Developmental Perspective (developmental + perspective)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Selected Abstracts


Article first published online: 9 FEB 200
First page of article [source]


Jean Knox
abstract This paper highlights some key features of a Jungian approach to transference and countertransference and suggests that a Jungian model has crucial aspects in common with contemporary views in attachment theory on the nature of the analytic relationship. The analytic relationship is examined in terms of the fundamental processes of psychic development described in attachment theory and affective neuroscience, namely affect regulation and development of reflective function and of self-agency. The relative value of three analytic techniques, those of interpretation, new relational experience and regression, are discussed in relation to these processes. I suggest that each of the traditional psychoanalytic and Jungian analytic models concentrates on differing aspects of these psychic processes and analytic techniques. I construct a grid to illustrate this and to demonstrate how attachment theory and developmental neuroscience offer a theoretical basis on which we can develop an integrated model of the nature of the analytic relationship and tasks. [source]

Adult Children's Supportive Behaviors and Older Parents' Subjective Well,Being,A Developmental Perspective on Intergenerational Relationships

Frieder R. Lang
Adult children's supportive behaviors were examined with respect to children's autonomy and social motivation towards parents, and with respect to longitudinal changes of parents' subjective well,being. In total, 115 adult children from 83 German families completed a questionnaire on supportive behaviors and social motivation. The children also reported what pleased or irritated their parents most. Findings suggest that filial autonomy was associated with resistance to strain. Older parents' satisfaction improved when children expressed affection or gave emotional support. However, informational support from children was associated with decreased satisfaction among parents. Findings suggest that filial autonomy may facilitate supportive behaviors that correspond to older parents' socioemotional needs. [source]

Developmental perspectives on copy number abnormalities of the 22q11.2 region

TY Tan
Tan TY, Gordon CT, Amor DJ, Farlie PG. Developmental perspectives on copy number abnormalities of the 22q11.2 region. The 22q11.2 chromosomal landscape predisposes to genomic rearrangements that are associated with a variety of clinical phenotypes. The most well known of these include the 22q11.2 deletion and Cat-eye syndromes (CES), but more recently other copy number abnormalities have been recognised, especially with increased use of microarrays in the investigation of patients with congenital malformations or cognitive impairment. In addition, mutations in the TBX1 gene have been found in patients with phenotypes reminiscent of 22q11.2 syndromes. Recent advances in our understanding of 22q11.2 genes and their interactions provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the phenotypic variability of the 22q11.2 syndromes, and suggest a possible common developmental pathway perturbed by copy number abnormalities of this locus. [source]

Extinction in the developing rat: An examination of renewal effects

Carol S.L. Yap
Abstract In the present series of experiments the context-specificity of extinction was examined from a developmental perspective. For postnatal day (PN) 23 rats, renewal of freezing to an aversive odor conditioned stimulus (CS) was observed when rats were conditioned in Context A, extinguished in Context B, and tested in Context A (i.e., ABA renewal). This effect was not observed in PN16 rats, which is consistent with previous studies suggesting that rats <,PN20 are impaired in encoding contextual information [i.e., Carew and Rudy [1991]. Developmental Psychobiology, 24, 191,209]. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that for rats conditioned at PN16 and tested at PN23, contextual regulation of extinction performance depended on the age at which extinction occurred. Specifically, ABA renewal was observed in rats given extinction training at PN22 but not in rats given extinction training at PN17. These latter results show that whether or not context regulates the expression of an ambiguous memory is determined by the animal's age when the memory becomes ambiguous. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49: 565-575, 2007. [source]

Understanding AIDS: A Comparison of Children in the United States and Thailand,

Margaret H. Young
Replicating a prior U.S. study, data were gathered from preschool and school-age children in Thailand (n= 80). Taking a developmental perspective, Thai children's knowledge and understanding of AIDS was assessed, and results were compared with those of the U.S. sample. The findings show that Thai children in each of four designated age groups have higher levels of accurate knowledge of AIDS compared with their U.S. counterparts. The findings of these early studies are discussed in terms of current AIDS infection rates and educational prevention efforts in both cultures. [source]

