic flow velocities in autonomic neuropathy patients with orthostatic hypotension, while there were no such changes in the other groups. The relative changes in mean flow velocity 1 min after standing up were ,22.7 ± 16.25% in patients with neuropathy and orthostatic hypotension, +0.02 ± 9.8% in those with neuropathy without hypotension, ,2.8 ± 14.05% in patients without neuropathy, and ,9.2 ± 15.1% in controls. Conclusions Patients with diabetes and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy with orthostatic hypotension show instability in cerebral blood flow upon active standing, which suggests impaired cerebral autoregulation. [source]

    Low prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in Type 1 diabetic patients without nephropathy

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2001
    J. A. Meinhold
    Abstract Aim To assess the prevalence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in Type 1 diabetic patients with and without nephropathy. Methods Sixty-six consecutive patients without nephropathy (n = 24), with incipient (n = 26) or overt nephropathy (n = 16) and a diabetes duration between 21 and 31 years were examined. Heart rate variability (HRV) as measure for CAN was investigated with short-term spectral analysis in the low-frequency (LF) band (0.06,0.15 Hz), reflecting sympathetic and vagal activity, and high-frequency (HF) band (0.15,0.50 Hz), reflecting vagal activity. HRV was expressed as spectral power (ms2, log-transformed). Normal, age-corresponding reference values were established in 184 controls. QTc intervals and dispersion were measured. Results After adjustment for age, there was no significant difference between healthy controls and patients without nephropathy. After further adjustment for diabetes duration, HbA1c, hypertension and treatment with ,-blockers, HRV in both frequency bands decreased with evidence of nephropathy. LF band (supine): patients without nephropathy 5.56 (4.89,6.21) (least squares means and 95% confidence interval (CI)), incipient nephropathy 5.72 (5.15,6.29) and overt nephropathy 4.11 (3.27,4.96). HF band (supine): without nephropathy 5.93 (5.26,6.60), incipient nephropathy 5.99 (5.41,6.57) and overt nephropathy 4.84 (4.00,5.68). Significant differences were found for patients without and with incipient nephropathy compared with those with overt nephropathy in the LF band and between patients with incipient nephropathy compared with those with overt nephropathy in the HF band. QTc intervals and QTc dispersion increased significantly with increasing nephropathy. Conclusions Long-term Type 1 diabetes without nephropathy was not associated with impaired cardiac autonomic function in our study. However, in those with nephropathy, a loss of both vagal and sympathetic activity was present, and the severity of CAN correlated positively with more advanced nephropathy. Diabet. Med. 18, 607,613 (2001) [source]

    Beta-cell function evaluated by HOMA as a predictor of secondary sulphonylurea failure in Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2001
    M. J Taverna
    Abstract Background and aims Secondary failure to oral hypoglycaemic agents, a common evolution of long-standing Type 2 diabetes, is usually assessed by non-standardized indices requiring fine clinical assessment, including hyperglycaemia resistant to maximum doses of sulphonylureas despite appropriate diet and follow-up. The goal of this study was to evaluate if HOMA, a modelized plasma insulin/glucose ratio allowing simple evaluation of residual insulin secretion and sensitivity, is a better predictor of the insulin requiring stage than clinical indices. Materials and methods HOMA was measured in 84 Type 2 diabetic patients aged 58 ± sd 6 years, with diabetes duration 11 ± 4 years, hospitalized because of hyperglycaemia resistant to maximal doses of sulphonylureas (e.g. glibenclamide ,,15 mg/day), with no apparent external reason for hyperglycaemia. Despite reinforced appropriate diet recommendations, 62 of these patients remained hyperglycaemic (insulin-requiring group). Results Age, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI) and HOMA value for insulin sensitivity (71 ± 6% vs. 76 ± 7%, normal values 59,161%) were comparable in the two groups. HbA1c was higher (10.0 ± 0.2% vs. 8.3 ± 0.3%, P < 0.001) and HOMA insulin secretion values lower (25 ± 2% vs. 43 ± 6%, normal values 70,150%, P < 0.01) in the insulin-requiring group. Of the following potential predictors: HbA1c >,8%, duration of diabetes ,,10 years, HbA1c combined with diabetes duration, insulin sensitivity ,,40%, insulin secretion ,,20%, the latter showed the best positive predictivity (86% patients with low insulin secretion were insulin-requiring). Conclusions (i) HOMA is a simple and good predictor of the insulin-requiring stage in Type 2 diabetes mellitus; (ii) this stage of diabetes is characterized by a further decline of insulin secretion rather than of insulin sensitivity. Diabet. Med. 18, 584,588 (2001) [source]

