Diabetes Control (diabetes + control)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Insulin therapy and quality of life.

DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue S1 2009
A review
Abstract Three central goals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus are (1) the avoidance of hyperglycaemia to prevent the development or progression of diabetes complications over time, (2) the avoidance of hypoglycaemia and (3) the maintenance or achievement of good quality of life. Insulin is the most powerful agent that can be used to control blood glucose levels. This article reviews the studies that have investigated the effects of different types of insulin and insulin delivery techniques on quality of life of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. First, the concept of ,quality of life' (QoL) is defined and different ways of measuring QoL are explained. Secondly, the effects of different aspects of insulin therapy on QoL are reviewed: (1) the phenomenon of ,psychological insulin resistance'; (2) the effects of different types of insulin: regular insulin versus short-acting insulin analogues, long-acting insulin analogues or biphasic mixtures; (3) multiple daily injections versus pump therapy. Having multiple complications of diabetes is clearly associated with decreased QoL. Results from large studies such as the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) suggest that intensive treatment itself does not impair QoL. Recent findings further suggest that pump therapy, compared to multiple daily injections, has beneficial effects on QoL. The fact that multiple tools are used to assess QoL makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding the effects of different types of insulin on QoL. More work on the standardization of the assessment of QoL in diabetes is urgently needed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Insulin therapy in Europe

DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue S3 2002
Werner A. Scherbaum
Abstract The prevalence of type 1 diabetes is rising in all European countries, particularly in Scandinavia and the UK. Insulin therapy in Europe is strongly influenced by the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS), both of which showed the importance of tight metabolic control in patients with diabetes. The importance of tight glycemic control is also emphasized in the Saint Vincent Declaration, which established 5-year goals for antidiabetic therapy in Europe. Insulin therapy in Europe has been significantly improved over the past 10,years, owing to a number of developments. These include increased use of intensive insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes; the development of new insulin analogs, including insulin glargine for injection therapy and short-acting agents that are particularly suitable for use in pumpsand the establishment of comprehensive and standardized treatment goals and guidelines. Nevertheless, important obstacles must still be overcome to optimize therapy for patients with diabetes and reduce the long-term complications of this disease. These obstacles include low public awareness of diabetes and its symptoms, training of physicians as well as patients that is often insufficient to ensure adherence to professional guidelines for diabetes care, and limitations in communication among professional care providers. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Validation of an algorithm combining haemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in UK and Australian populations

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2 2009
S. E. Manley
Abstract Aim, To determine whether glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) can be used in combination with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the diagnosis of diabetes in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and in a broader spectrum of patients. Methods, An algorithm was derived from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) capillary samples in 500 consecutive UK patients with IFG by World Health Organization criteria. It was validated in a further 500 UK patients and, with venous specimens, in 1175 unselected Australian patients. Results, The derivation cohort was aged 61 years (50,69 years) (median IQ range) with 52% male and 12% South Asian. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial-aligned HbA1c was 6.2% (5.8,6.6%) (reference interval < 6.0%) and FPG 6.7 mmol/l (6.3,7.2 mmol/l). FPG was in the diabetes range in 36% of patients, with an OGTT identifying a further 12% with diabetes. The derived algorithm, (HbA1c , 6.0% with FPG < 7.0 mmol/l) identified those patients requiring an OGTT to diagnose diabetes. When applied to the UK validation cohort, sensitivity was 97% and specificity 100%. The algorithm was equally effective in the unselected group, aged 59 years (49,68 years) and 54% male, with sensitivity 93% and specificity 100%. HbA1c was 6.0% (5.6,6.6%) and FPG 6.0 mmol/l (5.3,6.8 mmol/l), with 26% having IFG. Use of the algorithm would reduce the number of OGTTs performed in the UK validation cohort by 33% and by 66% in the Australian patients studied. Conclusions, Use of this algorithm would simplify procedures for diagnosis of diabetes and could also be used for monitoring pre-diabetes. Validation is now required in other populations and patient groups. [source]


HbA1c as a screening tool for detection of Type 2 diabetes: a systematic review

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 4 2007
C. M. Bennett
Abstract Aim To assess the validity of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as a screening tool for early detection of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Systematic review of primary cross-sectional studies of the accuracy of HbA1c for the detection of Type 2 diabetes using the oral glucose tolerance test as the reference standard and fasting plasma glucose as a comparison. Results Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. At certain cut-off points, HbA1c has slightly lower sensitivity than fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in detecting diabetes, but slightly higher specificity. For HbA1c at a Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and UK Prospective Diabetes Study comparable cut-off point of , 6.1%, the sensitivity ranged from 78 to 81% and specificity 79 to 84%. For FPG at a cut-off point of , 6.1 mmol/l, the sensitivity ranged from 48 to 64% and specificity from 94 to 98%. Both HbA1c and FPG have low sensitivity for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance (around 50%). Conclusions HbA1c and FPG are equally effective screening tools for the detection of Type 2 diabetes. The HbA1c cut-off point of > 6.1% was the recommended optimum cut-off point for HbA1c in most reviewed studies; however, there is an argument for population-specific cut-off points as optimum cut-offs vary by ethnic group, age, gender and population prevalence of diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that HbA1c has less intra-individual variation and better predicts both micro- and macrovascular complications. Although the current cost of HbA1c is higher than FPG, the additional benefits in predicting costly preventable clinical complications may make this a cost-effective choice. [source]