Applying the developmental perspective in the psychiatric assessment and diagnosis of persons with intellectual disability: part I , assessment

A. Dosen
Abstract Background In generic psychiatry there has been increasing interest among scientists for the developmental perspective. However, professionals active in the mental health care of people with intellectual disability (ID) have not shown the same degree of interest. The author of this article, who has had a liberal amount of rewarding experiences with the developmental approach in the field of ID, considers the developmental perspective to be innovative and very useful in psychiatric assessment, diagnosis and treatment of this population. The aim of the article is to stimulate a wider application of the developmental perspective as well as to challenge a professional discussion on this issue. Methods Basic assumptions of the developmental perspective are discussed and assessment tools and methods are described. Results In a case vignette, the advantages of developmentally based assessment are emphasized. Emotional development and personality development are viewed as the developmental components that play an important role in adaptive and maladaptive behaviour as well as in the onset and presentation of psychopathology. It is clear that interpretative insight into the totality of the psychosocial aspects of these individuals cannot only be obtained by measuring the level of cognitive development. A wider frame of mind is needed for unambiguous psychiatric diagnostics. Therefore, a replacement of the three dimensional paradigm (bio,psycho,social) by a four dimensional one (bio,psycho,socio,developmental) for the assessment and diagnosis of persons with ID is proposed. [source]

Applying the developmental perspective in the psychiatric assessment and diagnosis of persons with intellectual disability: part II , diagnosis

A. Dosen
Abstract Background The descriptive phenomenological categorical psychiatric diagnostic systems that are currently being used in the field of intellectual disability do not adequately provide for the special needs of persons with intellectual disability. Many relevant diagnostic questions are left unanswered or are only partially accounted for. This is particularly true for persons with low developmental levels. Method A solution to these stumbling blocks is sought in enhancing the contemporary categorical diagnostic systems by also applying methods derived from the developmental perspective. Result By taking the levels of emotional and personality development, in addition to other developmental aspects into account, the clinical picture becomes more comprehensible and explainable. Conclusion The integrative diagnosis that results from this combined approach provides an insight into the processes that have led to the disorder and enriches one's understanding of the presentation form of the disorder. This diagnosis is process- rather than symptom-oriented and is particularly useful with persons who have a low level of psychosocial development. [source]

Sexual abuse in children and adolescents with intellectual disability

R. Balogh
Abstract The present authors conducted a study of the occurrence of victimization and the perpetration of sexual abuse among 43 in-patients with intellectual disability aged between 9 and 21 years who were admitted to a child and adolescent psychiatric in-patient department over a period of 5 years. A retrospective case-note review was employed that explored the nature and severity of abuse in relation to the age, gender and level of disability. The prevalence of abuse or abusive behaviour, i.e. 14% of 300 admissions, did not change over time. In 13 out of the 43 cases, the issue of sexual abuse was identified after admission. Victimization alone occurred in 21 cases, perpetration alone in six cases, and both victimization and perpetration in 16 cases. Fifty per cent of the victims had been abused by a member of their close or extended family. Most cases (62%) were adolescents. There was only one instance of a victim being abused by a female. However, there were five girls who were perpetrators, all of whom had previously been victims. By contrast, 11 out of the 17 male perpetrators had been victims. Despite difficulties of disclosure, it was possible to establish that severely disabled patients had suffered sexual abuse. The present data support theories which (1) recognize gender differences in sexual abuse patterns and (2) have a developmental perspective, incorporating the influence of adolescence. [source]

Age Differences in Conservatism: Evidence on the Mediating Effects of Personality and Cognitive Style

Ilse Cornelis
ABSTRACT The present study investigates the commonly found age,conservatism relationship by combining insights from studies on the development of personality and motivated social cognition with findings on the relationships between these factors and conservative beliefs. Based on data collected in Belgium (N=2,373) and Poland (N=939), we found the expected linear effect of age on indicators of social-cultural conservatism in Belgium and Poland and the absence of such effects for indicators of economic-hierarchical conservatism. We further demonstrated that these effects of age on indicators of cultural conservatism in both countries were (in part) mediated through the personality factor Openness to Experience and the motivated cognition variable Need for Closure. The consistency of these findings in two countries with a very dissimilar sociopolitical history attests to the importance of the developmental perspective for the study of the relationship between age and conservatism. [source]

