Device Performance (device + performance)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Polymers and Materials Science

Kinds of Device Performance

  • good device performance

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Effect of Nanoparticle Shape on the Photocarrier Dynamics and Photovoltaic Device Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene):CdSe Nanoparticle Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Smita Dayal
    Abstract The charge separation and transport dynamics in CdSe nanoparticle:poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blends are reported as a function of the shape of the CdSe-nanoparticle electron acceptor (dot, rod, and tetrapod). For optimization of organic photovoltaic device performance it is crucial to understand the role of various nanostructures in the generation and transport of charge carriers. The sample processing conditions are carefully controlled to eliminate any processing-related effects on the carrier generation and on device performance with the aim of keeping the conjugated polymer phase constant and only varying the shape of the inorganic nanoparticle acceptor phase. The electrodeless, flash photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) technique is used and the results are compared to the efficiency of photovoltaic devices that incorporate the same active layer. It is observed that in nanorods and tetrapods blended with P3HT, the high aspect ratios provide a pathway for the electrons to move away from the dissociation site even in the absence of an applied electric field, resulting in enhanced carrier lifetimes that correlate to increased efficiencies in devices. The processing conditions that yield optimum performance in high aspect ratio CdSe nanoparticles blended with P3HT result in poorly performing quantum dot CdSe:P3HT devices, indicating that the latter devices are inherently limited by the absence of the dimensionality that allows for efficient, prolonged charge separation at the polymer:CdSe interface. [source]

    Triplet Formation in Fullerene Multi-Adduct Blends for Organic Solar Cells and Its Influence on Device Performance

    Clare Dyer-Smith
    Abstract In organic solar cells, high open circuit voltages may be obtained by choosing materials with a high offset between the donor highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and acceptor lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). However, increasing this energy offset can also lead to photophysical processes that compete with charge separation. In this paper the formation of triplet states is addressed in blends of polyfluorene polymers with a series of PCBM multi-adducts. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the formation of such triplets occurs when the offset energy between donor ionization potential and acceptor electron affinity is ,1.6 eV or greater. Spectroscopic measurements support a mechanism of resonance energy transfer for triplet formation, influenced by the energy levels of the materials, but also demonstrate that the competition between processes at the donor,acceptor interface is strongly influenced by morphology. [source]

    P3HT/PCBM Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Impact of Blend Composition and 3D Morphology on Device Performance

    Svetlana S. van Bavel
    Abstract The performance of polymer solar cells (PSC) strongly depends on the 3D morphological organization of the donor and acceptor compounds within the bulk heterojunction active layer. The technique of electron tomography is a powerful tool for studying 3D morphology of the layers composed of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a fullerene derivative ([6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester; PCBM), especially to quantify the amount and distribution of fibrillar P3HT nanocrystals throughout the volume of the active layer. In this study, electron tomography is used to characterize P3HT/PCBM layers with different blend compositions, both before and after thermal annealing. The power conversion efficiency of the corresponding PSCs is strongly dependent on the overall crystallinity of P3HT and the way P3HT crystals are distributed throughout the thickness of the active layer. [source]

    Pore-Filling of Spiro-OMeTAD in Solid-State Dye Sensitized Solar Cells: Quantification, Mechanism, and Consequences for Device Performance

    I-Kang Ding
    Abstract In this paper, the pore filling of spiro-OMeTAD (2,2,,7,7,-tetrakis-(N,N -di- p -methoxyphenylamine)9,9,-spirobifluorene) in mesoporous TiO2 films is quantified for the first time using XPS depth profiling and UV,Vis absorption spectroscopy. It is shown that spiro-OMeTAD can penetrate the entire depth of the film, and its concentration is constant throughout the film. We determine that in a 2.5-µm-thick film, the volume of the pores is 60,65% filled. The pores become less filled when thicker films are used. Such filling fraction is much higher than the solution concentration because the excess solution on top of the film can act as a reservoir during the spin coating process. Lastly, we demonstrate that by using a lower spin coating speed and higher spiro-OMeTAD solution concentration, we can increase the filling fraction and consequently the efficiency of the device. [source]

