Digestibility Test (digestibility + test)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cell-surface phytase on Pichia pastoris cell wall offers great potential as a feed supplement

Piyanun Harnpicharnchai
Abstract Cell-surface expression of phytase allows the enzyme to be expressed and anchored on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris. This avoids tedious downstream processes such as purification and separation involved with extracellular expression. In addition, yeast cells with anchored proteins can be used as a whole-cell biocatalyst with high value added. In this work, the phytase was expressed on the cell surface of P. pastoris with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchoring system. The recombinant phytase was shown to be located at the cell surface. The cell-surface phytase exhibited high activity with an optimal temperature at 50,55 °C and two optimal pH peaks of 3 and 5.5. The surface-displayed phytase also exhibited similar pH stability and pepsin resistance to the native and secreted phytase. In vitro digestibility test showed that P. pastoris containing cell-surface phytase released phosphorus from feedstuff at a level similar to secreted phytase. Yeast cells expressing phytase also provide additional nutrients, especially biotin and niacin. Thus, P. pastoris with phytase displayed on its surface has a great potential as a whole-cell supplement to animal feed. [source]

Condensed tannins in tropical fodder crops and their in vitro biological activity: Part 2,

Juan López
Abstract With the aim to evaluate the biological activity of purified condensed tannins of tropical forages we conducted two in vitro experiments. In the first, using a radial diffusion technique, the protein precipitation of free condensed tannins (FCT) from Manihot esculenta, leucaena leucocephala, Arachis pintoi, Guazuma ulmyfolia, Gliricidia sepium and of tannic acid on bovine serum albumin (ASB), papain, pepsin and trypsin at pH 5.0 and 6.8 was evaluated with a three-way analysis of variance. Significant effects (P , 0.05) for the tannin type, protein source, pH and their interactions were observed. Pepsin showed the highest protein precipitation (PP) at a pH of 5.0 (82.9 µg) with FCT of G ulmyfolia and the lowest (0 and 0.2 µg) of BSA with G sepium and A pintoi at pH 6.8. Experiments were then conducted using completely randomized designs in order to observe the effect of adding 0, 1.25 or 2.50 mg of FCT from M esculenta and L leucocephala to the rumen fluid-buffer in an in vitro dry matter digestibility test (IVDMD) of Medicago sativa and Brachiaria decumbens, The IVDMD value of M sativa (757 g kg,1) decreased with L leucocephala tannins, although with those of M esculenta it was increased (824 g kg,1 and 871 g kg,1, respectively) for 1.25 and 2.5 mg of FCT. The IVDMD value of B decumbens (774 g kg,1 without tannins) diminished with any tannin and any dose (P < 0.05). We conclude that there are differences in the FCT contents of fodder crops and in their biological activity measured as the capacity to precipitate proteins, which is modified by the type of tannin, the protein and the pH. The result of an IVDMD is regulated by the type of tannin and its dose. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Comparison of in vitro starch digestibility methods for predicting the glycaemic index of grain foods

Kirsty A Germaine
Abstract BACKGROUND:In vitro starch digestibility tests are useful for the prediction of glycaemic index (GI). However, there are no internationally recognised methods and no one method has been found to be suitable for all food types. This study compared six in vitro methods, using four grain foods, including those with a varied particle size and soluble fibre content. Method variations included using chewing or mincing, mincing with or without amylase and incubation in a restricted versus non-restricted system. Hydrolysis index (HI) values, calculated from the starch digestibility curves and GI prediction equations were used to compare the in vitro results to GI. RESULTS: HI values for five of the six methods ranked all foods in the same order as the GI values. Using a GI prediction equation (predicted GIHI) the mincing (without amylase) non-restricted method had the smallest standard error of prediction between the predicted GIHI and GI values. This method was then validated using 14 grain foods and demonstrated a significant correlation (r = 0.93, P < 0.01) between the in vitro starch digestibility and reported GI responses. CONCLUSIONS: The non-restricted mincing method showed good potential as a new in vitro starch digestibility method for predicting GI in grain foods. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Bound and unextractable pesticidal plant residues: chemical characterization and consumer exposure

Heinrich Sandermann Jr
Abstract Plants are well known to incorporate pesticides into bound and unextractable residues that resist solubilization in common laboratory solvents and are therefore not accessible to standard residue analysis. A characterization of such residues has been proposed for incorporation rates above trigger values of 0.05 mg kg,1 parent pesticide equivalents, or percentage values of 10% (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1995) or 25% (Commission of the European Communities, 1997) of the total radioactive residue. These trigger values are often exceeded. The present review describes the current status of the chemical characterization and animal bioavailability of bound and unextractable residues that may be xenobiotic in nature or result from natural recycling of simple degradation products. The latter case represents a mechanism of detoxification. Bound residues have been shown to be covalent or non-covalent in nature. With regard to the plant matrix molecules involved, incorporation into proteins, lignins, pectins, hemicelluloses and cutins has been demonstrated, and four covalent linkage types are known. Animal feeding experiments have revealed cases of low as well as high bioavailability. Many of the studies are limited by experimental uncertainties and by results only being reported as relative percentage values rather than absolute exposure. A preliminary value of absolute exposure from bound and unextractable residues is derived here for the first time from eight case studies. The mean exposure (ca 1.5 mg kg,1 pesticidal equivalents) exceeds some of the existing maximum residue levels (MRLs) of residual free pesticides that are typically in the range of 0.05,1 mg kg,1. A mathematical framework for the correction of current maximum residue levels is presented for cases of highly bioavailable bound residues. As bound pesticidal residues in food plants could represent a source of significant consumer exposure, an experimental test scheme is proposed here. It consists of basic chemical characterization, model digestibility tests and, in exceptional cases, animal bioavailability and additional toxicological studies. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]