A longitudinal observational study of insulin therapy and glycaemic control in Scottish children with Type 1 diabetes: DIABAUD 3

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2006
Scottish Study Group for the Care of the Young with Diabetes
Abstract Objective/background, Our objective was to investigate glycaemic control in children with Type 1 diabetes in Scotland and to analyse the effect of changing ,conventional' insulin regimen strategies on outcome. DIABAUD 2 (1997,1998) (D2) demonstrated that average glycaemic control in young people with Type 1 diabetes in Scotland was poor, with mean HbA1c of 9.0%. Over 90% were then treated with a twice-daily insulin regimen. The aim of DIABAUD 3 (2002,2004) (D3) was to determine if control had improved, and to examine changes in insulin regimen and effects on glycaemic control. Methods, In DIABAUD 3, data were collected prospectively on children aged < 15 years. in nine out of 15 centres throughout Scotland. HbA1c on 986 subjects was measured in a single Diabetes Control and Complications Trial-aligned laboratory. The results were compared with those from DIABAUD 2, for the same nine centres. Multiple regression comparison was performed to adjust for imbalance in relevant confounders (e.g. age, duration, height and weight, insulin dose and centre). Results, For D3, the age range was 1.1,14.9 years (62% aged 10,14 years), mean ( sd) HbA1c 9.2% 1.5 (compared with D2, 9.0% 1.5). Only 9.7% achieved the target of HbA1c < 7.5%. The number of subjects in D3 on twice-daily injections was 51% (compared with 94% in D2), 43% on three-times-daily injections (2% in D2) and 2.3% on four or more (1.9% in D2): HbA1c did not differ in these groups. In both the D2 and D3 cohorts, HbA1c rose with age. After adjustment for other variables in the combined datasets, insulin regimen was not a significant predictor of HbA1c (F = 0.19, d.f. = 3, 1774; P = 0.90). Conclusion, The glycaemic control in young people in Scotland remains poor and above the national target. Over 4 years, moderate intensification of insulin therapy (i.e. from two to three injections each day, usually reflecting splitting of the evening dose) across the population failed to improve the average HbA1c and reduce the increase seen with age. A national programme away from ,conventional' to an ,intensive' regimen of insulin therapy is required. [source]


Factors predictive of nephropathy in DCCT Type 1 diabetic patients with good or poor metabolic control

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2003
L. Zhang
Abstract Aims The study aim was to assess the time-related risk of developing diabetic nephropathy [albumin excretion rate (AER) , 40 mg/24 h] from baseline covariates in Type 1 diabetic patients with either good or poor metabolic control (MC). Methods Based on material from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial study (n = 1441), patients were considered as under good or poor MC if their HbA1c mean level up to last visit fell in the lowest (, 6.9%) or highest (, 9.5%) quintile of the overall HbA1c distribution, respectively. Prevalence cases of nephropathy were excluded from the study. Survival analysis and Cox regression were applied to the data. Results Among patients with good MC (n = 277), 15% had developed nephropathy at the end of the study. Conversely, among patients with poor MC (n = 268), the proportion without the complication was 52%. When adjusting for MC, time to diabetic nephropathy was related to age (P < 0.0001), AER (P < 0.001), duration of diabetes (P < 0.005), body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.005), all at baseline, and to gender (P < 0.01). Patients with upper normal range AER levels, longer duration of diabetes and lower BMI were at higher risk, regardless of MC. The adverse effect of younger age on diabetic nephropathy was more marked in good than in poor MC. Although women tended to develop the complication more often under good MC, they appeared to be better protected under poor MC. Conclusions This study confirms occurrence of diabetic nephropathy under good MC and non-occurrence of the complication despite poor MC. It also demonstrates that some baseline covariates can affect, in a differential manner, time to diabetic nephropathy depending on MC. Diabet. Med. 20, 580,585 (2003) [source]


An expanded role for dietitians in maximising retention in nutrition and lifestyle intervention trials: implications for clinical practice