    Device Performance of APFO-3/PCBM Solar Cells with Controlled Morphology

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 43 2009
    Cecilia M. Björström Svanström
    Polymer/fullerene solar cells with three different device structures: A) diffuse bilayer, B) spontaneously formed multilayer, and C) vertically homogenous thin films, are fabricated. The photocurrent/voltage performance is compared and it is found that the self-stratified structure (B) yields the highest energy conversion efficiency. [source]

    A Facile Route to Polymer Solar Cells with Optimum Morphology Readily Applicable to a Roll-to-Roll Process without Sacrificing High Device Performances

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 35 2010
    Hui Joon Park
    A new fabrication method for polymer solar cells that can produce optimized vertical distribution of components is reported. The favorable donor,acceptor morphology showing a well-organized photo-induced charge transporting pathway with fine nanodomains and high crystallinity is achieved. This process is also readily scalable to a large-area and high-speed roll-to-roll process without sacrificing high device performances, even without a PEDOT:PSS layer. [source]

    A practical interface for microfluidics and nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 9 2008
    Sergio L. S. Freire
    Abstract We report a new method for fabricating nanospray ionization tips for MS, formed from glass substrates and the inert polymer, parylene-C. Using a single photolithography step, the emitters are formed contiguously with microchannels, such that no dead volumes are observed. In addition, because the devices are very thin (,0.3,mm) and the tips are formed at rectangular corners, the Taylor cone volumes are small, which makes the method attractive for future integration with microfluidic separations. Device performance was demonstrated by evaluating diverse analytes, ranging from synthetic polymers, to peptides, to nucleic acids. For all analytes, performance was similar to that of conventional emitters (pulled-glass capillaries and the Agilent HPLC ChipÔ) with the advantage of rapid, batch fabrication of identical devices. [source]

    The Effect of Polymer Optoelectronic Properties on the Performance of Multilayer Hybrid Polymer/TiO2 Solar Cells

    P. Ravirajan
    Abstract We report a study of the effects of polymer optoelectronic properties on the performance of photovoltaic devices consisting of nanocrystalline TiO2 and a conjugated polymer. Three different poly(2-methoxy-5-(2,-ethylhexoxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV)-based polymers and a fluorene,bithiophene copolymer are compared. We use photoluminescence quenching, time-of-flight mobility measurements, and optical spectroscopy to characterize the exciton-transport, charge-transport, and light-harvesting properties, respectively, of the polymers, and correlate these material properties with photovoltaic-device performance. We find that photocurrent is primarily limited by the photogeneration rate and by the quality of the interfaces, rather than by hole transport in the polymer. We have also studied the photovoltaic performance of these TiO2/polymer devices as a function of the fabrication route and device design. Including a dip-coating step before spin-coating the polymer leads to excellent polymer penetration into highly structured TiO2 networks, as was confirmed through transient optical measurements of the photoinduced charge-transfer yield and recombination kinetics. Device performance is further improved for all material combinations studied, by introducing a layer of poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PSS) under the top contact. Optimized devices incorporating the additional dip-coated and PEDOT:PSS layers produced a short-circuit current density of about 1,mA,cm,2, a fill factor of 0.50, and an open-circuit voltage of 0.86,V under simulated AM,1.5 illumination (100,mW,cm,2, 1,sun). The corresponding power conversion efficiency under 1,sun was ,,0.4,%. [source]

    Triphenylamine and Fluorene Based Cationic Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Wei Shi
    Abstract Two kinds of amino-functionized, triphenylamine and fluorene based copolymers, PFT-N and PTFF-N, were synthesized by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. The corresponding quaternized polyelectrolytes PFT-NBr and PTFF-NBr were obtained through post-polymerization. The quenching behaviors of PFT-NBr and PTFF-NBr in methanol were investigated by the titration of Fe(CN). All of these polymers were investigated as emitting layer in multilayer PLEDs. Devices' performance together with electrochemical properties of these polymers indicate that both of the hole and the electron injection capabilities of them were improved due to the simultaneous introduction of the triphenylamine segment and the aminoalkyl (ammonium) group. [source]