Epidemiological Personology: The Unifying Role of Personality in Population-Based Research on Problem Behaviors

Robert F. Krueger
Epidemiological personology refers to a paradigm in which a developmental perspective on individual differences is paired with a population-based sampling frame to yield insights about the role of personality in consequential social outcomes. We review our work in epidemiological personology, linking personality to diverse, problematic social outcomes: Mental disorders, health-risk behaviors, and violence. We conclude that broad-band personality measurement is both feasible and fruitful in large-scale research on problem behaviors, and we call for increased collaboration between personality psychologists and researchers in fields such as public health, epidemiology, and sociology. [source]

Patterns of Ethanol Intake in Preadolescent, Adolescent, and Adult Wistar Rats Under Acquisition, Maintenance, and Relapse-Like Conditions

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
David García-Burgos
Background:, Animal behavioral models of voluntary ethanol consumption represent a valuable tool to investigate the relationship between age and propensity to consume alcohol using an experimental methodology. Although adolescence has been considered as a critical age, few are the studies that consider the preadolescence age. This study examines the ethanol consumption/preference and the propensity to show an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) after a short voluntary ethanol exposure from a developmental perspective. Methods:, Three groups of heterogeneous Wistar rats of both sexes with ad libitum food and water were exposed for 10 days to 3 ethanol solutions at 3 different ontogenetic periods: preadolescence (PN19), adolescence (PN28), and adulthood (PN90). Ethanol intake (including circadian rhythm), ethanol preference, water and food consumption, and ADE were measured. Results:, During the exposure, the 3 groups differed in their ethanol intake; the greatest amount of alcohol (g/kg) was consumed by the preadolescent rats while the adolescents showed a progressive decrease in alcohol consumption as they approached the lowest adult levels by the end of the assessed period. The pattern of ethanol consumption was not fully explained in terms of hyperphagia and/or hyperdipsia at early ages, and showed a wholly circadian rhythm in adolescent rats. After an abstinence period of 7 days, adult rats showed an ADE measured both as an increment in ethanol consumption and preference, whereas adolescent rats only showed an increment in ethanol preference. Preadolescent rats decreased their consumption and their preference remained unchanged. Conclusions:, In summary, using a short period of ethanol exposure and a brief deprivation period the results revealed a direct relationship between chronological age and propensity to consume alcohol, being the adolescence a transition period from the infant to the adult pattern of alcohol consumption. Preadolescent animals showed the highest ethanol consumption level. The ADE was only found in adult animals for both alcohol consumption and preference, whereas adolescents showed an ADE only for preference. No effect of sex was detected in any phase of the experiment. [source]

The Rights of Children, the Rights of Nations: Developmental Theory and the Politics of Children's Rights

Colette Daiute
The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), U.N. General Assembly (1989) is a major breakthrough in defining children as fully human and working to ensure them the attendant benefits worldwide. While children's rights as equal human beings may seem obvious in the 21st century, the politics of establishing and ensuring such rights are contentious. The CRC is a brilliant negotiation of conceptions of the child and international relations, yet certain tensions in the children's rights process lead to a lack of clarity in a global situation that continues to leave millions of children at risk. Analyzing the CRC and related practices from a developmental perspective can help identify obstacles to the advancement of children's rights, especially those related to opportunities for rights-based thinking and the exercise of self-determination and societal-determination rights. In this article, I offer a qualitative analysis of children's rights in the context of what I refer to as the CRC activity-meaning system. I present a theoretical framework for considering this system of policy and practice as enacted in the CRC treaty and related monitoring, reporting, qualifying, and implementing documents. A discourse analysis of conceptions of the child and those responsible for ensuring their rights in seven representative documents (including the CRC Treaty, a report by the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child, minutes of a U.N. Security Council meeting, reports by a State-Party, and a report by a civil society group in that country) reveals tensions inherent in the CRC activity-meaning system.1 Emerging from this analysis is a tension between children's rights and nation's rights. Created in part via explicit and implicit assumptions about child development in the CRC as these posit responsibilities across actors in the broader CRC system, this tension challenges the implementation of children's rights and the development of children's rights-based understandings. I use this analysis to explain why future research and practice should address the development of children's rights-based understanding not only in terms of maturation or socialization but also as integral to salient conflicts in their every day lives. [source]