    Is There Any Relationship between Metabolic Parameters and Left Ventricular Functions in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Evident Heart Disease?

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2008
    Mehmet Yazici M.D.
    Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate left ventricle (LV) systolic and diastolic function, using tissue Doppler echocardiography (TDE) and color M-mode flow propagation velocity, in relation to blood glucose status in normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had no clinical evidence of heart disease. Methods: Seventy-two patients with T2DM (mean age 49.1 ± 9.8 years) without symptoms, signs or history of heart disease and hypertension, and 50 ages matched healthy controls (mean age 46.1 ± 9.8 years) had echocardiography. Systolic and diastolic LV functions were detected by using conventional echocardiography, TDE and mitral color M-mode flow propagation velocity (VE). Fasting blood glucose level (FBG) after 8 hours since eating a meal, postprandial blood glucose level (PPG), and HbA1C level were determined. The association of FBG, PPG and HbA1C with the echocardiographic parameters was investigated. Results: It was detected that although systolic functions of two groups were similar, diastolic functions were significantly impaired in diabetics. No relation of FBG and PPG with systolic and diastolic functions was determined. However, HbA1C was found to be related to diastolic parameters such as E/A, Em/Am, VE and E/VE (,=,0.314, P = < 0.05; ,=,0.230, P < 0.05; ,=,0.602, P < 0.001, ,= 0.387, P < 0.005, respectively). In addition to HbA1C, LV, diastolic functions were also correlated with age and diabetes duration. Conclusion: Diastolic LV dysfunction may develop even in absence of ischemia, hypertension, and LVH in T2DM. FBG and PPG have no effect on LV functions, but HbA1C levels may affect diastolic parameters. [source]

    Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 vs. insulin glargine in insulin naïve type 2 diabetes patients: modelling the long-term health economic implications in a Swedish setting

    G. Goodall
    Summary Objectives:, To evaluate the long-term clinical and economic outcomes of biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 (BIAsp 70/30) treatment vs. insulin glargine in insulin naïve, type 2 diabetes patients failing oral antidiabetic drugs in a Swedish setting. Methods:, A published and validated computer simulation model (the CORE Diabetes Model) was used to project life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) and costs over patient lifetimes. Cohort characteristics [54.5% male, mean age 52.4 years, 9 years mean diabetes duration, mean glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) 9.77%] and treatment effects were based on results from the Initiate Insulin by Aggressive Titration and Education (INITIATE) clinical trial. Direct medical costs were accounted in 2006 Swedish Kronor (SEK) and economic and clinical benefits were discounted at 3% per annum. Results:, Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 treatment when compared with insulin glargine treatment was associated with improvements in discounted life expectancy of 0.21 years (13.10 vs. 12.89 years) and QALE of 0.21 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (9.16 vs. 8.96 QALYs). Reductions in the incidence of diabetes-related complications in the BIAsp 70/30 treatment arm led to reduced total costs of SEK 10,367 when compared with insulin glargine (SEK 396,475 vs. SEK 406,842) over patient lifetimes. BIAsp 70/30 treatment was projected to be dominant (cost and lifesaving) when compared with insulin glargine in the base case analysis. Conclusions:, Biphasic insulin aspart 70/30 treatment was associated with improved clinical outcomes and reduced costs compared with insulin glargine treatment over patient lifetimes. These results were driven by improved HbA1c levels associated with BIAsp 70/30 compared with insulin glargine and the accompanying reduction in diabetes-related complications despite increases in body mass index. [source]