    Microfluidic devices for electrokinetic sample fractionation

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2010
    Zhen Wang
    Abstract We present three generations of microchip-based "in-space" sample fractionators and collectors for use in proteomics. The basic chip design consisted of a single channel for CE separation of analytes that then intersects a fractionation zone feed into multiple high aspect ratio microchannels for fractionation of separated components. Achievements of each generation are discussed in relation to important design criteria. CE-separated samples were electrokinetically driven to multiple collection channels in sequence without cross-contamination under the protection of sheath streams. A 36-channel fractionator demonstrated the efficacy of a high-throughput fractionator with no observed cross-contamination. A mixture of IgG and BSA was used to test the efficiency of the fractionator and collector. CE of the fractionated samples was performed on the same device to verify their purity. Our demonstration proved to be efficient and reproducible in obtaining non-contaminated samples over 15 sample injections. Experimental results were found to be in close agreement with PSpice simulation in terms of flow behavior, contamination control and device performance. The design presented here has a great potential to be integrated in proteomic platforms. [source]

    Micro freef-low IEF enhanced by active cooling and functionalized gels

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 24 2006
    Jacob W. Albrecht
    Abstract Rapid free-flow IEF is achieved in a microfluidic device by separating the electrodes from the focusing region with porous buffer regions. Moving the electrodes outside enables the use of large electric fields without the detrimental effects of bubble formation in the active region. The anode and cathode porous buffer regions, which are formed by acrylamide functionalized with immobilized pH groups, allow ion transport while providing buffering capacity. Thermoelectric cooling mitigates the effects of Joule heating on sample focusing at high field strengths (,500,V/cm). This localized cooling was observed to increase device performance. Rapid focusing of low-molecular-weight pI markers and Protein G,mouse IgG complexes demonstrate the versatility of the technique. Simulations provide insight into and predict device performance based on a well-defined sample composition. [source]

    Ultrathin, Organic, Semiconductor/Polymer Blends by Scanning Corona-Discharge Coating for High-Performance Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Hee Joon Jung
    Abstract A new thin-film coating process, scanning corona-discharge coating (SCDC), to fabricate ultrathin tri-isopropylsilylethynyl pentacene (TIPS-PEN)/amorphous-polymer blend layers suitable for high-performance, bottom-gate, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) is described. The method is based on utilizing the electrodynamic flow of gas molecules that are corona-discharged at a sharp metallic tip under a high voltage and subsequently directed towards a bottom electrode. With the static movement of the bottom electrode, on which a blend solution of TIPS-PEN and an amorphous polymer is deposited, SCDC provides an efficient route to produce uniform blend films with thicknesses of less than one hundred nanometers, in which the TIPS-PEN and the amorphous polymer are vertically phase-separated into a bilayered structure with a single-crystalline nature of the TIPS-PEN. A bottom-gate field-effect transistor with a blend layer of TIPS-PEN/polystyrene (PS) (90/10 wt%) operated at ambient conditions, for example, indeed exhibits a highly reliable device performance with a field-effect mobility of approximately 0.23 cm2 V,1 s,1: two orders of magnitude greater than that of a spin-coated blend film. SCDC also turns out to be applicable to other amorphous polymers, such as poly(, -methyl styrene) and poly(methyl methacrylate) and, readily combined with the conventional transfer-printing technique, gives rise to micropatterned arrays of TIPS-PEN/polymer films. [source]

