Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (dipeptidyl + peptidase_iv)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV

  • dipeptidyl peptidase iv inhibitor

  • Selected Abstracts

    DPP-IV inhibition enhances the antilipolytic action of NPY in human adipose tissue

    K. Kos
    Context:, Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inactivates the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide. It can also affect the orexigenic hormone neuropeptide Y (NPY1,36) which is truncated by DPP-IV to NPY3,36, as a consequence NPY's affinity changes from receptor Y1, which mediates the antilipolytic function of NPY, to other NPY receptors. Little is known whether DPP-IV inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetic (T2DM) patients could influence these pathways. Aims:, To investigate the in vitro effects of NPY with DPP-IV inhibition in isolated abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) adipocytes on fat metabolism, and assessment of NPY receptor and DPP-IV expression in adipose tissue (AT). Methods:,Ex vivo human AT was taken from women undergoing elective surgery (body mass index: 27.5 (mean s.d.) 5 kg/m2, age: 43.7 10 years, n = 36). Isolated AbdSc adipocytes were treated with human recombinant (rh)NPY (1,100 nM) with and without DPP-IV inhibitor (1 M); glycerol release and tissue distribution of DPP-IV, Y1 and Y5 messenger RNA (mRNA) were measured and compared between lean and obese subjects. Results and conclusion:, rhNPY reduced glycerol release, an effect that was further enhanced by co-incubation with a DPP-IV inhibitor [control: 224 (mean s.e.) 37 ,mol/l; NPY, 100 nM: 161 27 ,mol/l**; NPY 100 nM/DPP-IV inhibitor, 1 M: 127 14 ,mol/l**; **p < 0.01, n = 14]. DPP-IV was expressed in AbdSc AT and omental AT with relative DPP-IV mRNA expression lower in AbdSc AT taken from obese [77 6 signal units (SU)] vs. lean subjects (186 29 SU*, n = 10). Y1 was predominantly expressed in fat and present in all fat depots but higher in obese subjects, particularly the AbdSc AT-depot (obese: 1944 111 SU vs. lean: 711 112 SU**, n = 10). NPY appears to be regulated by AT-derived DPP-IV. DPP-IV inhibitors augment the antilipolytic effect of NPY in AT. Further studies are required to show whether this explains the lack of weight loss in T2DM patients treated with DPP-IV inhibitors. [source]

    C-peptide microheterogeneity in type 2 diabetes populations

    Paul E. Oran
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate naturally occurring C-peptide microheterogeneity in healthy and type 2 diabetes (T2D) populations. Experimental design: MS immunoassays capable of simultaneously detecting intact C-peptide and variant forms were applied to plasma samples from 48 healthy individuals and 48 individuals diagnosed with T2D. Results: Common throughout the entire sample set were three previously unreported variations of C-peptide. The relative contribution of one variant, subsequently identified as C-peptide (3-31), was found to be more abundant in the T2D population as compared to the healthy population. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is suspected to be responsible for this particular cleavage product, which is consistent with the pathophysiology of T2D. Conclusions and clinical relevance: C-peptide does not exist in the human body as a single molecular species. It is qualitatively more heterogeneous than previously thought. These results lay a foundation for future studies devoted to a comprehensive understanding of C-peptide and its variants in healthy and diabetic populations. [source]

    Effects of exendin-4 on islets from type 2 diabetes patients

    R. Lupi
    Exendin-4 is a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV)-resistant glucagon-like peptide1 (GLP-1) mimetic and its synthetic counterpart, exenatide, is being used in the therapy of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). No information, however, is currently available as for the direct action of exendin-4 on human T2DM islets. In the present study, we exposed pancreatic islets prepared from non-diabetic and T2DM subjects to exendin-4 for 48 h and found that the compound had several, direct beneficial actions on insulin secretion and the expression of genes involved in beta-cell function and differentiation. [source]

