Developmental Period (developmental + period)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Effects of relative humidity on cocoon formation and survival in the braconid wasp Cotesia glomerata

Abstract The effects of relative humidity (RH) on cocoon formation and survival in the braconid parasitoid wasp Cotesia glomerata (L.) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are investigated under various humidity conditions (50, 75, 90, 95 and 100% RH) at 20 C and under an LD 16 : 8 h photoperiod. The mortality rate at the time of egression from hosts under 100% RH is significantly higher than for other RHs. Cocoon clusters formed at 100% RH spread significantly more than those formed at 50, 75, or 90% RH. Developmental periods differ significantly among RHs under which wasps developed. The mean period from the egression from hosts to adult emergence is 8.7 days when developed at 50,95% RHs, and 8.0 days at 100% RH. The emergence rates of C. glomerata that are maintained under the same humidity conditions after egression from hosts are not significantly different among RHs. However, emergence rates from cocoons that are transferred from 100% RH to 50 and 75% RH are < 70%, although the rates are > 90% in most cases. Some wasps do not emerge from cocoons: more than 60% die after adult eclosion at all RHs; the relative frequency of adult deaths is approximately 90% at 50% RH. Relative humidity influences the cluster and cocoon status strongly: both good clusters and cocoons are formed at low RHs. Emergence rates from cocoons of different ranks are significantly different: the rates of low-rank cocoons are low at low RHs. The survival of C. glomerata is affected strongly by RH through cocoon formation. [source]

Chronic inhibition of standing behaviour alters baroreceptor reflex function in rats

H. Waki
Abstract Aim:, To investigate whether daily orthostatic stress during development is an important factor affecting arterial baroreceptor reflex function, we examined the effect of chronic inhibition of upright standing behaviour on the baroreceptor reflex function in rats. Methods:, Upright standing behaviour was chronically inhibited during the developmental period between 3 and 8 weeks of age in Sprague,Dawley rats and heart rate (HR) and aortic nerve activity in response to increased and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured after the treatment period. Results:, The baroreceptor cardiac gain in the rats grown without standing behaviour was significantly lower than the control rats grown in a normal commercial cage (1.0 0.1 beats min,1 mmHg,1 vs. 1.6 0.2 beatsmin,1 mmHg,1, P < 0.05). The range of HR change in the MAP,HR functional curve was also lowered by chronic inhibition of orthostatic behaviour (56.2 5.9 beats min,1) compared with that of the control rats (76.8 6.9 beats min,1, P < 0.05). However the aortic afferent function remained normal after the treatment period, indicating that the attenuated baroreceptor reflex function may be due to other mechanisms involving functional alterations in the cardiovascular centres, efferents and/or peripheral organs. Body weight and adrenal weight were not affected by the inhibition of orthostatic behaviour, suggesting that the animals were not exposed to specific stress by this treatment. Conclusion:, These results indicate that active haemodynamic changes induced by orthostatic behaviour are an important factor for setting the basal level of reflex function during development. Moreover, our experimental model may be useful for studying mechanisms of attenuated baroreceptor reflex observed after exposure to a chronic inactive condition. [source]

Changes in the activities of protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A in sea urchin embryos during early development

Manabu Kawamoto
In the eggs and embryos of sea urchins, the activity of protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) increased during the developmental period between fertilization and the morula stage, decreased after the prehatching blastula stage and increased again after hatching. The PP2A activity changed keeping pace with alteration to the activities of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A kinase), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) and casein kinase. Probably, PP2A contributes to the quick turning off of cellular signals because of protein phosphorylation. The activity of protein phosphatase type 1 (PP1) was not detectable up to the morula stage and appreciably increased thereafter. In the isolated nucleus fraction, specific activities of PP1 and PP2A were higher than in whole embryos at all stages in early development. Exponential increase in the number of nuclei because of egg cleavage probably makes PP1 activity detectable in whole embryos after the morula stage. In isolated nuclei, the activities of PP1 and PP2A appreciably decreased after hatching, whereas the activities of A kinase, Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (C kinase) and CaM kinase, as well as casein kinase, became higher. In nuclei, cellular signals caused by protein phosphorylation after hatching do not seem to be turned off by these protein kinases so quickly as before hatching. The PP1 and PP2A in nuclei also seem to contribute to the elimination of signal noise. [source]

Changes in gravitational force cause changes in gene expression in the lens of developing zebrafish