    The Effect of Nanoparticle Shape on the Photocarrier Dynamics and Photovoltaic Device Performance of Poly(3-hexylthiophene):CdSe Nanoparticle Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Smita Dayal
    Abstract The charge separation and transport dynamics in CdSe nanoparticle:poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) blends are reported as a function of the shape of the CdSe-nanoparticle electron acceptor (dot, rod, and tetrapod). For optimization of organic photovoltaic device performance it is crucial to understand the role of various nanostructures in the generation and transport of charge carriers. The sample processing conditions are carefully controlled to eliminate any processing-related effects on the carrier generation and on device performance with the aim of keeping the conjugated polymer phase constant and only varying the shape of the inorganic nanoparticle acceptor phase. The electrodeless, flash photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) technique is used and the results are compared to the efficiency of photovoltaic devices that incorporate the same active layer. It is observed that in nanorods and tetrapods blended with P3HT, the high aspect ratios provide a pathway for the electrons to move away from the dissociation site even in the absence of an applied electric field, resulting in enhanced carrier lifetimes that correlate to increased efficiencies in devices. The processing conditions that yield optimum performance in high aspect ratio CdSe nanoparticles blended with P3HT result in poorly performing quantum dot CdSe:P3HT devices, indicating that the latter devices are inherently limited by the absence of the dimensionality that allows for efficient, prolonged charge separation at the polymer:CdSe interface. [source]

    Highly Efficient p-i-n and Tandem Organic Light-Emitting Devices Using an Air-Stable and Low-Temperature-Evaporable Metal Azide as an n-Dopant

    Kyoung Soo Yook
    Abstract Cesium azide (CsN3) is employed as a novel n-dopant because of its air stability and low deposition temperature. CsN3 is easily co-deposited with the electron transporting materials in an organic molecular beam deposition chamber so that it works well as an n-dopant in the electron transport layer because its evaporation temperature is similar to that of common organic materials. The driving voltage of the p-i-n device with the CsN3 -doped n-type layer and a MoO3 -doped p-type layer is greatly reduced, and this device exhibits a very high power efficiency (57,lm W,1). Additionally, an n-doping mechanism study reveals that CsN3 was decomposed into Cs and N2 during the evaporation. The charge injection mechanism was investigated using transient electroluminescence and capacitance,voltage measurements. A very highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLED; 84,cd A,1) is also created using an n,p junction that is composed of the CsN3 -doped n-type organic layer/MoO3 p-type inorganic layer as the interconnecting unit. This work demonstrates that an air-stable and low-temperature-evaporable inorganic n-dopant can very effectively enhance the device performance in p-i-n and tandem OLEDs, as well as simplify the material handling for the vacuum deposition process. [source]

    Solution Processable Fluorenyl Hexa- peri -hexabenzocoronenes in Organic Field-Effect Transistors and Solar Cells

    Wallace W. H. Wong
    Abstract The organization of organic semiconductor molecules in the active layer of organic electronic devices has important consequences to overall device performance. This is due to the fact that molecular organization directly affects charge carrier mobility of the material. Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) performance is driven by high charge carrier mobility while bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells require balanced hole and electron transport. By investigating the properties and device performance of three structural variations of the fluorenyl hexa- peri -hexabenzocoronene (FHBC) material, the importance of molecular organization to device performance was highlighted. It is clear from 1H NMR and 2D wide-angle X-ray scattering (2D WAXS) experiments that the sterically demanding 9,9-dioctylfluorene groups are preventing ,,, intermolecular contact in the hexakis-substituted FHBC 4. For bis-substituted FHBC compounds 5 and 6, ,,, intermolecular contact was observed in solution and hexagonal columnar ordering was observed in solid state. Furthermore, in atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments, nanoscale phase separation was observed in thin films of FHBC and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blends. The differences in molecular and bulk structural features were found to correlate with OFET and BHJ solar cell performance. Poor OFET and BHJ solar cells devices were obtained for FHBC compound 4 while compounds 5 and 6 gave excellent devices. In particular, the field-effect mobility of FHBC 6, deposited by spin-casting, reached 2.8,×,10,3,cm2 V,1 s and a power conversion efficiency of 1.5% was recorded for the BHJ solar cell containing FHBC 6 and PC61BM. [source]

    High Efficiency Blue Organic LEDs Achieved By an Integrated Fluorescence,Interlayer,Phosphorescence Emission Architecture