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 4 2010
L. M. Delahanty
Abstract The demand for clinical trials targeting lifestyle intervention has increased as a result of the escalation in obesity, diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Little is published about the strategies that dietitians have used to successfully screen potential study volunteers, implement interventions and maximise adherence and retention in large multicentre National Institutes of Health funded nutrition and lifestyle intervention clinical trials. This paper discusses an expanded role for the contributions of dietitians as members of an interdisciplinary team based on research experiences in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, Diabetes Prevention Program and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes). Many of the strategies and insights discussed are also relevant to effective clinical practice. Dietitians need to broaden their scope of practice so that they are integrated proactively into the screening and intervention phases of large clinical trials to maximise retention and adherence to assigned nutrition, lifestyle and behavioural interventions. The skills of dietitians are a unique fit for this work and it is important that investigators and project managers consider including them in both the screening and intervention phases of such clinical trials to maximise retention results. [source]


Contemporary Australian outcomes in childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes: 10 years post the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial

JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 7-8 2006
Geoffrey R Ambler
Abstract: The reporting of the results of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial in 1993 has led to a major reappraisal of management practices and outcomes in type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents. A considerable body of outcome data has been generated from Australia in this post-Diabetes Control and Complications Trial era relating to incidence, metabolic control, growth, hypoglycaemia, microvascular and macrovascular complications, cognition, behaviour and quality of life. These data are important in planning future management strategies and resource allocation and as a basis for future research. [source]


Meeting American Diabetes Association Guidelines In Endocrinologist Practice

JOURNAL OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, Issue 2 2000
C.D. Miller
OBJECTIVE,To determine whether American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines can be met in the context of routine endocrinology practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS,Charts were reviewed for a group of patients who were examined in 1998, followed for greater than or equal to 1 year, and had two or more visits during that year. Process measures and metabolic outcomes were studied for patients with type 2 diabetes, and glycemic control was assessed for patients with type 1 diabetes. RESULTS,A total of 1.21 patients with type 2 diabetes had a mean age of 63 years, a mean BMI of 31 kg/m(2), and a mean duration of diabetes of 12 years. Many had comorbidities or complications: 80% had hypertension, 64% had hyperlipidemia, 78% had neuropathy, 22% had retinopathy, and 21% had albuminuria. Management of type 2 diabetic patients was complex: 38% used oral hypoglycemic agents alone (54% of these were using two or more agents), 31% used oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, and 26% used insulin alone, 42% of patients taking insulin therapy injected insulin three or more times per day. Within 12 months, 74% of patients had dilated eye examinations, 70% had lipid profiles, and 55% had urine albumin screening. Of the patients, 87% had a foot examination at their last visit. Blood pressure levels averaged 133/72 mmHg, cholesterol levels averaged 4.63 mmol/l, triglyceride levels averaged 1.99 mmol/l. HDL cholesterol levels averaged 1.24 mmol/l, and LDL cholesterol levels averaged 2.61. mmol/l. Random blood glucose levels averaged 8.0 mmol/l, and HbA(1c) levels averaged 6.9 +/, 0.1%. A total of 87% of patients had HbA(1c) levels less than or equal to 8.0%. A total of 30 patients with type 1 diabetes had mean age of 44 years, a mean BMI of 26 kg/m(2), and a mean duration of diabetes of 20 years. All type 1 diabetic patients used insulin and averaged 3.4 injections a day, their average HbA(1c) level was 7.1 +/, 0.2%, and 80% had HbA(1c) levels less than or equal to 8.0%. CONCLUSIONS,Although endocrinologists must manage patients with multifaceted problems, complex treatment regimens yield glycemic control levels comparable with the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and allow ADA guidelines to be met in a routine practice setting. [source]


Past, present, and future of insulin pump therapy: better shot at diabetes control

MOUNT SINAI JOURNAL OF MEDICINE: A JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED AND TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Jennifer Sherr MD
Abstract With the advent of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy and the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, the management of type 1 diabetes has changed drastically. Over the past 30 years since its development, the effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion has been assessed in comparison with other modes of intensive treatment. Additionally, improvements in pump delivery systems have been made. Here, the findings of the studies on pump therapy are reviewed. Selection criteria of patients for pump use and how to initiate pump therapy are presented. Finally, newer findings on continuous glucose sensors are discussed as the next era of pump therapy continues to focus on the goal of developing an artificial pancreas. Mt Sinai J Med 75:352,361, 2008. 2008 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]


Risk factors for visual impairment registration due to diabetic retinopathy in Leeds, 2002,2005

PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 3 2009
Diabetes & Endocrinology, H Hayat Specialist Registrar
Abstract We undertook a retrospective study of case notes of those patients registered blind or partially sighted due to diabetic retinopathy in the Leeds metropolitan area in the years 2002 and 2005. Both the incidence of visual impairment due to diabetic retinopathy and the relative contribution to total registrations are similar to those observed in other local and national studies. The main risk factors for registered visual impairment were poor glycaemic control prior to ophthalmic review, no prior retinopathy screening, late presentation with symptomatic visual loss, non-compliance with planned review and laser treatment failure. Most of these risk factors are avoidable. Nearly two-thirds of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus were being screened for diabetic retinopathy. These figures would suggest that the National Service Framework for Diabetes' proposed coverage of 80% by 2006 and 100% by the end of 2007 is achievable. The duration of diagnosed diabetes mellitus at the time of registration was an average of 16 years in this study. This reflects the slow development of sight-threatening retinopathy and visual loss observed previously. Conventional therapy for diabetic retinopathy with laser photocoagulation reduces the risk of visual loss more effectively than it improves visual function. Despite the increased risk of early worsening of retinopathy seen with intensive glycaemic control in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, improved control closer to the time of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus would have helped to provide a sustained reduction in the risk of retinopathy developing or progressing. Both laser treatment failure and non-attendance may limit the benefits of improved screening coverage. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons. [source]


Diabetes Control and Cardiovascular Risk, Part II: Intensive Glucose Control , UKPDS Follow-Up

PREVENTIVE CARDIOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
Philip R. Liebson MD
First page of article [source]


Hub-and-spoke model for a 5-day structured patient education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2009
H. Rogers
Abstract Aims, Structured education programmes for people with Type 1 diabetes can deliver improved diabetes control (including reduced severe hypoglycaemia) and quality of life. They can be cost-effective but are resource intensive. We tested the ability to deliver an evidence-based 5-day programme in diabetes centres too small to deliver the courses. Methods, Specialist medical and nursing staff from three district general hospital diabetes services (the ,spokes') were trained in all aspects of the education programme, except those directly related to course delivery, by a larger centre (the ,hub'). The hub staff delivered the 5-day patient education courses, but all other patient education and management was managed locally. Diabetes control and quality of life were assessed at 1 year post-course. Results, In 63 patients with follow-up data, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) fell by 0.42 1.0% (P = 0.001), with a greater fall in those with high HbA1c at baseline, and no mean weight gain. Emergency call-out for severe hypoglycaemia fell from 10 episodes in seven patients the year before to one episode in one patient (P = 0.03). Quality-of-life measures improved, with reduced negative impact of diabetes on diabetes-related quality of life (P < 0.00004) and ,present quality of life' improving (P < 0.001). Conclusions, The benefits of a 5-day structured education programme can be provided to patients with Type 1 diabetes attending centres without the resources to provide the teaching course itself, by a ,hub-and-spoke' methodology. [source]


Diabetes control and complications: the role of glycated haemoglobin, 25 years on

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2004
S. L. Jeffcoate
Abstract The long-term complications of diabetes have major consequences for individual subjects and growing healthcare delivery and cost implications for society. Evidence for the benefits of good glycaemic control, as monitored by glycated haemoglobin measurements, has been developed in the 25 years since they were introduced to the point where HbA1c assays play central roles in patient management, clinical guidance and audit, and clinical trial design. In this review this evidence is examined and three classes of uncertainty identified that diminish confidence in the effectiveness of these roles for HbA1c. 1Analytical variability between different methods for HbA1c has restricted the application of clinical targets and this problem has recently been addressed by reference method standardization. There are two approaches to this which result in different HbA1c values and this discrepancy needs to be resolved. 2Biological variability in HbA1c values between individuals also restricts its predictive role when applied to populations. The correlations between HbA1c measurements and various components of glycaemia (overall, fasting, postprandial) are still uncertain and differences in protein glycation and de-glycation are greater between subjects than often thought. The influence of variability in erythrocyte life span is an area where research is needed, especially in diabetic subjects. 3Clinical variability is the most important and complex area of uncertainty. A predictive link between HbA1c and clinical outcomes is not as clear-cut as often stated. The correlation with the development of microvascular disease is well established in Type 1 diabetes, but in Type 2 subjects (90% of those with diabetes) the evidence that HbA1c monitoring is of value in predicting or preventing macrovascular disease is not strong, although it is the major cause of morbidity and early death in this group. It is recommended that, as a matter of urgency, these issues be examined, particularly within the context of self-care in diabetes. Diabet. Med. **, ***,*** (2003) [source]


Diabetes control in pregnancy: who takes responsibility for what?

PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 8 2003
Dr J Josse FRCPsych Sessional Consultant Psychotherapist
Abstract At our diabetes team meetings in Peterborough, which included a psychotherapist, the issues involved in who takes responsibility for the birth of a healthy baby from a diabetic mother were explored. Traditional prescriptive approaches were compared with the empowerment model in the specific instance of pregnancy, when the needs of the fetus have to be considered as well as those of the mother. Clinical examples are given to illustrate the dilemmas over who takes responsibility with different models, and questions are raised for debate. The empowerment model of diabetes care may not be entirely applicable to the pregnant diabetic woman. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The global challenge of type 2 diabetes and the strategies for response in ethnic minority groups

DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 6 2010
Flavio Lirussi
Abstract Ethnic minorities living in high-income countries usually exhibit a greater risk of developing diabetes along with higher morbidity and mortality rates. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve glycaemic control in ethnic minority groups. Results of major controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included in the review. Only 1/47 studies addressing diet and exercise interventions reported details on the ethnicity of the studied population. Self-management education was successful if associated with increased self-efficacy; delivered over a longer period; of high intensity; culturally tailored; and when using community educators. Strategies adopted in community-gathering places, family-based, multifaceted, and those tackling the social context were likely to be more effective. A positive relationship was found between social support and self-management behaviour as well as quality of life, but there is little evidence about the impact of organizational changes within health-care services on diabetes control. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence on effective strategies for response to diabetes in ethnic minorities. Also, there is a need to take into account diabetes beliefs and communication difficulties, as well as potential protective factors. Globally, many health-care systems are inadequately equipped to improve diabetes prevention and disease outcomes in these communities. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Integrating glycaemic variability in the glycaemic disorders of type 2 diabetes: a move towards a unified glucose tetrad concept

DIABETES/METABOLISM: RESEARCH AND REVIEWS, Issue 5 2009
Louis Monnier
Abstract The high incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. Evidence is accumulating that postprandial hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for diabetes-associated complications and mortality, and that worsening diabetes control is characterized by postprandial glucose (PPG) deterioration preceding an impairment in fasting glucose levels. Postprandial and general glucose fluctuations play a major role in activating oxidative stress, leading to the endothelial dysfunction, one of the mechanisms responsible for vascular complications. Therefore, the management of PPG is key for any strategy used in the monitoring and treatment of diabetes. We recommend that any strategy aimed at controlling the glycaemic disorders associated with type 2 diabetes, and limiting the risk of complications, should target the ,glucose tetrad', which comprises the following components: HbA1c, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, and markers of glycaemic variability, such as the mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE) index. This brings together, in a simple, unified concept, the conventional markers (HbA1c and fasting glucose) and the more recently recognized markers of glycaemic control (PPG excursions and acute glycaemic variability). Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Hub-and-spoke model for a 5-day structured patient education programme for people with Type 1 diabetes

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 9 2009
H. Rogers
Abstract Aims, Structured education programmes for people with Type 1 diabetes can deliver improved diabetes control (including reduced severe hypoglycaemia) and quality of life. They can be cost-effective but are resource intensive. We tested the ability to deliver an evidence-based 5-day programme in diabetes centres too small to deliver the courses. Methods, Specialist medical and nursing staff from three district general hospital diabetes services (the ,spokes') were trained in all aspects of the education programme, except those directly related to course delivery, by a larger centre (the ,hub'). The hub staff delivered the 5-day patient education courses, but all other patient education and management was managed locally. Diabetes control and quality of life were assessed at 1 year post-course. Results, In 63 patients with follow-up data, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) fell by 0.42 1.0% (P = 0.001), with a greater fall in those with high HbA1c at baseline, and no mean weight gain. Emergency call-out for severe hypoglycaemia fell from 10 episodes in seven patients the year before to one episode in one patient (P = 0.03). Quality-of-life measures improved, with reduced negative impact of diabetes on diabetes-related quality of life (P < 0.00004) and ,present quality of life' improving (P < 0.001). Conclusions, The benefits of a 5-day structured education programme can be provided to patients with Type 1 diabetes attending centres without the resources to provide the teaching course itself, by a ,hub-and-spoke' methodology. [source]


Effect of weight-reducing agents on glycaemic parameters and progression to Type 2 diabetes: a review

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 10 2008
C. Lloret-Linares
Abstract Weight loss is associated with improvements in glycaemic control and cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, in the diabetic population, weight management is more challenging, in part because of the weight-promoting effects of the majority of glucose-lowering therapies. This review summarizes evidence from 23 placebo-controlled randomized trials, of at least 1 year duration, on the effects of drugs promoting weight loss (orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant) on glycaemic variables, diabetes incidence and diabetes control. Fifteen studies of non-diabetic subjects were found, eight of which included a longer treatment period. Eight studies in diabetic patients were reviewed. In non-diabetic subjects, weight loss agents led to a significant improvement in fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance. In the diabetic population, glycated haemoglobin decreased by 0.28,1.1% with orlistat and 0.6% with sibutramine and rimonabant. Orlistat reduces progression to diabetes in patients with glucose intolerance treated for 4 years (risk reduction of 45%). In summary, despite leading to only modest weight loss after 12 months, agents promoting weight loss have beneficial effects on glycaemic parameters, glycaemic control and progression to diabetes. These additional benefits of weight loss agents need to be highlighted in order to increase their judicious use in clinical practice, although this may be limited by their well-known adverse side effects. The longer-term safety of these agents beyond a few years is yet to be established. [source]