Naoko Shimada
Abstract Gravity has been a constant physical factor during the evolution and development of life on Earth. We have been studying effects of simulated microgravity on gene expression in transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing gfp under the influence of gene-specific promoters. In this study, we assessed the effect of microgravity on the expression of the heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene in lens during development using transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing gfp under the control of hsp70 promoter/enhancer. Hsp70:gfp expression was up-regulated (45%) compared with controls during the developmental period that included the lens differentiation stage. This increase was lens specific, because the entire embryo showed only a 4% increase in gfp expression. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the hsp70:gfp expression recapitulated endogenous hsp70 mRNA expression. Hypergravity exposure also increased hsp70 expression during the same period. In situ hybridization analysis for two lens-specific crystallin genes revealed that neither micro- nor hypergravity affected the expression level of ,B1 - crystallin, a non-hsp gene used as a marker for lens differentiation. However, hypergravity changed the expression level of ,A - crystallin, a member of the small hsp gene family. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase,mediated deoxyuridinetriphosphate nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay analysis showed that altered-gravity (,g) decreased apoptosis in lens during the same period and the decrease correlated with the up-regulation of hsp70 expression, suggesting that elimination of nuclei from differentiating lens fiber cells was suppressed probably through hsp70 up-regulation. These results support the idea that ,g influences hsp70 expression and differentiation in lens-specific and developmental period specific manners and that hsp family genes play a specific role in the response to ,g. Developmental Dynamics 235:2686,2694, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Brainstem mechanisms underlying the sudden infant death syndrome: Evidence from human pathologic studies

Hannah C. Kinney
Abstract The brainstem hypothesis is one of the leading hypotheses concerning the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). It states that SIDS, or an important subset of SIDS, is due to abnormal brainstem mechanisms in the control of respiration, chemosensitivity, autonomic regulation, and/or arousal which impairs the infant's response to life-threatening, but often occurring, stressors during sleep (e.g., hypoxia, hypercarbia, asphyxia, hyperthermia) and leads to sudden death in a vulnerable developmental period. In this review, we summarize neuropathologic evidence from SIDS cases that support this hypothesis, beginning with the seminal report of subtle brainstem gliosis three decades ago. We focus upon recent neurochemical studies in our laboratory concerning the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) and its key role in mediating protective responses to homeostatic stressors via medullary circuits. The possible fetal origin of brainstem defects in SIDS is reviewed, including evidence for adverse effects of prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol upon the postnatal development of human brainstem 5-HT pathways. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 51: 223,233, 2009 [source]

Cross-Modal transfer of the conditioned eyeblink response during interstimulus interval discrimination training in young rats

Kevin L. Brown
Abstract Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) was observed across a broad developmental period with tasks utilizing two interstimulus intervals (ISIs). In ISI discrimination, two distinct conditioned stimuli (CSs; light and tone) are reinforced with a periocular shock unconditioned stimulus (US) at two different CS,US intervals. Temporal uncertainty is identical in design with the exception that the same CS is presented at both intervals. Developmental changes in conditioning have been reported in each task beyond ages when single-ISI learning is well developed. The present study sought to replicate and extend these previous findings by testing each task at four separate ages. Consistent with previous findings, younger rats (postnatal day,PD23 and 30) trained in ISI discrimination showed evidence of enhanced cross-modal influence of the short CS,US pairing upon long CS conditioning relative to older subjects. ISI discrimination training at PD43,47 yielded outcomes similar to those in adults (PD65,71). Cross-modal transfer effects in this task therefore appear to diminish between PD30 and PD43,47. Comparisons of ISI discrimination with temporal uncertainty indicated that cross-modal transfer in ISI discrimination at the youngest ages did not represent complete generalization across CSs. ISI discrimination undergoes a more protracted developmental emergence than single-cue EBC and may be a more sensitive indicator of developmental disorders involving cerebellar dysfunction. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 50: 647-664, 2008. [source]

Early weaning decreases play-fighting behavior during the postweaning developmental period of wistar rats

Michito Shimozuru
Abstract We examined the influence of early weaning on the development of play-fighting behaviors and anxiety status in Wistar rats. Pups were divided into two groups, those weaned at postnatal day (PD) 16 (early-weaned group) and those weaned at PD30 (normally weaned group), and were housed in pairs of the same sex. Playful interactions were measured for each pair once a week from 4 to 7 weeks of age. Thereafter, during early adulthood, all the rats were subjected to the elevated plus-maze test. The frequencies of pinning and playful attack were less in the early-weaned group than in the normally weaned group. In the elevated plus-maze test, rat pups in the early-weaned group had higher anxiety levels. The results showed that deprivation of mother,pup interactions during the preweaning period decreases affiliative interactions between cage mates, including play-fighting behaviors during the postweaning developmental period, and increases anxiety levels during early adulthood. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 49: 343,350, 2007. [source]