    Tianhang Zheng
    Abstract This paper presents a new strategy to develop efficient organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) by doping fluorescent- and phosphorescent-type emitters individually into two different hosts separated by an interlayer to form a fluorescence,interlayer,phosphorescence (FIP) emission architecture. One blue OLED with FIP emission structure comprising p -bis(p - N,N -diphenylaminostyryl)benzene (DSA-Ph) and bis[(4,6-di-fluorophenyl)-pyridinate- N,C2']picolinate (FIrpic) exhibiting a peak luminance efficiency of 15.8,cd A,1 at 1.54,mA cm,2 and a power efficiency of 10.2,lm W,1 at 0.1,mA cm,2 is successfully demonstrated. The results are higher than those of typical phosphorescent OLEDs with a single emission layer by 34% and 28%, respectively. From experimental and theoretical investigations on device performance, and the functions of the used emitters and interlayer, such enhancement should ascribe to the appropriate utilization of the two types of emitters. The fluorescent emitter of DSA-Ph is used to facilitate the carrier transport, and thus accelerate the generation of excitons, while the phosphorescent emitter of FIrpic could convert the generated excitons into light efficiently. The method proposed here can be applied for developing other types of red, green, and white OLEDs. [source]

    Atomic Structure and Electrical Properties of In(Te) Nanocontacts on CdZnTe(110) by Scanning Probe Microscopy

    Gili Cohen-Taguri
    Abstract Understanding complex correlations between the macroscopic device performance (largely dependent on the character of the metal,semiconductor contact) and the metallurgy of contact formation on the atomic level in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) radiation detectors remains a formidable challenge. In this work, an effort towards bridging that macro,nano knowledge gap is made by conducting a series of controlled experiments aimed at correlating electrical properties of the In contact to n-type CdZnTe(110) surface with the step-by-step process of contact formation. This can only be achieved by using high spatial resolution techniques, capable of conducting highly localized measurements on the nano- and sub-nanoscale, such as scanning probe microscopy. Scanning tunneling microscopy is used in situ to monitor the behavior of various In atom coverages on an atomically flat and ordered CdZnTe surface under well-controlled molecular beam epitaxial conditions in ultra-high vacuum. Electrical derivatives of atomic force microscopy are used to measure the electrical contact properties, such as contact potential difference and spreading resistance in torsion resonance tunneling mode. It is concluded that In atoms preferentially reacted with Te atomic-rows already at room temperature, forming nanometric patches of indium,telluride Schottky-type contacts. The methods developed in this study, in terms of both nanocontact fabrication and characterization (especially in terms of electrical properties) should benefit basic and applied research of any metal,semiconductor system. [source]

    Intrinsic Surface Dipoles Control the Energy Levels of Conjugated Polymers

    Georg Heimel
    Abstract Conjugated polymers are an important class of materials for organic electronics applications. There, the relative alignment of the electronic energy levels at ubiquitous organic/(in)organic interfaces is known to crucially impact device performance. On the prototypical example of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and a fluorinated derivative, the energies of the ionization and affinity levels of , -conjugated polymers are revealed to critically depend on the orientation of the polymer backbones with respect to such interfaces. Based on extensive first-principles calculations, an intuitive electrostatic model is developed that quantitatively traces these observations back to intrinsic intramolecular surface dipoles arising from the , -electron system and intramolecular polar bonds. The results shed new light on the working principles of organic electronic devices and suggest novel strategies for materials design. [source]

    High-Performance Air-Processed Polymer,Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    Chang-Yong Nam
    Abstract High photovoltaic device performance is demonstrated in ambient-air-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active blend layer of organic poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), with power conversion efficiencies as high as 4.1%, which is comparable to state-of-the-art bulk heterojunction devices fabricated in air-free environments. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is combined with detailed analysis of electronic carrier transport in order to quantitatively understand the effects of oxygen exposure and different thermal treatments on electronic conduction through the highly nanostructured active blend network. Improvement in photovoltaic device performance by suitable post-fabrication thermal processing results from the reduced oxygen charge trap density in the active blend layer and is consistent with a corresponding slight increase in thickness of an ,4,nm aluminum oxide hole-blocking layer present at the electron-collecting contact interface. [source]

