Digestibility Studies (digestibility + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of Grazing on Bituminaria bituminosa (L) Stirton: A Potential Forage Crop in Mediterranean Grasslands

M. Sternberg
Abstract Plant traits of Bituminaria bituminosa, as affected by different intensities of cattle grazing, were studied in a Mediterranean grassland in Israel. B. bituminosa is a widespread Mediterranean perennial legume species that may potentially serve as a fodder crop in Mediterranean grasslands. The aims of the present study were: (i) to evaluate the responses of B. bituminosa to different cattle grazing intensities; (ii) to study functional traits associated with grazing tolerance; and (iii) to evaluate its potential as an alternative forage crop in the region. A total of 100 B. bituminosa plants were monitored in field conditions. During the growing season each individual was sampled five times and the following plant traits were monitored each time: (i) aboveground biomass production, (ii) plant height, (iii) specific leaf area (SLA), (iv) number of flowers, (v) seed mass and size, (vi) tannin concentration in leaves, (vii) total nitrogen in leaves, (viii) fibre concentration in leaves (Neutral Detergent Fiber), and (ix) in vitro dry matter digestibility. The results showed that grazing intensity and history of grazing affected B. bituminosa performance. Plant biomass, height, and flower and seed production were all reduced when plants were exposed to cattle grazing. However, under moderate grazing intensities, its plant cover remained relatively stable indicating a potential tolerance under this stocking rate. The nutritious characteristics of B. bituminosa leaves were good, and the condensed tannins concentration found indicated favourable conditions for digestion. Moreover, the in vitro digestibility studies indicated relatively high values (46,51 %) of digestion. B. bituminosa may be considered as a potential crop for cattle feeding in Mediterranean grasslands. Growing this plant in dense stands in rotational paddocks may provide alternative sources of natural fodder protein, reducing the potential costs of artificial feed supplements. [source]

Yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in digestibility studies with dogs, blue foxes and mink fed diets containing different protein sources

S. G. Vhile
Summary The study evaluated the use of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) as an inert marker in studies of apparent total tract digestibility in dogs, blue foxes and mink. Comparison was made with total faecal collection, and use of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as marker respectively. Four experimental diets were added 0.1 g/kg yttrium oxide and 10 g/kg chromic oxide and fed to four animals of each species. Faecal recovery of yttrium oxide was 94.4% (SEM ± 1.0), and of chromic oxide 105.8% (SEM ± 1.5). The digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, starch and total carbohydrates obtained by total collection and yttrium oxide as marker showed close similarity, and in most cases not significant differences, independent of species and diets. In dogs, overall digestibilities of main nutrients with chromic oxide as marker were not significantly different from overall means obtained with yttrium oxide (p > 0.05). Overall digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and total carbohydrates in blue foxes and mink was significantly higher with chromic oxide than with yttrium oxide (p < 0.05). In dogs and blue foxes, digestibilities of individual amino acids determined by use of yttrium oxide were not different from values obtained using total collection of faeces, both within diets and for overall mean (p > 0.05). Overall amino acid digestibilities in dogs determined with chromic oxide as marker were similar to corresponding figures for yttrium oxide, whereas use of chromic oxide resulted in significantly higher digestibilites for a number of amino acids compared with yttrium oxide in foxes and mink (p < 0.05). The digestibilities of most main nutrients and amino acids revealed no interaction between diet and method (p > 0.05). The study showed that yttrium oxide can be used in low concentration in the feed, and allows high accuracy of analyses and thereby precise digestibility determination. It is concluded that yttrium oxide is an alternative inert marker to chromic oxide in the studied species. [source]

Comparison of feed preference and digestion of three different commercial diets for cats and ferrets

S. Gy.
Summary Diet preference and digestibility experiments were conducted using a total of 10 cats and 10 ferrets. The composition of the three different kinds of dry cat feed was as follows (each data are given in dry matter, DM): (i) normal diet (N): 95.3% DM, 33.7% crude protein (CP), 20.4% ether extract (EE), 37.6% nitrogen-free extract (NFE); (ii) ,light diet' (L): 94.2% DM, 31.6% CP, 10.7% EE, 52.2% NFE; (iii) ,veterinary diet' (D): 94.57% DM, 38.7% CP, 9.6% EE, 47.2% NFE. During the period of the preference test, the average daily dry matter intake (calculated with the mean of the three diets: 94.7% DM) was 98.0, 15.0 and 16.7 g DM in cats and 25.0, 7.3 and 8.1 g DM in ferrets. The preference rates of the three different diets, expressed in percentage of their total consumption, were as follows: 60.4% N (54.4 g DM), 12.4% L (12.1 g DM) and 27.2% D (26.6 g DM) in cats, and 46.2% N (11.6 g DM), 29.9% L (7.5 g DM) and 23.9% D (6.0 g DM) in ferrets. This indicates that cats and ferrets have a clear preference for diets of higher fat content. In all three diets, the digestibility of CP was significantly (p < 0.05) lower (70.1 ± 5.4 vs. 75.9 ± 5.8) while that of EE was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (95.6 ± 1.5 vs. 89.4 ± 5.3) in ferrets than in cats. The average digestible/metabolizable energy (DE/ME) ratio of feeds turned to be 95.6% for cats and 90.6% for the ferrets. From the data one can conclude that the ferret cannot be used as a model animal for cats either for preference or digestibility studies. [source]