Childhood negative experiences and subclinical psychosis in adolescence: a longitudinal general population study

Ellen De Loore
Abstract Background:, Accumulating evidence suggests that experiences of trauma and victimization during childhood are associated with an increased risk to develop clinical and subclinical psychosis in adulthood. A recent cross-sectional study showed a significant association between trauma and psychotic experiences in adolescents. The current study aimed to extend these findings by investigating the longitudinal effects of negative life experiences on the risk for subclinical psychotic symptoms 2 years later in an adolescent general community sample. Methods:, Data were derived from the standard health screenings of the Youth Health Care Divisions of the Public Health Services, in the South of the Netherlands. A total of 1129 adolescents filled out a self-report questionnaire at age 13/14 years and 2 years later (15/16 years), assessing psychotic experiences, as well as experiences of being bullied, sexual trauma, and negative life events. Results:, Logistic regression analyses revealed that sexual trauma increased the risk for psychotic symptoms 2 years later. Life events contributed to the risk for psychosis over time and psychosis in turn gave rise to new life events. No significant association with bullying was found after controlling for confounders. Conclusion:, The results provide further evidence for an association between childhood environment and psychosis in the crucial developmental period of early adolescence. Early and later psychological stress, if severe, may impact on the risk for psychosis in adolescence through mechanisms of person,environment interaction and correlation. [source]

Effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation on growth and phenology of stream insects

ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2004
Robert A. Briers
Climatic variation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) influences terrestrial and marine ecosystems, but its effects on river and stream ecosystems are less well known. The influence of the NAO on the growth of stream insects was examined using long-term empirical data on the sizes of mayfly and stonefly nymphs and on water temperature data. Models of egg development and nymphal growth in relation to temperature were used to predict the effect of the NAO on phenology. The study was based in two upland streams in mid-Wales UK that varied in the extent of plantation forestry in their catchments. Winter stream temperatures at both sites were positively related to the winter NAO index, being warmer in positive phases and colder in negative phases. The observed mean size and the simulated developmental period of mayfly nymphs were significantly related to the winter NAO index, with nymphs growing faster in positive phases of the NAO, but the growth of stonefly nymphs was not related to the NAO. This may have been due to the semivoltine stonefly lifecycle, but stonefly nymph growth is also generally less dependent on temperature. There were significant differences in growth rates of both species between streams, with nymphs growing more slowly in the forested stream that was consistently cooler than the open stream. Predicted emergence dates for adult mayflies varied by nearly two months between years, depending on the phase of the NAO. Variation in growth and phenology of stream insects associated with the NAO may influence temporal fluctuations in the composition and dynamics of stream communities. [source]

Sexual orientation and substance use trajectories in emerging adulthood

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2010
Amelia E. Talley
ABSTRACT Aims The current study examined developmental changes in substance use behaviors (SUBS) based upon sexual orientation. The analyses also attempted to address a number of methodological limitations in the extant longitudinal literature (i.e. distinct operationalizations of sexual orientation, timing of sexual orientation assessment with respect to reports of SUBs, non-linear growth). Participants Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of incoming first-time college students at a large public university (n = 3720). Design After a paper-and-pencil assessment just prior to matriculation, participants completed a web-based survey every fall and spring for 4 years (sub-sample n = 2854). Findings Latent growth models revealed that sexual minorities demonstrated significant heterogeneity with regard to substance use trajectories. Initial levels and trajectories of the frequency of substance use for sexual minority individuals were distinct, generally, from their exclusively heterosexual peers. Methodologically, the timing of the assessment of sexual orientation influenced the results, and modeling non-linear components indicated that sexual minorities are at risk for exponential increases in their frequency of certain SUBs over time (i.e. drunkenness; cannabis use). Conclusions Sexual minority and majority individuals exhibited differences in SUBs during emerging adulthood, especially when using self-identification to define sexual orientation. Individuals who endorsed a sexual minority self-identification at the onset of emerging adulthood, as opposed to 4 years later, evidenced exponential increases in rates of drunkenness and cannabis use. These results support that the timing of assessment is important and that some trajectories of sexual minority SUBs are non-linear during this developmental period. [source]