    Photophysics and Photocurrent Generation in Polythiophene/Polyfluorene Copolymer Blends

    Christopher R. McNeill
    Abstract Here, studies on the evolution of photophysics and device performance with annealing of blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) with the two polyfluorene copolymers poly((9,9-dioctylfluorene)-2,7-diyl-alt-[4,7-bis(3-hexylthien-5-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole]-2,,2,,-diyl) (F8TBT) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) are reported. In blends with F8TBT, P3HT is found to reorganize at low annealing temperatures (100,°C or below), evidenced by a redshift of both absorption and photoluminescence (PL), and by a decrease in PL lifetime. Annealing to 140,°C, however, is found to optimize device performance, accompanied by an increase in PL efficiency and lifetime. Grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering is also performed to study the evolution in film nanomorphology with annealing, with the 140,°C-annealed film showing enhanced phase separation. It is concluded that reorganization of P3HT alone is not sufficient to optimize device performance but must also be accompanied by a coarsening of the morphology to promote charge separation. The shape of the photocurrent action spectra of P3HT:F8TBT devices is also studied, aided by optical modeling of the absorption spectrum of the blend in a device structure. Changes in the shape of the photocurrent action spectra with annealing are observed, and these are attributed to changes in the relative contribution of each polymer to photocurrent as morphology and polymer conformation evolve. In particular, in as-spun films from xylene, photocurrent is preferentially generated from ordered P3HT segments attributed to the increased charge separation efficiency in ordered P3HT compared to disordered P3HT. For optimized devices, photocurrent is efficiently generated from both P3HT and F8TBT. In contrast to blends with F8TBT, P3HT is only found to reorganize in blends with F8BT at annealing temperatures of over 200,°C. The low efficiency of the P3HT:F8BT system can then be attributed to poor charge generation and separation efficiencies that result from the failure of P3HT to reorganize. [source]

    Electron Trapping in Higher Adduct Fullerene-Based Solar Cells

    Martijn Lenes
    Abstract Here, the performance of bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on a series of bisadduct analogues of commonly used derivatives of C60 and C70, such PCBMs and their thienyl versions, is investigated. Due to their higher lowest unoccupied molecular orbital an increase in open-circuit voltage and thus performance is expected. It is shown that the occurrence of a multitude of different isomers results in a decrease in the electron transport for some of the materials. Surprisingly, the solar-cell characteristics are very similar for all materials. This apparent discrepancy is explained by a significant amount of shallow trapping occurring in the fullerene phase that does not hamper the solar cell performance due the filling of these shallow traps during illumination. Furthermore, the trisadduct analogue of [60]PCBM has been investigated, which, despite an even further increase in open-circuit voltage, results in a significantly reduced device performance due to a strong deterioration of the electron mobility in the fullerene phase. [source]

    The Design and Realization of Flexible, Long-Lived Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells

    Junfeng Fang
    Abstract Polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) offer an attractive opportunity for low-cost production of functional devices in flexible and large-area configurations, but the critical drawback in comparison to competing light-emission technologies is a limited operational lifetime. Here, it is demonstrated that it is possible to improve the lifetime by straightforward and motivated means from a typical value of a few hours to more than one month of uninterrupted operation at significant brightness (>100,cd m,2) and relatively high power conversion efficiency (2 lm W,1 for orange-red emission). Specifically, by optimizing the composition of the active material and by employing an appropriate operational protocol, a desired doping structure is designed and detrimental chemical and electrochemical side reactions are identified and minimized. Moreover, the first functional flexible LEC with a similar promising device performance is demonstrated. [source]

    Electron-Rich Alcohol-Soluble Neutral Conjugated Polymers as Highly Efficient Electron-Injecting Materials for Polymer Light-Emitting Diodes