The ,self' in analytical psychology: the function of the ,central archetype' within Fordham's model

Elizabeth Urban
Abstract:, This paper concerns the self as Fordham came to conceive it after a conceptual analysis of Jung's use of the term. Fordham identified a contradiction in Jung's usage, and resolved it by reserving ,self' for a definition of the psychosomatic entirety of the individual, and using a separate term for referring to expressions of the self in human experience (e.g. symbols). Fordham tentatively suggested that the latter be termed the ,central archetype', although this was neither developed nor dropped. I explore the value of this term from a developmental perspective and, more specifically in terms of the deintegration of psyche out of an early psychosomatic unity. This draws upon infant research and an observation of a 14-month old boy. Finally, further developments are briefly described and illustrated, whereby pre-symbolic expressions of the central archetype become symbolic and come to reflect what was for Jung, the ,ultimate', ,Formation, Transformation, Eternal Mind's eternal recreation'. Translations of Abstract Cet article traite du soi tel que Fordham fut amenéà le concevoir, à partir d'une analyse conceptuelle de l'usage jungien de ce terme. Fordham identifia chez Jung une contradiction dans l'usage du terme, qu'il résolut en réservant « soi »à une définition de l'entièreté psychosomatique de l'individu et en utilisant un terme séparé pour se référer aux expressions du soi dans l'expérience humaine (les symboles). Fordham proposa de nommer « archétype central » ces occurrences du soi, mais cette proposition ne fut ni développée ni abandonnée. J'étudie dans cet article la valeur de ce terme dans une perspective développementale et, plus spécifiquement, en termes de dé-intégration de la psyché dans une unité psychosomatique précoce, ceci en référence à l' « infant research », ainsi qu'à l'observation d'un bébé de quatorze mois. Enfin, je décris et illustre brièvement des développements ultérieurs, dans lesquels des expressions pré-symboliques de l'archétype central deviennent symboliques et en viennent à refléter ce qui pour Jung était le but « ultime »; « Formation, Transformation, Eternelle recréation de l'Esprit Éternel ». Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Selbst, so wie Fordham es entwickelt und verstanden hat, einer begrifflichen Analyse von Jungs Gebrauch des Terminus Selbst folgend. Fordham erkannte einen Widerspruch in Jungs Gebrauch und er löste ihn auf, indem er das ,Selbst' für die Definition der psychosomatischen Gesamtheit des Individuums reservierte und einen gesonderten Begriff benutzte, um auf die Ausdrucksmöglichkeiten des Selbst in der menschlichen Erfahrung (z. B. Symbole) zu verweisen. Fordham schlug versuchsweise vor, dieses letztere als ,zentralen Archetypus' zu bezeichnen, wenngleich dieser Vorschlag weder weiter entwickelt, noch fallen gelassen wurde. Ich untersuche den Wert dieses Begriffes von einer entwicklungspsychologischen Perspektive aus und, noch spezifischer, in Begriffen der Deintegration der Psyche ausgehend von einer frühen psychosomatischen Einheit. Dieses verweist auf die Säuglingsforschung und die Beobachtung eines 14 Monate alten Jungen. Schließlich werden weitere Entwicklungen kurz beschrieben und illustriert, wobei die präsymbolischen Äußerungen des zentralen Archetypus zu symbolischen werden und beginnen, das zu reflektieren, was für Jung das ,Endgültige war, Formation, Transformation, des ewigen Geistes ewige Neugestaltung'. Questo lavoro tratta del sé come Fordham giunse a considerarlo, seguendo un'analisi concettuale dell'uso che Jung ne fece. Fordham scoprì una contraddizione nel modo di usarlo di Jung, e la risolse riservando il termine sé per una definizione della totalità psicosomatica dell'individuo e utilizzando un termine diverso per riferirsi all'espressione del sé nell'esperienza umana (ad es. i simboli). Fordham propose come tentativo di chiamare quest'ultimo ,archetipo centrale' sebbene questo non fosse né sviluppato né lasciato cadere. Esamino il valore di questo termine da un punto di vista evolutivo e, più specificamente in termini di deintegrazione della psiche a partire da una totalità psicosomatica. Ciò si basa sull'infant research e sull'osservazione di un bambino di 14 mesi. Infine verranno descritti e illustrati ulteriori sviluppi per mezzo dei quali le espressioni dell'archetipo centrale divengono simboliche e arrivano a riflettere ciò che per Jung era ,il definitivo'; ,Formazione, Trasformazione, creazione eterna della Mente Eterna'. Este trabajo se refiere al self tal como Fordham lo concibe, seguido de un análisis conceptual del uso que Jung le da al término. Fordham encuentra una contradicción en la utilización de Jung, y la resuelve reservando el término ,self' para definir la entidad psicosomática del individuo, y utilizando un término aparte para referirse a las expresiones del self en la experiencia humana (p.ej. los símbolos). Tentativamente Fordham sugiere que este último sea denominado como ,arquetipo central', a pesar de que este no se haya desarrollado ni caído. Exploro el valor de este término desde la perspectiva desarrollista y, mas específicamente en términos de desintegración de la psique de la unidad psicosomática temprana. Ello mediante la investigación y la observación de un niño de 14 meses de edad. Finalmente, otros desarrollos son descritos e ilustrados, donde las expresiones pre-simbólicas del arquetipo central se hacen simbólicas y reflejan lo que para Jung era, ,la finalidad', ,Formación, Transformación, la recreación de la Mente eterna'. [source]