Effect of photoperiod on the development and diapause of the green lacewing Chrysopa pallens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Abstract To investigate the physiology of Chrysopa pallens, the effect of photoperiod on diapause and development was examined in a Japanese population (33.4N). The response stage for diapause of C. pallens was considered to be the prepupal stage. The critical photoperiod for diapause induction at 20.0C was between 13 h light : 11 h dark (LD 13:11) and LD 14:10. The larval developmental period was affected by photoperiod: larvae in diapause took longer to complete their development. This difference of larval developmental period in relation to photoperiod was considered to be an adjustment of larval diapause timing. [source]

Local divergence in developmental traits within a trivoltine area of Hyphantria cunea Drury (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)

Tadashi GOMI
Abstract To detect divergence of the introduced fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea, within its trivoltine area in Japan, developmental traits were determined in the Kobe (3441,N) and Kumamoto (3248,N) populations. The lower threshold temperature for development was not different between these two populations. The thermal constant for larval development was considerably smaller in the Kobe population than in the Kumamoto population. Two types of larva occurred in these populations, one with six instars and the other with seven. In the six-instar type, the developmental period was not different between the populations in males, but the pupal weight was greater and the forewing was longer in both sexes in the Kumamoto population than in the Kobe population. In the Kumamoto population, the seven-instar type had a longer developmental period, heavier pupa and longer forewing than the six-instar type. The proportion of the seven- to the six-instar type was greater in the Kumamoto population than in the Kobe population, resulting in the longer developmental time and greater body size of the former. [source]

Effect of photoperiod on development and growth in a pentatomid bug, Dolycoris baccarum

Keiji Nakamura
Abstract The effect of photoperiod on nymphal development, growth and adult size was examined in a pentatomid bug, Dolycoris baccarum, collected in Osaka (a warm temperate region) and Hokkaido (a subfrigid region), Japan. When insects were reared from eggs at 25C, the developmental period was long and adult size was large under photoperiods close to the critical photoperiod for the induction of adult diapause. Adults of the Hokkaido population were larger than those of the Osaka population. There was no significant correlation between developmental period and adult size. Insects also showed variation in their growth rate: growth rate was low under photoperiods a little longer than the critical photoperiod for the induction of diapause. The ecological significance of variation in development and growth is discussed. [source]

Contrasting Patch Residence Strategy in Two Species of Sit-and-Wait Foragers Under the Same Environment: A Constraint by Life History?

ETHOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
Tadashi Miyashita
The present study explored the significance of life history constraints on patch residence strategy by using two congeneric web spider species living in the same habitat. Nephila maculata had a large body size but had a shorter developmental period compared with N. clavata, indicating that N. maculata should have a greater foraging efficiency to reach maturity and reproduce. Residence time at web-sites in N. maculata was shorter than that in N. clavata, irrespective of the season. However, supplementation of food to N. maculata increased residence time, suggesting that it searches web-sites with higher prey intake. Investment of web materials, an important trait influencing web relocation frequency, was not greater in N. maculata. In addition, microhabitat and prey size did not differ significantly after controlling for the effect of body size. Because N. maculata needs to attain a large body size in a shorter period of time, this species appears to take a risk of moving patches to seek high quality web-sites. [source]

Extracerebellar progenitors grafted to the neurogenic milieu of the postnatal rat cerebellum adapt to the host environment but fail to acquire cerebellar identities

Chiara Rolando
Abstract Stem or progenitor cells acquire specific regional identities during early ontogenesis. Nonetheless, there is evidence that cells heterotopically transplanted to neurogenic regions of the developing or mature central nervous system may switch their fate to adopt host-specific phenotypes. Here, we isolated progenitor cells from different germinative sites along the neuraxis where GABAergic interneurons are produced (telencephalic subventricular zone, medial ganglionic eminence, ventral mesencephalon and dorsal spinal cord), and grafted them to the prospective white matter of the postnatal rat cerebellum, at the time when local interneurons are generated. The phenotype acquired by transplanted cells was assessed by different criteria, including expression of region-specific transcription factors, acquisition of morphological and neurochemical traits, and integration in the cerebellar cytoarchitecture. Regardless of their origin, all the different types of donor cells engrafted in the cerebellar parenchyma and developed mature neurons that shared some morphological and neurochemical features with local inhibitory interneurons, particularly in the deep nuclei. Nevertheless, transplanted cells failed to activate cerebellar-specific regulatory genes. In addition, their major structural features, the expression profiles of type-specific markers and the laminar placement in the recipient cortex did not match those of endogenous interneurons generated during the same developmental period. Therefore, although exogenous cells are influenced by the cerebellar milieu and show remarkable capabilities for adapting to the foreign environment, they essentially fail to switch their fate, integrate in the host neurogenic mechanisms and adopt clear-cut cerebellar identities. [source]