    Early changes in renal hemodynamics in children with diabetes: Doppler sonographic findings

    Piernicola Pelliccia MD
    Abstract Purpose Although clinically evident diabetes-related microvascular complications are extremely rare in childhood, early functional and structural abnormalities may be present a few years after the onset of the disease. Renal Doppler resistance index (RI) is widely used for the evaluation of blood flow in renal parenchymal diseases. This study was designed to investigate the possible alteration of intrarenal Doppler RI in children with diabetes compared with healthy children. Methods The study was performed in 42 children with diabetes (age range, 6,18 years) and in 41 age-matched healthy controls, all having normal renal function. RI was measured with Doppler sonography in interlobular renal arteries. Results RI values were significantly greater in children with diabetes than in age-matched healthy controls (0.64 ± 0.03 versus 0.60 ± 0.04, P < 0.035). RI correlated positively with HbA1c (P < 0.001, r = 0.42) and diabetes duration (P < 0.05, r = 0.39). Conclusion Early changes in renal hemodynamics are detectable on Doppler sonography in children with diabetes without any evidence of renal dysfunction and may suggest a preclinical stage of diabetic nephropathy. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2008. [source]

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Many patients with Type 1 diabetes estimate their prandial insulin need inappropriately

    JOURNAL OF DIABETES, Issue 3 2010
    Aila J. AHOLA
    Abstract Background:, Many factors contribute to the need for prandial insulin in Type 1 diabetes. However, patients' success in achieving normal postprandial glucose concentration is understudied. The aim of the present study was to determine how often patients with Type 1 diabetes achieve normal postprandial glucose concentrations and to evaluate factors associated with postprandial hypo- and hyperglycemia. Methods:, Data on food intake, physical activity, insulin administration, and blood glucose concentration were collected using a self-administered questionnaire from 331 patients with Type 1 diabetes (43% men; mean age 49 ± 12 years; mean diabetes duration 32 ± 13 years). Of these, 179 provided data on blood glucose concentrations measured 110,150 min postprandially. One such meal per patient was randomized for analyses. Results:, Hypoglycemia (<4.0 mmol/L), normoglycemia (4.0,7.9 mmol/L), and hyperglycemia (,8.0 mmol/L) were observed after 23%, 36%, and 41% of meals, respectively. The three postprandial glycemia groups did not differ with respect to the meal composition or the timing of the postprandial blood glucose measurement. In women, postprandial hyperglycemia was associated with shorter diabetes duration and higher preprandial blood glucose concentration, whereas postprandial hypoglycemia was associated with higher physical activity. No single factor explained the postprandial glycemic state in men. Conclusions:, A total of 64% of patients estimated their prandial insulin need inappropriately, suggesting that estimation of the optimal prandial insulin dose is not easy, even after a long duration of diabetes. [source]

    Prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and relation to glycemic control therapies at baseline in the BARI 2D cohort

    Rodica Pop-Busui
    Abstract We evaluated the associations between glycemic therapies and prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) at baseline among participants in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) trial on medical and revascularization therapies for coronary artery disease (CAD) and on insulin-sensitizing vs. insulin-providing treatments for diabetes. A total of 2,368 patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD was evaluated. DPN was defined as clinical examination score >2 using the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI). DPN odds ratios across different groups of glycemic therapy were evaluated by multiple logistic regression adjusted for multiple covariates including age, sex, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and diabetes duration. Fifty-one percent of BARI 2D subjects with valid baseline characteristics and MNSI scores had DPN. After adjusting for all variables, use of insulin was significantly associated with DPN (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.15,2.13). Patients on sulfonylurea (SU) or combination of SU/metformin (Met)/thiazolidinediones (TZD) had marginally higher rates of DPN than the Met/TZD group. This cross-sectional study in a cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD showed association of insulin use with higher DPN prevalence, independent of disease duration, glycemic control, and other characteristics. The causality between a glycemic control strategy and DPN cannot be evaluated in this cross-sectional study, but continued assessment of DPN and randomized therapies in BARI 2D trial may provide further explanations on the development of DPN. [source]