Studies on feed digestibilities in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus)

M. Clauss
Summary In order to test the suitability of the horse as a nutritional model for elephants, digestibility studies were performed with six captive Asian elephants on six different dietary regimes, using the double marker method with acid detergent lignin as an internal and chromium oxide as an external digestibility marker. Elephants resembled horses in the way dietary supplements and dietary crude fibre content influenced digestibility, in calcium absorption parameters and in faecal volatile fatty acid composition. However, the absolute digestibility coefficients achieved for all nutrients are distinctively lower in elephants. This is because of much faster ingesta passage rates reported for elephants. No answer is given to why elephants do not make use of their high digestive potential theoretically provided by their immense body weight. Differences in volatile fatty acid concentrations between these captive elephants and those reported from elephants from the wild are in accord with a reported high dependence of free-ranging elephants on browse forage. Zusammenfassung Untersuchungen zur Verdaulichkeit von Futtermitteln bei Asiatischen Elefanten (Elephas maximus) Um zu überprüfen, ob das Pferd als ernährungsphysiolgisches Modelltier für Elefanten herangezogen werden kann, wurden Verdaulichkeitsstudien an sechs im Zoo gehaltenen Indischen Elefanten mit sechs verschiedenen Futterrationen durchgeführt. Dabei wurde die Doppelindikatormethode mit Lignin als internem und Chromoxid als externem Marker verwendet. Elefanten ähnelten Pferden hinsichtlich der Art und Weise, wie sich Ergänzungsfuttermittel und der Rohfasergehalt der Ration auf die Verdaulichkeit auswirkten, hinsichtlich der Kalziumabsorption, und hinsichtlich der Zusammensetzung der flüchtigen Fettsäuren im Kot. Die von Elefanten erzielten absoluten Verdaulich-keitswerte sind jedoch für alle Nährstoffe deutlich niedriger als bei Pferden, was auf die schnellere Passage der Ingesta durch den Verdauungstrakt der Elefanten zurückzuführen ist. Die Frage, warum Elefanten ihr großes Potential zu hohen Verdauungleistungen nicht ausnutzen, das ihnen theoretisch aufgrund ihrer immensen Körpermasse gegeben ist, ist noch nicht beantwortet. Unterschiede in den Konzentrationen von flüchtigen Fettsäuren im Kot zwischen diesen Zoo-Elefanten und Elefanten aus freier Wildbahn spiegeln den hohen Laubanteil in der Nahrung freilebender Tiere wieder. [source]

Evacuation of pelleted feed and the suitability of titanium(IV) oxide as a feed marker for gut kinetics in Nile tilapia

H. Richter
The present study assessed the suitability of titanium(IV) oxide, TiO2, as a digesta passage marker in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and studied the shape of the evacuation curve in this species. In three separate trials, fish were given one dose of either 0·5, 0·25 or 0·1% of their body mass (% BME) of feed marked with 1% TiO2 or 0·5% BME of the same feed without marker. The fish were serially slaughtered at intervals after feeding and the stomach contents analysed for dry mass and marker content. The data for individual trials were analysed with the linear, square root, surface area and exponential evacuation models and parameter comparisons showed that, although the marker interfered slightly with the evacuation process, true meal size could be predicted more accurately from the marker data. The results of an analysis of the combined data sets suggested that stomach evacuation in this species is dependent more on food particle surface area (surface area model) than on stomach content mass (exponential model) as is generally assumed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that TiO2 at an inclusion level of 1% is an acceptable marker for quantifying evacuation with a view to predicting food consumption but should be used with caution in digestibility studies. [source]

Nutrient digestibility profile of premium (category III grade) animal protein by-products for temperate marine fish species (European sea bass, gilthead sea bream and turbot)

Simon J Davies
Abstract Three trials, with classical experimental designs for in vivo digestibility studies, were conducted to determine the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein (ADCp), lipid (ADCl), energy (ADCe) and amino acids (AA) in selected animal by-products fed to European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Trial 1), gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Trial 2), and turbot, Psetta maxima (Trial 3). In each trial, five experimental diets [including a reference diet (RD)] where fish meal (FM) was used as the sole protein source were fed ad libitum to the fish for a period of 4 weeks. Test diets were based on the FM RD and obtained by replacing 30% of the RD with a category III designated European animal by-products (fit for human consumption), namely: steam hydrolysed feather meal (HFM), enzyme-treated feather meal (EFM), poultry meat meal (PMM) and spray-dried haemoglobin meal (SDHM). Faecal material was collected using the ,Guelph system', and nutrient and energy digestibility coefficients were related to the measurement of chromic oxide (Cr2O3) incorporated into the diet at a rate of 0.5%. Without any exception, FM diets yielded the best digestibility values for all macro-nutrients and by all fish. Among the test ingredients, ADCp was consistently higher for PMM and SDHM in the three species (85.5%, 91.1% in sea bass; 79.2%, 82.8% in sea bream; and 78.4%, 74.8% in turbot). Conversely, ADCp of HFM and EFM were less efficiently digested (67.2%, 68.2% in sea bass; 21.5%, 21.7% in sea bream; and 46.6%, 36.0% in turbot). However, the novel processing method applied to feather meal did not considerably influence the digestibility of most of the nutrients in this feedstuff. The current investigation yielded valuable numerical ADC for EAA considered to be of prime importance in generating balanced diet formulations. [source]