Developmental Progression (developmental + progression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Developmental progression in the confidence-accuracy relationship in event recall: insights provided by a calibration perspective

Pauline Howie
The development of discrimination and realism was investigated in the event recall of 156 8-year-olds, 133 10-year-olds and 146 adults, using categorical confidence judgements. Target questions were either a mixture of misleading and unbiased (,non-bombardment'), or restricted to one question format (,bombardment'). The confidence judgements of all age groups discriminated between incorrect and correct responses to unbiased questions, but with misleading questions, this ability was undermined in the children, particularly when ,bombarded'. Calibration-style analyses of unbiased questions revealed a systematic confidence,accuracy association across age and question mix for unbiased questions. For misleading questions, however, the absence of a drop in performance from intermediate to low confidence at all ages suggested relative underconfidence at the lowest confidence level. At high confidence levels, there was evidence of realistic congruence between confidence and performance in adults, but this was not the case in the 10-year-olds when bombarded with misleading questions, or in the 8-year-olds, regardless of bombardment. Exploratory analyses of question difficulty revealed poor calibration across ages for difficult unbiased questions, and in the 8-year-olds, even for easy unbiased questions when intermixed with misleading questions. Bombardment with difficult misleading questions further undermined children's calibration. Implications for the role of social and cognitive factors in the development of metacognitive monitoring are discussed. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of swallowing and feeding: Prenatal through first year of life

Amy L. Delaney
Abstract The development of feeding and swallowing involves a highly complex set of interactions that begin in embryologic and fetal periods and continue through infancy and early childhood. This article will focus on swallowing and feeding development in infants who are developing normally with a review of some aspects of prenatal development that provide a basis for in utero sucking and swallowing. Non-nutritive sucking in healthy preterm infants, nipple feeding in preterm and term infants, and selected processes of continued development of oral skills for feeding throughout the first year of life will be discussed. Advances in research have provided new information in our understanding of the neurophysiology related to swallowing, premature infants' sucking and swallowing patterns, and changes in patterns from preterm to near term to term infants. Oral skill development as texture changes are made throughout the second half of the first year of life is an under studied phenomenon. Knowledge of normal developmental progression is essential for professionals to appreciate differences from normal in infants and children with feeding and swallowing disorders. Additional research of infants and children who demonstrate overall typical development in oral skills for feeding is encouraged and will provide helpful reference points in increasing understanding of children who exhibit differences from typical development. It is hoped that new technology will provide noninvasive means of delineating all phases of sucking and swallowing from prenatal through infancy. Further related topics in other articles of this issue provide a comprehensive review of factors influencing oral intake, growth, nutrition, and neurodevelopmental status of children. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:105,117. [source]

Changes in Frost Resistance of Wheat Young Ears with Development During Jointing Stage

X. Zhong
Abstract During the jointing stage, the frost resistance of young ears (FRYE) was tested each day for the main stem, and also for the first, second and third tillers of the wheat cultivars Jinmai 47 and Jing 411. At the same time, the developmental progression of young ears (DPYE) of the same four shoots was also recorded each day. In the shoots of both cultivars, FRYE decreased as development advanced through the jointing stage. FRYE dropped off particularly sharply at the point when the anther connective tissue formation phase (ACFP) started. Shoots developing later, though with lower levels of soluble sugar, tended to suffer less from frost injury than those developing earlier. Frost resistance of 12 cultivars (six early- and six late-maturing) was evaluated at ACFP. The results indicate that only one cultivar (Xin 11) is frost resistant, with no significant differences appearing among the other 11 cultivars. The results suggest that DPYE is an important factor affecting FRYE. Evaluation of frost resistance of wheat cultivars should thus be performed at the same phase to obtain a true measure of frost resistance. The early ACFP phase is suggested as being the most appropriate one for frost resistance evaluation. [source]

Confocal microscopy of the light organ crypts in juvenile Euprymna scolopes reveals their morphological complexity and dynamic function in symbiosis

Laura K. Sycuro
Abstract In the hours to days following hatching, the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, obtains its light-emitting symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, from the surrounding environment and propagates the bacteria in the epithelial crypts of a specialized light organ. Three-dimensional analyses using confocal microscopy revealed that each of the three crypts on either side of the juvenile light organ is composed of four morphological regions. Progressing from the lateral pore to the medial blind end of each crypt, the regions consist of 1) a duct, 2) an antechamber, 3) a bottleneck, and 4) a deep region. Only the deep region houses a persistent bacterial population, whereas the duct, antechamber, and bottleneck serve as conduits through which the bacteria enter during initial colonization and exit during diel venting, a behavior in which ,90% of the symbionts are expelled each dawn. Our data suggest that, like the duct, the antechamber and bottleneck may function to promote and maintain the specificity of the symbiosis. Pronounced structural and functional differences among the deep regions of the three crypts, along with previously reported characterizations of embryogenesis, suggest a continued developmental progression in the first few days after hatching. Taken together, the results of this study reveal a high degree of complexity in the morphology of the crypts, as well as in the extent to which the three crypts and their constituent regions differ in function during the early stages of the symbiosis. J. Morphol. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The developmental progression of comprehension-related skills in children learning EAL