A neuropsychiatric developmental model of serial homicidal behavior,

J. Arturo Silva M.D.
Serial sexual homicide has been the object of intensive study from forensic psychiatric, criminological, developmental, and sociological perspectives. In contradistinction to these approaches, neuropsychiatric concepts and methods have received relatively little attention in this area. In this article we adopt a neuropsychiatric developmental perspective and undertake a review of the psychiatric literature on violence and autism spectrum disorders. Our analysis of this literature suggests the presence of an association between autism spectrum psychopathology and serial homicidal behavior. Recommendations for further research to help clarify the nature of this association are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A critical reappraisal of the fossil record of the bilaterian phyla

ABSTRACT It has long been assumed that the extant bilaterian phyla generally have their origin in the Cambrian explosion, when they appear in an essentially modern form. Both these assumptions are questionable. A strict application of stem- and crown-group concepts to phyla shows that although the branching points of many clades may have occurred in the Early Cambrian or before, the appearance of the modern body plans was in most cases later: very few bilaterian phyla sensu stricto have demonstrable representatives in the earliest Cambrian. Given that the early branching points of major clades is an inevitable result of the geometry of clade diversification, the alleged phenomenon of phyla appearing early and remaining morphologically static is seen not to require particular explanation. Confusion in the definition of a phylum has thus led to attempts to explain (especially from a developmental perspective) a feature that is partly inevitable, partly illusory. We critically discuss models for Proterozoic diversification based on small body size, limited developmental capacity and poor preservation and cryptic habits, and show that the prospect of lineage diversification occurring early in the Proterozoic can be seen to be unlikely on grounds of both parsimony and functional morphology. Indeed, the combination of the body and trace fossil record demonstrates a progressive diversification through the end of the Proterozoic well into the Cambrian and beyond, a picture consistent with body plans being assembled during this time. Body-plan characters are likely to have been acquired monophyletically in the history of the bilaterians, and a model explaining the diversity in just one of them, the coelom, is presented. This analysis points to the requirement for a careful application of systematic methodology before explanations are sought for alleged patterns of constraint and flexibility. [source]