    Incretins and other peptides in the treatment of diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 3 2007
    J. F. Todd
    Abstract Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone, released postprandially, which stimulates insulin secretion and insulin gene expression as well as pancreatic B-cell growth. Together with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), it is responsible for the incretin effect which is the augmentation of insulin secretion following oral administration of glucose. Patients with Type 2 diabetes have greatly impaired or absent incretin-mediated insulin secretion which is mainly as a result of decreased secretion of GLP-1. However, the insulinotropic action of GLP-1 is preserved in patients with Type 2 diabetes, and this has encouraged attempts to treat Type 2 diabetic patients with GLP-1. GLP-1 also possesses a number of potential advantages over existing agents for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. In addition to stimulating insulin secretion and promoting pancreatic B-cell mass, GLP-1 suppresses glucagon secretion, delays gastric emptying and inhibits food intake. Continuous intravenous and subcutaneous administration significantly improves glycaemic control and causes reductions in both HbA1c and body weight. However, GLP-1 is metabolized extremely rapidly in the circulation by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). This is the probable explanation for the short-lived effect of single doses of native GLP-1, making it an unlikely glucose-lowering agent. The DPP-IV resistant analogue, exenatide, has Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and selective DPP-IV inhibitors are under development. Both approaches have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in animal models and human clinical studies. Both are well tolerated and appear to have advantages over current therapies for Type 2 diabetes, particularly in terms of the effects on pancreatic B-cell restoration and potential weight loss. [source]

    Fibroblast activation protein increases apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration by the LX-2 human stellate cell line,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
    Xin Maggie Wang
    Injury and repair in chronic liver disease involve cell adhesion, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and a wound healing response. In liver, fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has both collagenase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPIV) activities and is expressed only by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and myofibroblasts, which produce and degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). FAP was colocalized with collagen fibers, fibronectin, and collagen type I in human liver. FAP function was examined in vitro by expressing green fluorescent protein FAP fusion protein in cell lines cultured on collagen-I, fibronectin, and Matrigel. Glutamates at 203 and 204 as well as serine624 of FAP were essential for peptidase activity. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells overexpressing FAP showed reduced adhesion and migration. FAP overexpression in the human HSC line LX-2 caused increased cell adhesion and migration on ECM proteins as well as invasion across transwells in the absence or presence of transforming growth factor beta-1. FAP overexpression enhanced staurosporine streptomyces,stimulated apoptosis in both cell lines. Interestingly, the enzyme activity of FAP was not required for these functions. Overexpressing FAP increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and CD44 and reduced integrin-,1 expression in 293T cells, suggesting potential pathways of FAP-mediated impairment of cell adhesion and migration in this epithelial cell line. In conclusion, these findings further support a pro-fibrogenic role for FAP by indicating that, in addition to its enzymatic functions, FAP has important nonenzymatic functions that in chronic liver injury may facilitate tissue remodeling through FAP-mediated enhancement of HSC cell adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website (http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index.html). (HEPATOLOGY 2005;42:935,945.) [source]

    Role for dipeptidyl peptidase IV in tumor suppression of human non small cell lung carcinoma cells

    Umadevi V. Wesley
    Abstract Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Lung cancers produce a variety of mitogenic growth factors that stimulate tumor cell proliferation and migration. The cell surface protease, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), is involved in diverse biologic functions, including peptide-mediated cellular growth and differentiation. DPPIV is expressed in various normal tissues, including lung tissue, and its expression is lost in many types of human cancers. DPPIV expression and its enzymatic activity are detected in normal bronchial and alveolar epithelium but different histologic subtypes of lung carcinomas lose DPPIV expression. To investigate the role of DPPIV in lung carcinoma, we examined the expression of DPPIV at both mRNA and protein levels in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and normal human bronchial epithelial cells. DPPIV expression was detectable in normal lung epithelial cells, but was absent or markedly reduced in all NSCLC cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Restoration of DPPIV expression in NSCLC cells resulted in profound morphologic changes, inhibition of cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, in vitro cell migration and tumorigenicity in nude mice. DPPIV reexpression also correlated with increased p21 expression, leading to induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in G1 stage. These effects were accompanied by increased expression of cell surface proteins, fibroblast-activating protein (Fap,) and CD44 that are associated with suppression of tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, DPPIV functions as a tumor suppressor, and its downregulation may contribute to the loss of growth control in NSCLC cells. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Hepatic covalent adduct formation with zomepirac in the CD26-deficient mouse