    Fei Huang
    Abstract We report the design and synthesis of three alcohol-soluble neutral conjugated polymers, poly[9,9-bis(2-(2-(2-diethanolaminoethoxy) ethoxy)ethyl)fluorene] (PF-OH), poly[9,9-bis(2-(2-(2-diethanol-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)fluorene- alt -4,4,-phenylether] (PFPE-OH) and poly[9,9-bis(2-(2-(2-diethanolaminoethoxy) ethoxy)ethyl)fluorene- alt -benzothiadizole] (PFBT-OH) with different conjugation length and electron affinity as highly efficient electron injecting and transporting materials for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). The unique solubility of these polymers in polar solvents renders them as good candidates for multilayer solution processed PLEDs. Both the fluorescent and phosphorescent PLEDs based on these polymers as electron injecting/transporting layer (ETL) were fabricated. It is interesting to find that electron-deficient polymer (PFBT-OH) shows very poor electron-injecting ability compared to polymers with electron-rich main chain (PF-OH and PFPE-OH). This phenomenon is quite different from that obtained from conventional electron-injecting materials. Moreover, when these polymers were used in the phosphorescent PLEDs, the performance of the devices is highly dependent on the processing conditions of these polymers. The devices with ETL processed from water/methanol mixed solvent showed much better device performance than the devices processed with methanol as solvent. It was found that the erosion of the phosphorescent emission layer could be greatly suppressed by using water/methanol mixed solvent for processing the polymer ETL. The electronic properties of the ETL could also be influenced by the processing conditions. This offers a new avenue to improve the performance of phosphorescent PLEDs through manipulating the processing conditions of these conjugated polymer ETLs. [source]

    Vertical Phase Separation in Poly(3-hexylthiophene): Fullerene Derivative Blends and its Advantage for Inverted Structure Solar Cells

    Zheng Xu
    Abstract A method which enables the investigation of the buried interfaces without altering the properties of the polymer films is used to study vertical phase separation of spin-coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):fullerene derivative blends. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis reveals the P3HT enrichment at the free (air) surfaces and abundance of fullerene derivatives at the organic/substrate interfaces. The vertical phase separation is attributed to the surface energy difference of the components and their interactions with the substrates. This inhomogeneous distribution of the donor and acceptor components significantly affects photovoltaic device performance and makes the inverted device structure a promising choice. [source]

    Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Based on Solution-Processable Graphene and P3HT

    Qian Liu
    Abstract A soluble graphene, which has a one-atom thickness and a two-dimensional structure, is blended with poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and used as the active layer in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) polymer photovoltaic cells. Adding graphene to the P3HT induces a great quenching of the photoluminescence of the P3HT, indicating a strong electron/energy transfer from the P3HT to the graphene. In the photovoltaic devices with an ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:graphene/LiF/Al structure, the device efficiency increases first and then decreases with the increase in the graphene content. The device containing only 10,wt % of graphene shows the best performance with a power conversion efficiency of 1.1%, an open-circuit voltage of 0.72,V, a short-circuit current density of 4.0,mA cm,2, and a fill factor of 0.38 under simulated AM1.5G conditions at 100,mW cm,2 after an annealing treatment at 160,°C for 10,min. The annealing treatment at the appropriate temperature (160,°C, for example) greatly improves the device performance; however, an annealing at overgenerous conditions such as at 210,°C results in a decrease in the device efficiency (0.57%). The morphology investigation shows that better performance can be obtained with a moderate content of graphene, which keeps good dispersion and interconnection. The functionalized graphene, which is cheap, easily prepared, stable, and inert against the ambient conditions, is expected to be a competitive candidate for the acceptor material in organic photovoltaic applications. [source]

    Exploiting a Dual-Fluorescence Process in Fluorene,Dibenzothiophene- S,S -dioxideCo-Polymers to Give Efficient Single Polymer LEDs with Broadened Emission

    Simon M. King
    Abstract A description of the synthesis of random (9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,7-diyl),(dibenzothiophene- S,S -dioxide-3,7-diyl) co-polymers (p(F-S)x) by palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling polymerization where the feed ratio of the latter is varied from 2 to 30,mol % (i.e., x,=,2,30) is given. Polymer light emitting devices are fabricated with the configuration indium tin oxide/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonic acid)/p(F,S)x/Ba/Al. The device external quantum efficiency increased as the ratio of the S co-monomer was increased, up to a maximum of 1.3% at 100,mA cm,2 for p(F-S)30 and a brightness of 3 770,cd m,2 (at 10,V). The S units impart improved electron injection, more balanced mobilities, and markedly improved device performance compared to poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) under similar conditions. These co-polymers display broad emission, observed as greenish-white light, which arises from dual fluorescence, viz. both local excited states and charge transfer states. Utilizing dual emission can reduce problems associated with Förster energy transfer from high-energy to-low energy excited states. [source]