Quantitative analysis of postnatal neurogenesis and neuron number in the macaque monkey dentate gyrus

Adeline Jabs
Abstract The dentate gyrus is one of only two regions of the mammalian brain where substantial neurogenesis occurs postnatally. However, detailed quantitative information about the postnatal structural maturation of the primate dentate gyrus is meager. We performed design-based, stereological studies of neuron number and size, and volume of the dentate gyrus layers in rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) of different postnatal ages. We found that about 40% of the total number of granule cells observed in mature 5,10-year-old macaque monkeys are added to the granule cell layer postnatally; 25% of these neurons are added within the first three postnatal months. Accordingly, cell proliferation and neurogenesis within the dentate gyrus peak within the first 3 months after birth and remain at an intermediate level between 3 months and at least 1 year of age. Although granule cell bodies undergo their largest increase in size during the first year of life, cell size and the volume of the three layers of the dentate gyrus (i.e. the molecular, granule cell and polymorphic layers) continue to increase beyond 1 year of age. Moreover, the different layers of the dentate gyrus exhibit distinct volumetric changes during postnatal development. Finally, we observe significant levels of cell proliferation, neurogenesis and cell death in the context of an overall stable number of granule cells in mature 5,10-year-old monkeys. These data identify an extended developmental period during which neurogenesis might be modulated to significantly impact the structure and function of the dentate gyrus in adulthood. [source]

Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus

Rainer Surges
Abstract The hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) contributes to intrinsic properties and network responses of neurons. Its biophysical properties depend on the expression profiles of the underlying hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP) that potently and differentially modulates Ih conducted by HCN1, HCN2 and/or HCN4. Here, we studied the properties of Ih in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, the developmental evolution of the HCN-subunit isoforms that contribute to this current, and their interplay with age-dependent free cAMP concentrations, using electrophysiological, molecular and biochemical methods. Ih amplitude increased progressively during the first four postnatal weeks, consistent with the observed overall increased expression of HCN channels. Activation kinetics of the current accelerated during this period, consonant with the quantitative reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the slow-kinetics HCN4 isoform and increased levels of HCN1. The sensitivity of Ih to cAMP, and the contribution of the slow component to the overall Ih, decreased with age. These are likely a result of the developmentally regulated transition of the complement of HCN channel isoforms from cAMP sensitive to relatively cAMP insensitive. Thus, although hippocampal cAMP concentrations increased over twofold during the developmental period studied, the coordinated changes in expression of three HCN channel isoforms resulted in reduced effects of this signalling molecule on neuronal h currents. [source]

An early temperature-sensitive period for the plasticity of segment number in the centipede Strigamia maritima

Vincent Vedel
SUMMARY Geophilomorph centipedes show variation in segment number (a) between closely related species and (b) within and between populations of the same species. We have previously shown for a Scottish population of the coastal centipede Strigamia maritima that the temperature of embryonic development is one of the factors that affects the segment number of hatchlings, and hence of adults, as these animals grow epimorphically,that is, without postembryonic addition of segments. Here, we show, using temperature-shift experiments, that the main developmental period during which embryos are sensitive to environmental temperature is surprisingly early, during blastoderm formation and before, or very shortly after, the onset of segmentation. [source]

Asynchrony of the early maturation of white matter bundles in healthy infants: Quantitative landmarks revealed noninvasively by diffusion tensor imaging

Jessica Dubois
Abstract Normal cognitive development in infants follows a well-known temporal sequence, which is assumed to be correlated with the structural maturation of underlying functional networks. Postmortem studies and, more recently, structural MR imaging studies have described qualitatively the heterogeneous spatiotemporal progression of white matter myelination. However, in vivo quantification of the maturation phases of fiber bundles is still lacking. We used noninvasive diffusion tensor MR imaging and tractography in twenty-three 1,4-month-old healthy infants to quantify the early maturation of the main cerebral fascicles. A specific maturation model, based on the respective roles of different maturational processes on the diffusion phenomena, was designed to highlight asynchronous maturation across bundles by evaluating the time-course of mean diffusivity and anisotropy changes over the considered developmental period. Using an original approach, a progression of maturation in four relative stages was determined in each tract by estimating the maturation state and speed, from the diffusion indices over the infants group compared with an adults group on one hand, and in each tract compared with the average over bundles on the other hand. Results were coherent with, and extended previous findings in 8 of 11 bundles, showing the anterior limb of the internal capsule and cingulum as the most immature, followed by the optic radiations, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fascicles, then the spinothalamic tract and fornix, and finally the corticospinal tract as the most mature bundle. Thus, this approach provides new quantitative landmarks for further noninvasive research on brain-behavior relationships during normal and abnormal development. Hum Brain Mapp, 2008. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Secondary neurogenesis and telencephalic organization in zebrafish and mice: a brief review