Living with Type 2 diabetes: a family perspective

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2007
P. White
Abstract Aim To explore the beliefs, attitudes and perceptions of adults with Type 2 diabetes and their family members. Methods Focus groups were conducted with: (i) people with good diabetes control (HbA1c < 7.0%); (ii) their family members; (iii) people with poor diabetes control (HbA1c > 8.5%); and (iv) their family members. Results There were no discernible differences between those with good and poor diabetes control or between the family members of each group. Overall, family members perceived diabetes to be more serious and as having a greater impact on daily life than those with the illness. Those with diabetes were unaware of this heightened concern and had a more relaxed approach to living with diabetes. The lack of information and perceived knowledge about diabetes impacted upon participants' causal attributions about the illness and its perceived severity. Conclusions Diabetes is an illness that affects both individuals and families. There is a need for further investigation into the impact that family members have on the management of diabetes. [source]


Diabetes care in childhood and adolescence

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 2002
P. R. Betts
Abstract The presentation of diabetes in young people has changed significantly over recent years. Not only has there been a rising incidence of Type 1 diabetes, especially in young children, but also there is an increasing recognition of Type 2 diabetes. Young people are also increasingly being diagnosed with genetic defects of B-cell function and with diabetes in association with cystic fibrosis and other chronic diseases. There have also been significant changes in the pattern of paediatric diabetes care. This is increasingly being provided by a specialized paediatric multidisciplinary team in each health district working to agreed national standards. Despite improvements, diabetes control is still suboptimal with a high incidence of complications being reported in young adults. The challenge over the next few years is the provision of a uniform, equitable and first class paediatric service throughout the UK together with the introduction of new approaches to care, aiming to improve individual diabetic control and reduce long-term complications. Increased collaboration with adult colleagues is needed to enable the transition of care in adolescence to a service that young adults perceive to meet their needs, encourage their attendance and improve their diabetes control and quality of life. A national paediatric diabetes register together with regular audit will encourage these objectives. [source]


Recent advances in treatment of youth with Type 1 diabetes: better care through technology

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2001
W. V. Tamborlane
Abstract While treatment of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents is especially difficult, recent technological advances have provided new therapeutic options to clinicians and patients. The urgency to achieve strict diabetes control and the introduction of new and improved insulin pumps have been accompanied by a marked increase in use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy in youth with diabetes. Results of clinical outcome studies indicate that CSII provides a safe and effective alternative to multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy, even when employed in a regular clinic setting in a large number of children. The safety and efficacy of CSII is further enhanced by the introduction of lispro and aspart insulin. The sharper peaks and shorter duration of action of these very rapid-acting insulin analogues provides a means to achieve better control of post-prandial hyperglycaemia with less late post-prandial and nocturnal hypoglycaemia. Glargine insulin, a soluble and essentially peakless long-acting insulin analogue, may provide a better basal insulin for MDI regimens, but there are limited published data with this agent in children with T1DM. A number of systems for pulmonary delivery of insulin are in development and preliminary results of Phase III studies have been promising. Like CSII, inhaled insulin allows the child to take bolus insulin doses before each meal without having to take a premeal injection. A major obstacle to effective treatment is that self-monitoring of three to four blood glucose levels a day often misses the marked glycaemic excursions that characterize T1DM in young patients. On the other hand, new continuous glucose sensing systems provide a wealth of data that can be used to optimize basal and bolus therapy, regardless of how insulin is administered. Even more important, we may finally be at the threshold of development of a practically applicable artificial pancreas. Diabet. Med. 18, 864,870 (2001) [source]


Efficacy and tolerance of intranasal insulin administered during 4 months in severely hyperglycaemic Type 2 diabetic patients with oral drug failure: a cross-over study

DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2001
D. Lalej-Bennis
Abstract Aims We have evaluated the local tolerance and the metabolic efficacy of a lyophilized nasal insulin preparation in 10 severely hyperglycaemic Type 2 diabetic patients. Methods The study included two 4-month randomized periods: (A) three preprandial doses of nasal insulin secondarily combined with one evening subcutaneous NPH if the desired glycaemic control was not achieved; (B) two NPH injections daily. We assessed: (i) diabetes control on monthly HbA1c levels and occurrence of hypoglycaemic events; (ii) local tolerance on clinical symptoms, rhinoscopy, nasal muco-ciliary clearance and nasal biopsies; (iii) insulin absorption at months 0 and 4. Results One patient was withdrawn because of cough and dizziness after each nasal application. HbA1c was not significantly different at month 4 (9.4 0.5% vs. 8.8 0.2%, A vs. B). Blood glucose control remained only fair in the majority of our patients. Nasal insulin was able to replace the daytime fraction of the subcutaneous insulin with a 18% efficacy. Side-effects included transient nasal hyperactivity (pruritis, sneezing and rhinorrhoea) and chronic persistence of nasal crusts. Plasma insulin profiles were not significantly different between months 0 and 4. Conclusions The utilization of nasal insulin (with or without NPH) was associated with similar diabetes control compared with NPH twice daily. Nasal insulin alone was able to achieve an adequate glycaemic control in three of the 10 patients. Diabet. Med. 18, 614,618 (2001) [source]


Experiences of alcohol drinking among Swedish youths with type 1 diabetes

EUROPEAN DIABETES NURSING, Issue 1 2009
A Leger RN Diabetes Nurse
Abstract Background: Alcohol consumption in Europe and North America is greatest in 18,25-year-olds. This behaviour can be seen as a transitional stage from childhood to adulthood, where consuming alcohol is perceived as a typical feature of adult behaviour. Youths often start to consume alcohol when they are 14,15 years of age, and one in five youngsters around 15 years of age report binge drinking. Studies of alcohol consumption among youths with type 1 diabetes have not been undertaken but it is well known that, in these people, alcohol drinking can cause hypoglycaemia and worsen the capacity to feel and interpret the symptoms of hypoglycaemia. Aim: The overall aim was to explore experiences of alcohol consumption among youths with type 1 diabetes. Another objective was to identify strategies as to how they deal with situations when they drink alcohol. Methods: Semistructured interviews with ten 18-year-old youths with type 1 diabetes, using Burnard's content analysis method. Results: This study illustrates that informants strive for security, independence and control. Frequency of binge drinking did not seem to differ from rates in other teenagers. Informants exposed themselves to considerable risks and many had met with serious incidents. Moreover, the result exemplifies how symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (such as nausea and vomiting) can easily be misinterpreted as a hang-over or gastroenteritis. Informants lacked age-appropriate knowledge about diabetes and the effects of alcohol, but had tested things out themselves; some involved their friends in their diabetes treatment. Moreover, three strategies occurred with the aim of normalisation and security: the 'low-consumption' strategy, the ,ambitious' strategy and the ,rather-high-than-dead' strategy. Fear of hypoglycaemia was a significant concern and the consequence was poor diabetes control. Conclusion: To increase youths' independence and security, the diabetes care team should provide adequate and relevant information about alcohol. Treatment plans might contain practical steps such as advice about responsible alcohol intake and adjustments of insulin and meals, and could also encourage young people with diabetes to carry diabetes ID and inform friends about hypoglycaemia (and how to handle situations involving alcohol). Copyright 2009 FEND [source]


An audit of diabetes control, dietary management and quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and a comparison with nondiabetic subjects

JOURNAL OF HUMAN NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 1 2006
F. Tahbaz
Abstract Objectives, The study's objective was to audit current diet and disease management in a community-based sample of people with type 1 diabetes. Methods, The study involved adults with type 1 diabetes and control subjects. Reported amounts of dietary intake were collected. Indices of diabetes control were determined by standard methods. Quality of life of both groups was assessed with appropriate measures. Results were compared between two groups. Results, Mean HbA1c concentration was 8.5% (SD 2.21%) for women with diabetes and 8.6% (SD 1.91%) for men. There was no significant difference between the diabetic and control subjects in self-reported energy intake and macronutrient intake, with the exception that the contribution of saturated fatty acid to energy intake was higher in male controls than in male diabetics. There was no association between dietary intakes and glycemic control in diabetic subjects. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and plasma lipids in patients were within normal range and not significantly different from the controls. Plasma fibrinogen concentration was higher in patients. Diabetic subjects did not have a diminished quality of life. Conclusions, Dietary management in these patients was generally focused on controlling carbohydrate intake. Most had suboptimal diabetes control. [source]


The effect of intragastric balloon placement on weight loss and type 2 diabetes control

ALIMENTARY PHARMACOLOGY & THERAPEUTICS, Issue 1 2008
A. O. O. Chan
No abstract is available for this article. [source]


Past, present, and future of insulin pump therapy: better shot at diabetes control