Child Development and Evolutionary Psychology

David F. Bjorklund
Evolutionary developmental psychology involves the expression of evolved, epigenetic programs, as described by the developmental systems approach, over the course of ontogeny. There have been different selection pressures on organisms at different times in ontogeny, and some characteristics of infants and children were selected in evolution to serve an adaptive function at that time in their life history rather than to prepare individuals for later adulthood. Examples of such adaptive functions of immaturity are provided from infancy, play, and cognitive development. Most evolved psychological mechanisms are proposed to be domain specific in nature and have been identified for various aspects of children's cognitive and social development, most notably for the acquisition of language and for theory of mind. Differences in the quality and quantity of parental investment affect children's development and influence their subsequent reproductive and childcare strategies. Some sex differences observed in childhood, particularly as expressed during play, are seen as antecedents and preparations for adult sex differences. Because evolved mechanisms were adaptive to ancestral environments, they are not always adaptive for contemporary people, and this mismatch of evolved mechanisms with modern environments is seen in children's maladjustment to some aspects of formal schooling. We argue that an evolutionary perspective can be valuable for developing a better understanding of human ontogeny in contemporary society and that a developmental perspective is important for a better understanding of evolutionary psychology. [source]

Learning to Eat in an Obesogenic Environment: A Developmental Systems Perspective on Childhood Obesity

Leann L. Birch
Abstract, Currently, children are developing in an obesity-promoting, or obesogenic, environment, which has emerged within the past 3 decades. This rapid change provides a rare opportunity to investigate the phenotypic outcomes that result from the expression of human genetic predispositions in a new environment. Unfortunately, the environmental changes that have occurred are associated with epidemic obesity rates in all age groups. Using a developmental perspective, this article argues that this probabilistic outcome is not predetermined, however. The article also provides examples of learning paradigms,familiarization and associative and observational learning,that present opportunities for parents and caregivers to restructure children's environments in early life, increasing the likelihood of healthy weight-status outcomes in the context of the current obesogenic environment. [source]

A qualitative exploration of the perception of emotions in anorexia nervosa: A basic emotion and developmental perspective

John R. E. Fox
Abstract Difficulties in emotional processing have long been regarded as a core difficulty within anorexia nervosa. Recent research and theory have started to highlight how eating disorder symptoms are often used to regulate painful emotions. However, there has been a lack of theoretical sophistication in how emotions have been considered within the eating disorders. This study was designed to use qualitative methodologies to address these inadequacies and provide a richer, more thorough account of emotions within anorexia nervosa. It used a grounded theory methodology to gather and analyse interview data from 11 participants who had a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, being seen at a regional eating disorder service (both inpatient and day patient). The results highlighted two main overarching themes regarding the perception and management of emotions within anorexia nervosa: (1) development of poor meta-emotional skills; and (2) perception and management of emotion in anorexia nervosa. These two categories comprised of a significant number of components from the qualitative analysis, including difficulties with anger, meta-emotional skills and poverty of emotional environments while growing up. Once the data had been collected and analysed, links were made between the findings of this research and the current literature base.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: Practitoners needs to consider the importance of poor meta-emotional skills within anorexia nervosa. These meta skills appears to be more complicated than the simplistic notion of alexithymia. The routes to these difficulties in emotion appear to be drawn from a complicated developmental picture. The role of anger needs to be considered more fully in the psychotherapeutic work with people with anorexia nervosa. This study's findings suggest that increasing levels of anger may play a role in increased eating disorder symptomatology, especially vomitting. [source]

Introducing the PCMC Model: An Investigative Framework for Young People's Processing of Commercialized Media Content