    Early Detection Of Diminished Baroreflex Sensitivity In Diabetic Patients Without Evidence Of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy

    D Ziegler
    Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) carries an increased risk of mortality. Decreased baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) has been identified as a predictor of increased mortality following myocardial infarction. We evaluated spontaneous BRS in 39 healthy control subjects (C: age (mean ± SEM): 41.5 ± 1.9 years) and 116 diabetic patients (64% Type 1, 36% Type 2; age: 45.8 ± 1.4 years; diabetes duration: 16.9 ± 1.0 years; HbA1c: 9.2 ± 0.2%) using cross-spectral analysis between systolic blood pressure and heart rate in the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands as well as time domain (sequence) analysis in the supine and standing positions over 10 min. According to previously suggested definitions based on autonomic function tests (AFTs), 36 patients had definite CAN (CAN+: 3 of 7 indices abnormal), 13 had borderline CAN (CAN[+]: 2 of 7 indices abnormal), and 64 had no evidence of CAN (CAN,: 1 of 7 indices abnormal). Maximum gain in cross-spectral LF band (standing) was significantly reduced in CAN, as compared with C (5.2 ± 0.4 vs. 7.2 ± 0.8 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05). Moreover, maximum gain in cross-spectral HF band was significantly lower in CAN, than in C (supine: 12.0 ± 1.2 vs. 17.9 ± 2.5 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05; standing: 4.9 ± 0.5 vs. 8.7 ± 1.0 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05). The slope of the regression line between defined increases or reductions in systolic blood pressure and R-R intervals was significantly reduced in CAN, compared to C (supine: 10.6 ± 0.7 vs. 14.2 ± 1.6 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05; standing: 5.6 ± 0.4 vs. 8.1 ± 0.7 ms/mmHg, p < 0.05). Similar differences were obtained when comparing the CAN, and CAN[+] groups, the latter showing significantly reduced BRS by both techniques (p < 0.05). In contrast, no such differences were noted when comparing the CAN[+] and CAN+ groups. In conclusion, reduced spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity is an early marker of autonomic dysfunction at a stage when autonomic function tests do not yet indicate the presence of CAN, while cases with borderline CAN show a degree of BRS abnormality that is comparable to the level seen in definite CAN. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate whether reduced BRS is a predictor of mortality in diabetic patients. [source]

    24 Electrogastrography EGG in pancreas diabetes

    Background:, Timing and criteria of testing for gastric dysmotility in pancreatic diabetes is not well established. Aim:, To investigate the pattern of EGG and autonomic neuropathy (AN) in patients with pancreas diabetes mellitus to clarify the relationship between autonomic neuropathy, alcohol consumption, glucose homeostasis, diabetes duration, and EGG. Patients and methods:, Thirty patients with pancreas diabetes mellitus were enrolled into the study. Mean duration of diabetes mellitus was 11 (0,25) years, mean blood glucose levels: 8.13 ± 2.7 mmoll,1, HbA1c 8.3 ± 2.96%; 25/30 patients were treated with insulin, the others were on rigorous diet, all of them received high dose pancreatin substitution therapy. Ten matched controls without diabetes and pancreatic insufficiency were also examined. AN was evaluated by the cardiovascular reflex tests according to the Ewing's criteria (Diab. Care 8 (5): 491,497, 1985.), EGG was monitored for 30,30 min in both fasting and in postprandial states, using a Digitrapper EGG (Synectic Med., Stockholm). EGG rhythm disturbances (bradygastria: 0,2 cpm, tachygastria: 4,10 cpm) and meal evoked EGG signal amplitude (power) changes were determined. Results:, 9/30 pts had mild to moderate parasympathetic AN, 1/30 pts had sympathetic AN, 5/30 pts had both parasympathetic and sympathetic AN; 17/30 pts demonstrated myoelectric abnormalities: 5/30 pts had predominant bradygastria, 3/30 tachygastria, and in other 9/30 pts only an absence of increase in the postprandial signal amplitude was found. Overall, 7/30 pts with abnormal EGG did not demonstrated AN. Abnormal EGG showed no correlation with actual blood sugar values or HbA1c, but it was associated with diabetes duration more than 10 years. Conclusion:, Our results suggest that beside neuropathy other factors such as alcohol toxicity, sympathetic and parasympathetic imbalance or long-term inappropriate glucose metabolism may be involved in the gastric myoelectric abnormalities provoked by pancreas diabetes. [source]