    Novel Heteroleptic CuI Complexes with Tunable Emission Color for Efficient Phosphorescent Light-Emitting Diodes,

    Q. Zhang
    Abstract A series of orange-red to red phosphorescent heteroleptic CuI complexes (the first ligand: 2,2,-biquinoline (bq), 4,4,-diphenyl-2,2,-biquinoline (dpbq) or 3,3,-methylen-4,4,-diphenyl-2,2,-biquinoline (mdpbq); the second ligand: triphenylphosphine or bis[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether (DPEphos)) have been synthesized and fully characterized. With highly rigid bulky biquinoline-type ligands, complexes [Cu(mdpbq)(PPh3)2](BF4) and [Cu(mdpbq)(DPEphos)](BF4) emit efficiently in 20,wt,% PMMA films with photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.56 and 0.43 and emission maximum of 606,nm and 617,nm, respectively. By doping these complexes in poly(vinyl carbazole) (PVK) or N -(4-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)-3,6-bis(carbazol-9-yl) carbazole (TCCz), phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated with various device structures. The complex [Cu(mdpbq)(DPEphos)](BF4) exhibits the best device performance. With the device structure of ITO/PEDOT/TCCz:[Cu(mdpbq)(DPEphos)](BF4) (15,wt,%)/TPBI/LiF/Al (III), a current efficiency up to 6.4,cd,A,1 with the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.61, 0.39) has been realized. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of efficient mononuclear CuI complexes with red emission. [source]

    Hybrid Solar Cells from Regioregular Polythiophene and ZnO Nanoparticles,


    Abstract Blends of nanocrystalline zinc oxide nanoparticles (nc-ZnO) and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) processed from solution have been used to construct hybrid polymer,metal oxide bulk-heterojunction solar cells. Thermal annealing of the spin-cast films significantly improves the solar-energy conversion efficiency of these hybrid solar cells to ,,0.9,%. Photoluminescence and photoinduced absorption spectroscopy demonstrate that charge-carrier generation is not quantitative, because a fraction of P3HT appears not to be in contact with or in close proximity to ZnO. The coarse morphology of the films, also identified by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, likely limits the device performance. [source]

    High-Performance Single Crystal Organic Field-Effect Transistors Based on Two Dithiophene-Tetrathiafulvalene (DT-TTF) Polymorphs

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 37 2010
    Raphael Pfattner
    Solution prepared single crystal organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) combine low-cost with high performance due to structural ordering of molecules. However, in organic crystals polymorphism is a known phenomenon, which can have a crucial influence on charge transport. Here, the performance of solution-prepared single crystal OFETs based on two different polymorphs of dithiophene-tetrathiafulvalene, which were investigated by confocal Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, are reported. OFET devices prepared using different configurations show that both polymorphs exhibited excellent device performance, although the ,-phase revealed charge carrier mobility between two and ten times higher in accordance to the closer stacking of the molecules. [source]

    Conjugated-Polymer Blends for Optoelectronics

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 38-39 2009
    Christopher R. McNeill
    Abstract Solution-processed polymer optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes and solar cells have many advantages for large-area manufacture, and show increasing levels of performance. Here, we review recent progress in using blends of two conjugated polymers for optoelectronic devices. The blending of two or more polymers allows tuning of device performance, and for photovoltaics presents an attractive way to combine donor and acceptor materials with a morphology controlled by polymer phase separation. We discuss recent advances in imaging the microstructure of conjugated polymer blends, and we demonstrate how the blend structure leads to performance advantages in both LEDs and photovoltaic devices. [source]