    Abstract Background and Aims: Zomepirac (ZP), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), has been reported to cause immune-mediated liver injury. In vivo, ZP is metabolized to a chemically reactive acyl glucuronide conjugate (ZAG) which can undergo covalent adduct formation with proteins. Such acyl glucuronide-derived drug-protein adducts may be important in the development of immune and toxic responses caused by NSAID. We have shown using immunoabsorptions that the 110 kDa CD26 (dipeptidyl peptidase IV) is one of the hepatic target proteins for covalent modification by ZAG. In the present study, a CD26-deficient mouse strain was used to examine protein targets for covalent modification by ZP/metabolites in the liver. Methods and Results: The CD26-deficient phenotype was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry analysis, RT-PCR, enzyme assay and immunoblotting. Moreover, by using monoclonal antibody immunoblots, CD26 was not detected in the livers of ZP-treated CD26-deficient mice. Immunoblots using a polyclonal antiserum to ZP on liver from ZP-treated mice showed three major sizes of protein bands, in the 70, 110 and 140 kDa regions. Most, but not all, of the anti-ZP immunoreactivity in the 110 kDa region was absent from ZP-treated CD26-deficient mice. Conclusion: These data definitively showed that CD26 was a component of ZP-modified proteins in vivo. In addition, the data suggested that at least one other protein of approximately 110 kDa was modified by covalent adduct formation with ZAG. [source]

    Conformation of N-terminal HIV-1 tat (fragment 1,9) peptide by NMR and MD simulations

    Meena Kanyalkar
    Abstract The N -terminal portion of HIV-1 Tat covering residues 1,9 is a competitive inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV). We have used 1H NMR techniques, coupled with molecular dynamics methods, to determine the conformation of this peptide in the three diverse media: DMSO-d6, water (pH 2.7) and 40% HFA solution. The results indicate that in both DMSO-d6 and HFA the peptide has a tendency to acquire a type I ,-turn around the segment Asp5 -Pro6 -Asn7 -Ile8. The N -terminal end is seen to be as a random coil. In water, the structure is best described as a left-handed polyproline type II (PPII) helix for the mid segment region Asp2 to Pro6. The structures obtained in this study have been compared with an earlier report on Tat (1,9). Copyright 2000 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Purification and partial characterization of a dipeptidyl peptidase from Prevotella intermedia

    Y. Shibata
    A peptidase hydrolyzed X-Pro- p -nitroanilide was purified from the cell extract of Prevotella intermedia ATCC 25611 by ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular size of 74 kDa from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the maximum enzyme activity was found between pH 7.0 and pH 7.5. This peptidase was a serine enzyme and hydrolyzed Lys-Pro- p -nitroanilide, Arg-Pro- p -nitroanilide, and Ala-Pro- p -nitroanilide, but Lys-Ala- p -nitroanilide was not split. The enzyme may be classified as a dipeptidyl peptidase IV. [source]

    Quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids as inhibitors of aminopeptidase N and dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Abstract Chelerythrine, sanguinarine and an alkaloid extract from Macleaya cordata,sanguiritrin,were found to be inhibitors of aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, while fagaronine inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV only. At 50,,M, chelerythrine, sanguinarine and sanguiritrin inhibited aminopeptidase N by 82%, 82%, 88%, DPP IV by 38%, 62%, 57%, and fagaronine by 34%, respectively. When bovine serum albumin (500,,g/mL) was added, the inhibition of both proteases by quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBA) (50,,M) was significantly diminished. Strong interaction of chelerythrine and sanguinarine with bovine and human serum albumin was proved by electrophoretic determination of their respective conditional binding constants. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A method for the histochemical localization of digestive enzymes in whole freeze-substituted larval fish embedded in glycol methacrylate

    Grant W Vandenberg
    Abstract In order to study the localization of digestive enzymes in larval walleye (Sander vitreus vitreus), a novel method of low-temperature processing of whole, unfixed larvae and subsequent embedding in glycol methacrylate (GMA) was developed. Larval walleye aged 2,10 days post hatch were flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen and transferred into pre-chilled acetone for 12 h at a temperature of ,25 C. Acetone was gradually replaced with increasing concentrations of GMA resin monomer over a 6-h period. The polymer (100%) was further allowed to infiltrate the larvae for 36 h. Resin-embedded larvae were transferred to embedding moulds and polymerized overnight at ,25 C. Four micrometre sections were stained to identify either alkaline phosphatase, non-specific esterase, aminopeptidase M or dipeptidyl peptidase IV. All enzymes studied were readily detected and accurately localized, and no enzyme diffusion was observed. Therefore, freeze substitution combined with low-temperature GMA embedding allows the maintenance of excellent tissue morphology and accurate enzyme localization in whole larval walleye specimens from 2 to 10 days post hatch. It is recommended, however, that samples be frozen in pre-cooled fluorocarbon-based liquid coolants in order to assure optimal tissue preservation. [source]