Moniek Buijzen
There is a vital need for an updated evaluation of children's and adolescents' changing commercial media environment. In this article, we introduce an investigative framework for young people's processing of commercial media content (PCMC) that can deal with current and future developments in the media landscape. To develop this framework, we (a) introduce an integrated model of young people's persuasion processing, adopting a developmental perspective on adult persuasion models; (b) theorize how communication can predict persuasion processing, based on a limited capacity information processing approach; (c) identify specific message characteristics that affect persuasion processing (e.g., prominence, interactivity, integration). Thus, the PCMC model provides a theoretical framework as well as specific guidelines for future research investigating young people's commercialized media environment. Une présentation du modèle TCMC : un cadre d'étude pour le traitement des contenus médiatiques commerciaux chez les jeunes Il faut remettre à jour l'évaluation de l'environnement médiatique commercial changeant des enfants et des adolescents. Dans cet article, nous présentons un cadre d'étude pour le traitement des contenus médiatiques commerciaux chez les jeunes (TCMC). Ce cadre peut gérer les développements actuels et futurs dans le paysage médiatique. Pour développer ce cadre, (1) nous présentons un modèle intégré du traitement de la persuasion chez les jeunes, en adoptant une perspective développementale des modèles de persuasion des adultes; (2) nous théorisons sur les manières dont la communication peut prédire le traitement de la persuasion, à partir d'une approche du traitement de l'information à capacité limitée; (3) nous identifions des caractéristiques spécifiques des messages qui influencent le traitement de la persuasion (p. ex., la saillance, l'interactivité et l'intégration). Ainsi, le modèle TCMC offre un cadre théorique ainsi que des directives spécifiques pour la recherche future sur l'environnement médiatique commercialisé des jeunes. Das PCMC-Modell: Ein investigatives Bezugssystem für die Verarbeitung von werblichen Medieninhalten durch Jugendliche Es gibt einen Bedarf für eine aktualisierte Bewertung der sich veränderten werblichen Medienumgebung von Kindern und Jugendlichen. In diesem Aufsatz diskutieren wir ein investigatives Bezugssystem für die Verarbeitung von werblichen Medieninhalten durch Jugendliche (PCMC-Modell), welches sich aktuellen und zukünftigen Entwicklungen der Medienlandschaft anpasst. Um dieses Bezugsystem zu entwickeln, stellen wir (1) ein integratives Modell der Verarbeitung von Persuasion durch Jugendliche vor, welches eine Entwicklungsperspektive in die Auseinandersetzung mit Persuasionsmodellen für Erwachsene einbringt; (2) theoretisieren basierend auf einem Ansatz der Informationsverarbeitung mit begrenzten Kapazitäten (limited capacity approach), wie Kommunikation persuasive Prozesse vorhersagen kann und (3) identifizieren spezifische Botschaftseigenschaften, die die Verarbeitung von Persuasion beeinflussen (z.B. Prominenz, Interaktivität, Integration). Damit bietet das PCMC-Modell einen theoretischen Rahmen sowie spezifischen Anweisungen für zukünftige Forschungsarbeiten, die die kommerziellen Medienumgebungen Jugendlicher untersuchen. Un Modelo de Procesamiento para el Contenido Comercial de los Medios Resumen Hay una necesidad vital de actualizar la evaluación del cambiante ambiente comercial de los medios para niños y adolescentes. En este ensayo, introducimos un marco investigativo para el procesamiento del contenido comercial de los medios por parte de las personas jóvenes (PCMC) que permita abordar los desarrollos corrientes y futuros del paisaje de los medios. Para desarrollar este marco, (1) introducimos un modelo integrado del procesamiento persuasivo de las personas jóvenes, adoptando una perspectiva de desarrollo de los modelos persuasivos adultos; (2) teorizamos cómo la comunicación puede predecir el procesamiento persuasivo, basado en un enfoque de la capacidad limitada de procesamiento de la información; (3) identificamos las características específicas de los mensajes que afectan el procesamiento persuasivo (a saber, prominencia, interactividad, integración). Así, el modelo PCMC provee de un marco teórico así como también de guías para la investigación futura sobre el ambiente de comercialización de los medios para la gente joven. [source]

Skeletal elements in the vertebrate eye and adnexa: Morphological and developmental perspectives