MOUNT SINAI JOURNAL OF MEDICINE: A JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED AND TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, Issue 4 2008
Jennifer Sherr MD
Abstract With the advent of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy and the findings of the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial, the management of type 1 diabetes has changed drastically. Over the past 30 years since its development, the effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion has been assessed in comparison with other modes of intensive treatment. Additionally, improvements in pump delivery systems have been made. Here, the findings of the studies on pump therapy are reviewed. Selection criteria of patients for pump use and how to initiate pump therapy are presented. Finally, newer findings on continuous glucose sensors are discussed as the next era of pump therapy continues to focus on the goal of developing an artificial pancreas. Mt Sinai J Med 75:352,361, 2008. 2008 Mount Sinai School of Medicine [source]


Use of herbal remedies by diabetic Hispanic women in The southwestern United States

PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH, Issue 4 2006
Lane Johnson
Abstract Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the use and documentation of herbal remedies used by Hispanic women with Type II diabetes enrolled in two Community Health Centers in the Southwest USA. A secondary purpose was to review the literature on identified herbs to assess their likely effects on diabetes. Design: Open-ended structured interviews were conducted on a convenience sample (n = 23) of participants. Medical and medication charts were reviewed for the interviewed participants, and for a random sample of enrolled Hispanic diabetic patients (n = 81) who were not interviewed. Setting: Two Community Health Centers in the Southwest USA. Participants: Enrolled patient, Hispanic females with Type II diabetes. Intervention: Subjects were interviewed about their use of herbal therapies and supplements. Information collected from medical and pharmaceutical charts included documented use of herbal remedies; standard therapies prescribed and diabetes control (hemoglobin A1C values). For those herbal remedies reported, literature reviews were conducted to determine if there was supporting evidence of harm or efficacy for the stated condition. Main Outcome Measures: Reports of herbal use, and types of remedies used. Results: Among the interviewed participants, 21 of 23 (91%) reported using one or more herbal remedies. Among a random sample of patient medical charts, seven (6.7%) contained documentation of diabetes-specific herbs, and 16 (15.4%) had documented general herb use. A total of 77 different herbal remedies were identified, most of which were contained as part of commercial preparations, and appeared to supplement, rather than replace standard medical therapy for diabetes. Conclusion: Use of herbal therapies is not uncommon among diabetic patients. Many of the herbs reported have potential efficacy in treating diabetes or may result in adverse effects or interactions. In practical use, however, the herbs reported in this study are unlikely to have a significant effect on clinical outcomes in diabetes, either positively or negatively. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Glycaemic control and metabolic risk: getting the extra mile from diabetes control

PRACTICAL DIABETES INTERNATIONAL (INCORPORATING CARDIABETES), Issue 6 2008
M Devers MBChB, MRCP Specialist Registrar
Abstract Cardiometabolic risk is an emerging term which has been used to denote the cluster of risk factors defined by the metabolic syndrome and, in addition, to include the newer risk factors which are now recognised to occur in association with dysglycaemia and abdominal obesity. Interventions for diabetes can have effects on cardiometabolic risk factors beyond lowering of hyperglycaemia, and may be an explanation for the reductions in cardiovascular events that are seen with some but not all antidiabetic drugs. Newer antidiabetic agents and the weight-reducing drug, rimonabant, have demonstrated favourable effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and on glycaemia, and should be further studied in long-term cardiovascular outcomes trials. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons. [source]


2424: Pulsatile haemodynamics: potential for end-organ damage?

ACTA OPHTHALMOLOGICA, Issue 2010
C HUDSON
Purpose Increases in velocity pulse wave amplitude, or max:min velocity ratio, represent early haemodynamic disturbances associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration. This change reflects an increase in vessel wall rigidity that is generally accepted to occur in the central vasculature but the peripheral vasculature is also implicated in this process. This presentation will highlight the implications of these changes in terms of end-organ damage in DR. Methods The sample comprised 4 groups: Group 1: 50 non-diabetic control subjects. Group 2: 56 diabetic patients without clinically visible DR. Group 3: 54 diabetic patients with micro-aneurysms and / or hard exudates within 2 disc diameters of the fovea in the absence of clinically manifest diabetic macular edema (DME). Group 4: 40 patients with clinically manifest DME. The diabetic patients were predominantly type 2. Retinal hemodynamics were assessed in the superior temporal retinal arteriole using the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter. Intraocular pressure, blood pressure and relevant systemic markers of diabetes control and complications were also assessed. Results The velocity pulse wave amplitude was elevated with increasing risk of DME (p<0.0001). No significant differences were found between the groups with respect to diameter, velocity or flow. Pulse wave amplitude was correlated to age, duration of diabetes, blood pressure, pulse rate, IOP and serum potassium levels. Conclusion The increase in velocity pulse wave amplitude will induce excessive pressure pulsatility in the retinal arterioles and capillaries, changes in vascular function (e.g. loss of vascular regulation) and changes in vessel structure. Commercial interest [source]