    Hormonal and metabolic effects of morning or evening dosing of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor vildagliptin in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Yan-Ling He
    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , Vildagliptin is an orally active, potent inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV and was developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. , In clinical trials, once or twice daily dosing with vildagliptin (up to 100 mg day,1) has been shown to reduce endogenous glucose production and fasting plasma glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. , The comparative efficacy of vildagliptin under a morning vs. evening dosing regimen has not previously been determined. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , Once daily dosing with vildagliptin 100 mg for 28 days improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes independent of whether vildagliptin was administered in the morning or evening. , Morning or evening dosing with vildagliptin had similar effects on 24 h glycaemic control and plasma concentrations of the hormones insulin, glucagon and glucagon-like peptide 1. AIM This randomized, double-blind, crossover study compared post-prandial hormonal and metabolic effects of vildagliptin, (an oral, potent, selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-4]) administered morning or evening in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Forty-eight patients were randomized to once daily vildagliptin 100 mg administered before breakfast or before dinner for 28 days then crossed over to the other dosing regimen. Blood was sampled frequently after each dose at baseline (day ,1) and on days 28 and 56 to assess pharmacodynamic parameters. RESULTS Vildagliptin inhibited DPP-4 activity (>80% for 15.5 h post-dose), and increased active glucagon-like peptide-1 compared with placebo. Both regimens reduced total glucose exposure compared with placebo (area under the 0,24 h effect,time curve [AUE(0,24 h)]: morning ,467 mg dl,1 h, P= 0.014; evening ,574 mg dl,1 h, P= 0.003) with no difference between regimens (P= 0.430). Reductions in daytime glucose exposure (AUE(0,10.5 h)) were similar between regimens. Reduction in night-time exposure (AUE(10.5,24 h) was greater with evening than morning dosing (,336 vs.,218 mg dl,1 h, P= 0.192). Only evening dosing significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (,13 mg dl,1, P= 0.032) compared with placebo. Insulin exposure was greater with evening dosing (evening 407 U ml,1 h; morning 354 U ml,1 h, P= 0.050). CONCLUSIONS Both morning and evening dosing of once daily vildagliptin 100 mg significantly reduced post-prandial glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes; only evening dosing significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose. Although evening dosing with vildagliptin 100 mg tended to decrease night-time glucose exposure more than morning dosing, both regimens were equally effective in reducing 24 h mean glucose exposure (AUE(0,24 h)) in patients with type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Rotavirus impairs the biosynthesis of brush-border-associated dipeptidyl peptidase IV in human enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells

    Isabelle Beau
    Summary Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide. This virus infects mature enterocytes in the small intestine, and induces structural and functional damage. In the present study, we have identified a new mechanism by which rotavirus impairs a brush border-associated intestinal protein. We show that infection of enterocyte-like Caco-2/TC7 cells by rhesus monkey rotavirus (RRV) impairs the biosynthesis of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), an important hydrolase in the digestion of dietary proline-rich proteins. We show that the enzyme activity of DPP IV was reduced, and that rearrangements of the protein occurred at the apical domain of the RRV-infected cells. Using pulse-chase experiments and cell surface immunoprecipitation, we have demonstrated that RRV infection did not affect the stability or apical targeting of DPP IV, but did induce a dramatic decrease in its biosynthesis. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that RRV had no effect on the level of expression of DPP IV mRNA, suggesting that the observed decrease in the biosynthesis of the protein is related to an effect of the virus at the translational level. [source]

    Simultaneous 19F NMR Screening of Prolyl Oligopeptidase and Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitors

    CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 8 2010
    Nessim Kichik
    Abstract Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) are serine proteases that belong to the same family of enzymes. These peptidases are relevant because of their association with the pathophysiology of serious illnesses, such as type 2 diabetes (DPP IV), and those related to cognitive disorders (POP). Several NMR-based screening methods are being used to find and validate new hit scaffolds. In particular, 19F NMR-based screening methods have proven to be powerful tools for the discovery and development of new inhibitors. Here we present an accurate and reliable 19F NMR-based simultaneous assay that is used to screen for new selective POP and DPP IV inhibitors in compound mixtures. This activity assay consists of the simultaneous performance of POP and DPP-IV 19F NMR activity assays in the presence of their fluorine-containing substrates. Furthermore, the assays were conducted in the presence of 0.01,% v/v of Triton X-100, which is a detergent that disrupts micelle formation, thereby preventing unspecific aggregate-based inhibition. Finally, this 19F NMR methodology was applied to screen for ligands in plant extracts. Our results indicate that this method allows the simultaneous and accurate identification of selective POP and DPP IV inhibitors in these compound mixtures. [source]