Divergence Estimates (divergence + estimate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Disentangling causes of disjunction on the South Island of New Zealand: the Alpine fault hypothesis of vicariance revisited

Many elements of the flora and fauna of New Zealand's South Island show disjunct distributions with conspecific populations or closely-related species that occur in the north-west and south separated by a central gap. Three events have been implicated to account for this pattern: Pleistocene glaciations, Pliocene mountain building, or displacement along the Alpine fault, the border of the Pacific and Australian plates stretching diagonally across the South Island from south-west to north-east that formed during the Miocene. Disjunct distributions of species level taxa are probably too young to be due to Alpine fault vicariance. It has therefore been suggested that the biogeographical impact of the Alpine fault, if any, should be apparent on deeper phylogenetic levels. We tested this hypothesis by reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of the hydrobiid gastropods of New Zealand based on mitochondrial DNA fragments of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (CO I) and 16S rDNA. The creno- and stygobiont species of this family are typically poor dispersers. Therefore, ancient patterns of distribution may be conserved. The phylogenetic reconstructions were in accordance with the Alpine fault hypothesis uniting genera occurring on either side of the fault. Divergence estimates based on a molecular clock of CO I indicated splits predating the Pliocene uplift of the Alps. 2007 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 91, 361,374. [source]

World phylogeography and male-mediated gene flow in the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus

Abstract The sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus, is a large, cosmopolitan, coastal species. Females are thought to show philopatry to nursery grounds while males potentially migrate long distances, creating an opportunity for male-mediated gene flow that may lead to discordance in patterns revealed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear markers. While this dynamic has been investigated in elasmobranchs over small spatial scales, it has not been examined at a global level. We examined patterns of historical phylogeography and contemporary gene flow by genotyping 329 individuals from nine locations throughout the species' range at eight nuclear microsatellite markers and sequencing the complete mtDNA control region. Pairwise comparisons often resulted in fixation indices and divergence estimates of greater magnitude using mtDNA sequence data than microsatellite data. In addition, multiple methods of estimation suggested fewer populations based on microsatellite loci than on mtDNA sequence data. Coalescent analyses suggest divergence and restricted migration among Hawaii, Taiwan, eastern and western Australia using mtDNA sequence data and no divergence and high migration rates, between Taiwan and both Australian sites using microsatellite data. Evidence of secondary contact was detected between several localities and appears to be discreet in time rather than continuous. Collectively, these data suggest complex spatial/temporal relationships between shark populations that may feature pulses of female dispersal and more continuous male-mediated gene flow. [source]

Shifting distributions and speciation: species divergence during rapid climate change

Abstract Questions about how shifting distributions contribute to species diversification remain virtually without answer, even though rapid climate change during the Pleistocene clearly impacted genetic variation within many species. One factor that has prevented this question from being adequately addressed is the lack of precision associated with estimates of species divergence made from a single genetic locus and without incorporating processes that are biologically important as populations diverge. Analysis of DNA sequences from multiple variable loci in a coalescent framework that (i) corrects for gene divergence pre-dating speciation, and (ii) derives divergence-time estimates without making a priori assumptions about the processes underlying patterns of incomplete lineage sorting between species (i.e. allows for the possibility of gene flow during speciation), is critical to overcoming the inherent logistical and analytical difficulties of inferring the timing and mode of speciation during the dynamic Pleistocene. Estimates of species divergence that ignore these processes, use single locus data, or do both can dramatically overestimate species divergence. For example, using a coalescent approach with data from six loci, the divergence between two species of montane Melanoplus grasshoppers is estimated at between 200 000 and 300 000 years before present, far more recently than divergence estimates made using single-locus data or without the incorporation of population-level processes. Melanoplus grasshoppers radiated in the sky islands of the Rocky Mountains, and the analysis of divergence between these species suggests that the isolation of populations in multiple glacial refugia was an important factor in promoting speciation. Furthermore, the low estimates of gene flow between the species indicate that reproductive isolation must have evolved rapidly for the incipient species boundaries to be maintained through the subsequent glacial periods and shifts in species distributions. [source]

Phylogeny and biogeographical history of Trogoniformes, a pantropical bird order

With highly conserved morphology throughout the family, a tropical distribution, and no close living relatives, the trogons (Aves: Trogonidae) pose a difficult problem for systematists. Disjunct tropical distributions are often attributed to Gondwanan vicariance, but the fossil record for trogons is mostly from the Tertiary of Europe. This study examined support for the basal relationships among trogons using a combination of nuclear (RAG-1) and mitochondrial (ND2) DNA sequence data. Although some nodes could not be resolved with significant support, there is strong support for the basal position of three New World genera (Pharomachrus, Euptilotis, and Priotelus). This phylogenetic hypothesis differs markedly from previous studies of trogon relationships and taxonomic treatments. Biogeographically, it implies an origin and early vicariance events for the crown clade in the New World. Molecular divergence estimates place all of the basal nodes of the trogon phylogeny in the Oligocene, precluding a Gondwanan origin for modern trogons. 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2005, 84, 725,738. [source]