Jane M. Hutchinson
Many children who speak English as an additional language (EAL) underachieve in areas of English literacy, especially in the primary years. These difficulties are often attributed to low levels of English language fluency as they enter the education system. In an effort to provide a greater understanding of this underachievement, the cognitive-linguistic factors underlying literacy development in monolingual children and children learning EAL were examined in a three-year longitudinal project. The project, conducted in schools in the north of England, followed the developmental progression of forty-three children learning EAL and forty-three monolingual children from school years Two to Four. Children were assessed on measures of reading accuracy, reading and listening comprehension, receptive and expressive vocabulary, and reception of grammar. Analysis revealed similarities between the two groups of children on reading accuracy, but children learning EAL had lower levels of vocabulary and comprehension at each point in time. Data are discussed in terms of the development of underlying language skills and the impact of these skills on both reading and listening comprehension. The implications of the findings for classroom practice are considered. [source]

The development of arithmetical abilities

Brian Butterworth
Background:, Arithmetical skills are essential to the effective exercise of citizenship in a numerate society. How these skills are acquired, or fail to be acquired, is of great importance not only to individual children but to the organisation of formal education and its role in society. Method:, The evidence on the normal and abnormal developmental progression of arithmetical abilities is reviewed; in particular, evidence for arithmetical ability arising from innate specific cognitive skills (innate numerosity) vs. general cognitive abilities (the Piagetian view) is compared. Results:, These include evidence from infancy research, neuropsychological studies of developmental dyscalculia, neuroimaging and genetics. The development of arithmetical abilities can be described in terms of the idea of numerosity , the number of objects in a set. Early arithmetic is usually thought of as the effects on numerosity of operations on sets such as set union. The child's concept of numerosity appears to be innate, as infants, even in the first week of life, seem to discriminate visual arrays on the basis of numerosity. Development can be seen in terms of an increasingly sophisticated understanding of numerosity and its implications, and in increasing skill in manipulating numerosities. The impairment in the capacity to learn arithmetic , dyscalculia , can be interpreted in many cases as a deficit in the concept in the child's concept of numerosity. The neuroanatomical bases of arithmetical development and other outstanding issues are discussed. Conclusions:, The evidence broadly supports the idea of an innate specific capacity for acquiring arithmetical skills, but the effects of the content of learning, and the timing of learning in the course of development, requires further investigation. [source]

,Undesirable' and ,desirable' shifts in children's responses to repeated questions: age differences in the effect of providing a rationale for repetition

Pauline Howie
This study examined factors influencing children's tendency to shift responses when questions are repeated within an interview. Forty nine 4,5-year-olds and 40 7,8-year-olds were questioned about a video they had seen, with questions repeated by the same or a different interviewer. Half the children were given a rationale for question repetition, and half were not. Overall, the older children shifted less than the younger children, and, unlike the younger children, more to misleading than unbiased questions. The rationale did not affect overall shifting, but reduced the probability of ,undesirable' shifts (towards inaccuracy) in the younger children, and increased ,desirable' shifts (towards accuracy) at both ages. In the younger children, the rationale reduced total number of shifts, but only with the same interviewer, while in the older children the reverse applied. The results suggest developmental progression in the relative contributions of memorial and social/motivational factors to shifting. Implications for investigative interviewing with children are discussed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Motor Core of Speech: A Comparison of Serial Organization Patterns in Infants and Languages

Peter F. MacNeilage
Comparison of serial organization of infant babbling and early speech with that of 10 languages reveals four movement-related design features reflecting a deep evolutionary heritage: (1) the cyclical consonant,vowel alternation underlying the syllable, a "Frame" for speech consisting of mandibular oscillation, possibly evolving from ingestive cyclicities (e.g., chewing) via visuofacial communicative cyclicities (e.g., lipsmacks); (2) three intracyclical consonant,vowel co-occurrence preferences reflecting basic biomechanical constraints , coronal consonants,front vowels, dorsal consonants,back vowels, and labial consonants,central vowels; (3) a developmental progression from above-chance to below-chance levels of intercyclical consonant repetition; (4) an ease-related labial consonant,vowel, coronal consonant sequence preference for word initiation. These design features presumably result from self-organizational responses to selection pressures, primarily determined by motor factors. No explanation for these design features is available from Universal Grammar, and, except for feature 3, perceptual-motor learning seems to have only a limited causal role in acquisition of any design feature. [source]