    Relationship Between Abnormal Microvolt T-Wave Alternans and Poor Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Background:Abnormal microvolt T-wave alternans (TWA) predicts the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Although type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of these events, there is a dearth of available data on microvolt TWA measurements in type 2 diabetic populations. Methods:We studied 59 consecutive type 2 diabetic outpatients without manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 35 non-diabetic controls who were matched for age, sex, and blood pressure values. Microvolt TWA analysis was performed non-invasively using the CH-2000 system during a sub-maximal exercise with the patient sitting on a bicycle ergometer. Results:The frequency of abnormal TWA was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls (25.4 vs 5.7%; P < 0.01). Among diabetic patients, those with abnormal TWA (n = 15) had remarkably higher hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (8.1 ± 0.9 vs 7.1 ± 0.8%, P < 0.001) and slightly smaller time-domain heart rate variability parameters (i.e., RMSSD, root mean square of difference of successive R-R intervals) than those with normal TWA (n = 44). Gender, age, body mass index, lipids, blood pressure values, cigarette smoking, diabetes duration, microvascular complication status, QTc interval, and current use of medications did not significantly differ between the groups. In multivariate regression logistic analysis, HbA1c (OR 13.6, 95% CI 2.0,89.1; P = 0.0076) predicted abnormal TWA independent of RMSSD values and other potential confounders. Conclusions:Our findings suggest that abnormal TWA is a very common condition (,25%) among people with type 2 diabetes without manifest CVD and is closely correlated to glycemic control. [source]

    Characterization of 33 488 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes based on the gender-specific increase of cardiovascular risk factors

    PEDIATRIC DIABETES, Issue 5 2010
    K Otfried Schwab
    Schwab KO, Doerfer J, Marg W, Schober E, Holl RW. Characterization of 33 488 children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes based on the gender-specific increase of cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives: Characterization of children with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) regarding number and gender distribution of cardiovascular risk factors (cvRF) and of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL-C ratio) for risk assessment. Methods: 33488 patients ,18 years were included in this cross-sectional analysis and placed into 5 categories by their number of cvRF. Dyslipidemia (TC >200 mg/dL, >5.17 mmol/L; and/or HDL-C <35 mg/dL, <0.91 mmol/L; and/or LDL-C >130 mg/dL, >3.36 mmol/L), elevated systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (BP) ,90th percentile, obesity >97th percentile, active smoking, and HbA1c ,7.5% were considered as cvRF. Results: 65% had no or 1 cvRF. HbA1c ,7.5% was the most frequently occurring cvRF followed by BP ,90th percentile, dyslipidemia, smoking, and BMI >97th percentile. Age at diabetic onset ranged from 7.7 to 9.2 years and diabetes duration from 4.1 to 6.6 years. CvRF showed differences in disfavour of females except smoking and HDL-C <35 mg/dL (0.91 mmol/L). Rate of females was 45% with 0 cvRF and 60% with 4 to 5 cvRF. TC/HDL-C ratio showed no clear association to the number of cvRF. Conclusions: 35% of a pediatric T1DM population develops 2 or more cvRF thus increasing their cv risk in adulthood. With increasing numbers of cvRF, the percentage of girls is rising from 45% to 60% which might contribute to an assimilation of survival rates in female and male adults. TC/HDL ratio does not predict the extent of cardiovascular risk in pediatric T1DM. [source]