Developmental Problems (developmental + problem)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bridging the Social and Digital Divides in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala: A Capabilities Approach

Jayan Jose Thomas
ABSTRACT Combining empirical evidence with Amartya Sen's concept of capabilities, this article argues that the digital divide is not merely a problem of access to ICTs. It is part of a larger developmental problem in which vast sections of the world's population are deprived of the capabilities to use ICTs, acquire information and convert information into useful knowledge. Fieldwork research including sample surveys conducted in rural locations in Kerala and Andhra Pradesh in India shows that these capabilities can only be created through large-scale complementary interventions in economic and social development. [source]

Primer and interviews: Gene regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

Julie C. Kiefer
Abstract The animal and plant kingdoms use many of the same molecular tools to build decidedly different multicellular organisms. Learning how plants approach challenges common to both kingdoms can inspire new ways of thinking in the animal biologist. This primer introduces how a weed from the mustard family, Arabidopsis thaliana, has been used to work through developmental problems. It also compares and contrasts gene regulation tools in animals and plants. Accompanying the primer is a discussion of current topics in root development with Arabidopsis researchers Philip N. Benfey, Ph.D., and Kenneth D. Birnbaum, Ph.D. Developmental Dynamics 238:2449,2458, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Short and long germ segmentation: unanswered questions in the evolution of a developmental mode

Paul Z. Liu
Summary The insect body plan is very well conserved, yet the developmental mechanisms of segmentation are surprisingly varied. Less evolutionarily derived insects undergo short germ segmentation where only the anterior segments are specified before gastrulation whereas the remaining posterior segments are formed during a later secondary growth phase. In contrast, derived long germ insects such as Drosophila specify their entire bodies essentially simultaneously. These fundamental embryological differences imply potentially divergent molecular patterning events. Numerous studies have focused on comparing the expression and function of the homologs of Drosophila segmentation genes between Drosophila and different short and long germ insects. Here we review these comparative data with special emphasis on understanding how short germ insects generate segments and how this ancestral mechanism may have been modified in derived long germ insects such as Drosophila. We break down the larger issue of short versus long germ segmentation into its component developmental problems and structure our discussion in order to highlight the unanswered questions in the evolution of insect segmentation. [source]

Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on Parenting: A Meta-Analysis

Ireen De Graaf
Abstract: Triple P is a parenting program intended to prevent and to provide treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions on parenting styles and parental competency. Level 4 is an intensive training program of 8 , 10 sessions for parents of children with more severe behavioral difficulties. The results indicated that the Triple P Level 4 interventions reduced dysfunctional parenting styles in parents and also improved parental competency. These effects were maintained well through time and appear to support the widespread adoption and implementation of Triple P Level 4 interventions that is taking place in an increasing number of countries around the world. [source]

Predicting developmental deficiencies at the age of four based on data from the first seven months of life,

Anne Margrethe Rostad
The study examines very young children with the aim of identifying precursors of developmental problems during the first 7 months of age. Information from screening and observations in the birth clinic, in the first level of health care, and from parents was collected on five different occasions. The information that was included concerning the child and family was defined as either optimal or nonoptimal. At the age of 4 years, a clinical group was identified (11.1% of the total population). Logistic regression analyses were performed to detect risk factors. Twenty-one precursors were used to create a screening questionnaire that provided useful information (sensitivity = 56.1%, specificity = 98.8%) for predicting developmental problems of the children. The contribution of sociodemographic data was significant; medical information was less significant. The highest prediction rate surprisingly was found in the moderate clinical subgroup (62.1%), compared to the group with more severe problems that had a slightly lower rate (46.7%). The conclusion of the study is that it is possible to detect infants in need of early intervention using a continuous process of observation and screening. [source]

Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status in the Australian day-care setting: Developmental concerns of parents and carers