Tamara A. Franz-Odendaal
Abstract Although poorly appreciated, the vertebrate eye and adnexa are relatively common sites for skeletogenesis. In many taxa, the skeleton contributes to internal reinforcement in addition to the external housing of the eye (e.g., the circumorbital bones and eyelids). Eyeball elements such as scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles are present within a broad diversity of vertebrates, albeit not therian mammals, and have been used as important models for the study of condensations and epithelial,mesenchymal interactions. In contrast, other elements invested within the eye or its close surroundings remain largely unexplored. The onset and mode of development of these skeletal elements are often variable (early versus late; involving chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, or both), and most (if not all) of these elements appear to share a common neural crest origin. This review discusses the development and distribution of the skeletal elements within and associated with the developing eye and comments on homology of the elements where these are questionable. Developmental Dynamics 235:1244,1255, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Thriving in the Face of Early Adversity

Daphne Blunt Bugental
Integrating theories drawn from biological, social, and developmental perspectives, Bugental's program of research tracked the outcomes experienced by children born with medical or physical disorders. At risk children who experienced harsh parenting manifested a low ability to cope with stress (e.g., they showed cortisol hyper-reactivity and low habituation). In contrast, at risk children who experienced supportive parenting showed adaptive hormonal responses and an exceptional ability to habituate to stress. Children who were not at risk manifested significantly less reactivity to their parenting history. Harsh parenting, in response to at risk children, was found to be moderated by parents' perceived powerlessness. A cognitively-based home visitation program yielded reductions in child maltreatment and the enhancement of health among infants born at medical risk. [source]

Metacognition, Theory of Mind, and Self-Control: The Relevance of High-Level Cognitive Processes in Development, Neuroscience, and Education

Beate Sodian
ABSTRACT, The cognitive control of behavior is critical for success in school. The emergence of self-control in development has been linked to the ability to represent one's own and others' mental states (theory of mind and metacognition). Despite rapid progress in exploring the neural correlates of both mind reading and executive function in recent years, to date, the implications of these high-level cognitive processes for issues relevant to education have hardly been addressed. The present special issue brings together developmental perspectives on the relation of self-control, theory of mind, and metacognition; theoretical and empirical contributions on the implications of theory of mind and self-control for teaching and learning; and brief reviews of the state of the art in cognitive neuroscience on these high-level cognitive processes in adolescents and adults. [source]

Developmental origins of disruptive behaviour problems: the ,original sin' hypothesis, epigenetics and their consequences for prevention

Richard E. Tremblay
This paper reviews publications on developmental trajectories of disruptive behaviour (DB) problems (aggression, opposition-defiance, rule breaking, and stealing-vandalism) over the past decade. Prior to these studies two theoretical models had strongly influenced research on DB: social learning and disease onset. According to these developmental perspectives, children learn DB from their environment and onset of the disease is triggered by accumulated exposition to disruptive models in the environment, including the media. Most of the evidence came from studies of school age children and adolescents. Longitudinal studies tracing developmental trajectories of DB from early childhood onwards suggest an inversed developmental process. DB are universal during early childhood. With age, children learn socially acceptable behaviours from interactions with their environment. A ,disease' status is given to children who fail to learn the socially acceptable behaviours. The mechanisms that lead to deficits in using socially accepted behaviours are strongly intergenerational, based on complex genetic and environmental contributions, including epigenetic mechanisms. Prevention of these deficits requires early, intensive and long-term support to parents and child. Newly discovered epigenetic mechanisms suggest that intensive perinatal interventions will have impacts on numerous aspects of physical and mental health, including DB. This review also concludes that: a) subtypes of disruptive behaviours should not be aggregated because they have different developmental trajectories and require specific corrective interventions; b) the overt,covert and destructive,nondestructive dimensions appear the most useful to create DB subtypes; c) overt DB onset before covert DB because the latter require more brain maturation; d) DB subtype taxonomies are more useful for clinicians than developmental taxonomies because the latter are post mortem diagnoses and clinicians' retrospective information is unreliable; e) we need large-scale collaborative preventive experimental interventions starting during early pregnancy to advance knowledge on causes and prevention of DB problems. [source]