D Coghlan
Objective: To trial the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) as an instrument for reporting developmental concerns for Australian preschool children. Method: A cross-sectional survey of parents and carers of 262 children attending five day-care centres and two kindergartens in Melbourne was conducted between October and November 1999. Parents and carers completed the written PEDS questionnaire, comprising 10 questions eliciting concerns about learning, development and behaviour, and answered questions about the acceptability and use of the PEDS. Results: Of 445 children, 389 were eligible for inclusion. Complete parent and carer PEDS data were available for 262 children (67% response: 47% boys; 53% girls) aged from 18 months to 5 years, 9 months. Most parents found the PEDS questionnaire easy to complete (98%) and likely to be useful to health professionals (89%). Twenty-four children (9%) were classified as being at high-risk of disabilities and 49 (19%) were classified as being at medium-risk of disabilities. Parents of 125 children (48%) reported no concerns. The prevalence of parental concerns was similar to the USA norming sample. Carers reported similar prevalences of concerns. Although overall agreement was high, parent/carer ,-values were modest, being highest for the gross motor (, = 0.40) and social,emotional (, = 0.37) domains. Conclusions: The PEDS is acceptable to parents of Australian preschool children, with a prevalence of significant concerns (i.e. children at high- and medium-risk of developmental problems) that is similar to those in the USA. Further research is needed to assess what factors differentially influence whether a concern is felt in a particular domain for a particular child. [source]

Development of the Chinese language paediatric daily occupation scale in Taiwan

Jin-ling Lo
Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the development of the paediatric daily occupation scale (PDOS) that was validated with Taiwanese children aged from birth to 72 months. Item,scale correlation coefficient was also used to select items. The psychometric properties of PDOS were examined based on the results of 957 children who participated in the study. The Chinese child development inventory (CCDI) was used as a standard to examine the concurrent validity of PDOS on two different samples. The PDOS, completed by parents, contains 340 items with good internal consistency (Cronbach's , = 0.99), test,retest reliability (r = 0.99) and concurrent validity (r = 0.88 between PDOS and CCDI). The sensitivity of PDOS (83%) in detecting children with developmental problems was much higher than CCDI (33%). Because the PDOS is developed and examined on children from greater Taipei area, when using the PDOS with children from different socio-cultural environments, the results need to be interpreted cautiously. Further research of the PDOS to justify its use as a screening tool for early detecting of children with developmental problems is suggested. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hush Puppy: A New Mouse Mutant With Pinna, Ossicle, and Inner Ear Defects,

FRCSEd, Henry Pau MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Deafness can be associated with abnormalities of the pinna, ossicles, and cochlea. The authors studied a newly generated mouse mutant with pinna defects and asked whether these defects are associated with peripheral auditory or facial skeletal abnormalities, or both. Furthermore, the authors investigated where the mutation responsible for these defects was located in the mouse genome. Methods: The hearing of hush puppy mutants was assessed by Preyer reflex and electrophysiological measurement. The morphological features of their middle and inner ears were investigated by microdissection, paint-filling of the labyrinth, and scanning electron microscopy. Skeletal staining of skulls was performed to assess the craniofacial dimensions. Genome scanning was performed using microsatellite markers to localize the mutation to a chromosomal region. Results: Some hush puppy mutants showed early onset of hearing impairment. They had small, bat-like pinnae and normal malleus but abnormal incus and stapes. Some mutants had asymmetrical defects and showed reduced penetrance of the ear abnormalities. Paint-filling of newborns' inner ears revealed no morphological abnormality, although half of the mice studied were expected to carry the mutation. Reduced numbers of outer hair cells were demonstrated in mutants' cochlea on scanning electron microscopy. Skeletal staining showed that the mutants have significantly shorter snouts and mandibles. Genome scan revealed that the mutation lies on chromosome 8 between markers D8Mit58 and D8Mit289. Conclusion: The study results indicate developmental problems of the first and second branchial arches and otocyst as a result of a single gene mutation. Similar defects are found in humans, and hush puppy provides a mouse model for investigation of such defects. [source]

Predictive value of clinical and radiological findings in inflicted traumatic brain injury

Pilvi Ilves
Abstract Aims:, The aim of this study is to evaluate the value of early radiological investigations in predicting the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI). Methods:, Clinical and radiological investigations of 24 infants with ITBI were performed during the acute phase of injury (1,3 days), and during the early (4 days up to 3 months) and late (>9 months) postinjury phases. The clinical outcome in survivors (n = 22) was based on the Rankin Disability Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Score. Results:, Five out of 24 infants (21%) had a poor neurodevelopmental outcome (death and severe disability), 17 infants (71%) had different developmental problems and 2 infants were normal at the mean age of 62 (54,70) (95% CI) months. A low initial Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or below [p < 0.05, OR 13.0 (1.3,133.3)], the development of brain oedema [p < 0.005, OR 13.0 (1.6,773)], focal changes in the basal ganglia during the acute phase [p < 0.01, OR 45 (2.1,937.3)], the development of new intracerebral focal changes early postinjury [p < 0.05, OR 24.1(1.0,559.1)], a decrease in white matter [p < 0.01, OR 33 (1.37,793.4)] and the development of severe atrophy before 3 months postinjury [p < 0.05, OR 24 (11.0,559.1)] were significantly correlated with a poor neurodevelopmental outcome. Conclusions:, Early clinical and radiological findings in ITBI are of prognostic value for neurodevelopmental outcome. [source]

Middle-School-Age Outcomes in Children with Very Low Birthweight

H. Gerry Taylor
Most previous studies of children with birthweight <750 g have focused on early childhood sequelae. To evaluate later outcomes, a regional sample of 60 <750-g birthweight children was compared at middle school age (M= 11 years) to 55 children with birthweight 750 , 1,499 g and 49 term controls. The groups were matched on age, gender, and demographic variables at the time of an early-school-age assessment (mean age 7 years). The <750-g birthweight group fared less well at middle school age than the term group on measures of cognitive function, achievement, behavior, and academic performance. In many instances, outcomes were less favorable for the <750-g children than for the 750 to 1,499-g group. Children in the <750-g group who were free of neurosensory disorders and global cognitive impairment performed more poorly on several tests than their term counterparts. Group differences in this subsample on tests of motor skills, math, and the ability to copy and recall a complex drawing remained significant even after controlling for IQ. Disparities between the <750-g and term groups increased with age for some measures. Despite favorable outcomes for many children in the <750-g group, this population is at risk for long-term developmental problems. [source]

Learning from mothers: how myths, policies and practices affect the detection of subtle developmental problems in children

J. Williams
Abstract Background Recent research has revealed increasing concerns over the number of children entering school with unidentified developmental problems, even though there are ostensibly comprehensive health services available for mothers and their children in the pre-school years. Recognizing that early detection and early intervention reduce the likelihood of long-term health and educational problems, it is important to understand why so many children are not detected with developmental problems in their pre-school years. Methods This doctoral study utilized the knowledge and experience of mothers to draw attention to reasons why children with subtle developmental problems are not identified until school age. A qualitative methodology utilized a synthesis of interpretive biography and literary folkloristics as a method of collecting, reading and interpreting personal stories. Three literary theories, arising, respectively, from the tenets of semiotics, neoMarxism and post-structuralism, were used to critically deconstruct the mothers' stories. Results The findings highlight a number of factors that influence the interaction between mothers, health professionals and members of the community, and how these interactions impact on the early detection of children's developmental problems. The findings illustrate the influence of societal myths on how mothers and health professionals view their roles, and on how they think about and respond to the child's problem. They also confirm the value placed on professional knowledge and the role it plays in communications between mothers and health professionals. Finally, they draw attention to how competing arguments about diagnosis and labelling delay identification and access to intervention programmes for children. Conclusion Health professionals working with mothers and young children should be aware of how their values, beliefs and communication styles affect their professional practice, especially when interacting with mothers who raise concerns about their children. State policies that limit access to early intervention programmes should also be reconsidered so that young children are not excluded from assistance. [source]

Are regulatory problems in infancy precursors of later hyperkinetic symptoms?

K Becker
Aim: To examine whether regulatory problems in infancy predict later hyperkinetic symptoms in childhood and pre-adolescence. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study of 319 children at risk of later developmental problems and psychopathology, hyperkinetic behaviour problems were assessed at the ages of 2, 4.5, 8 and 11 y by means of a standardized parent interview. Infant regulatory problems at the age of 3 mo were determined from multiple sources of information. An observational procedure was used to assess the quality of mother-infant interaction. Results: At the age of 3 mo, 17% of the infants (n= 55; 27 boys, 28 girls) suffered from multiple regulatory problems. Compared to a control group (n= 264), these children presented more hyperkinetic symptoms throughout childhood. Negativity in the mother-infant interaction and early family adversity each contributed to later hyperkinetic symptoms. When controlling for family adversity, the association between infant multiple regulatory problems and later hyperkinetic problems was rendered insignificant. Conclusions: These findings suggest that multiple regulatory problems may not be a key variable for later hyperkinetic problems. The impact of early family adversity factors clearly outweighed that of infant psychopathology on later behaviour disorder. [source]