Abstract Most zebrafish neurodevelopmental studies have focused on the embryo, which is characterized by primary neurogenesis of mostly transient neurons. Secondary neurogenesis becomes dominant in the hatching larva, when major brain parts are established and begin to differentiate. This developmental period allows for a comparative analysis of zebrafish brain organization with amniotes at equivalent stages of neurogenesis. Within a particular time window, the early forebrains of mice (Embyronic stage [E] 12.5/13.5 days [d]) and zebrafish (3 d) reveal highly comparable expression patterns of genes involved in neurogenesis, for example proneural and other transcription factors (Neurogenin1, NeuroD, Mash1/Zashla and Pax6). Further topological correspondences are seen in the expression of LIM and homeobox genes, such as Lhx6/7, Tbr2 and Dlx2a. When this analysis is extended to gamma-aminobutyric acid/glutamic acid decarboxylase (GABA/GAD) cell patterns during this critical time window, an astonishing degree of similarity between the two species is again seen, for example regarding the presence of GABA/GAD cells in the subpallium, with the pallium only starting to be invaded by such cells from the subpallium. Furthermore, the expression of proneural and other genes correlates with GABA cell patterns (e.g. Mash1/Zash1a gene expression in GABA-positive and Neurogenin1/NeuroD in GABA-negative telencephalic regions) in mice and zebrafish. Data from additional vertebrates, such as Xenopus, are also highly consistent with this analysis. Therefore, the vertebrate forebrain appears to undergo a phylotypic stage of secondary neurogenesis, characterized by regionally separated GABAergic (inhibitory) versus glutamatergic (excitatory) cell production sites, which are obscured later in development by tangential migration. This period is highly advantageous for molecular neuroanatomical cross-species comparisons. [source]

Effect of parental ageing on offspring developmental and survival attributes in an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata

K. Singh
Abstract The present study is the first attempt to investigate the effect of parental ageing of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) on total developmental period, developmental rate, adult weight on emergence, longevity, egg to adult survival and age-specific survivorship of the offspring. Young parents (10,20 day old) produced offspring with the shortest total developmental period, highest development rate, highest weight on emergence, greater longevity and highest survival. Age-specific survivorship of the offspring of younger parents declined later than the offspring of middle (30,40 day old) and old (50,60 day old) aged parents. This study would help in understanding the effect of parental ageing on future generations of predaceous ladybird beetles and would be helpful in designing mass multiplication programme of the bioagent, C. sexmaculata, in the laboratory. [source]

Critical analysis of potential body temperature confounders on neurochemical endpoints caused by direct dosing and maternal separation in neonatal mice: a study of bioallethrin and deltamethrin interactions with temperature on brain muscarinic receptors

Jrgen Pauluhn
Abstract The present investigation was conducted to understand better possible confounding factors caused by direct dosing of neonatal mice during the pre-weaning developmental period. By direct dosing, pups might encounter thermal challenges when temporarily removed from their ,natural habitat'. Typically, this leads to a cold environment and food deprivation (impaired lactation) and modulation of the toxic potency of the substance administered. Growth retardation as a consequence of such behavioural changes in pups makes it increasingly difficult to differentiate specific from non-specific mechanisms. Neonatal NMRI mice were dosed daily by gavage (0.7 mg kg,1 body wt.) from postnatal day (PND) 10,16 with S -bioallethrin, deltamethrin or the vehicle. Then the pups, including their non-treated foster dams, were subjected temporarily for 6 h day to a hypo-, normo- or hyperthermic environment, which was followed by normal housing. The measured temperatures in the environmental chambers were ca. 21, 25 and 30C, respectively. Thus, temperatures in the hypo- and normothermic groups are comparable to the temperatures commonly present in testing laboratories, whereas the hyperthermic condition is that temperature typically present in the ,natural habitat' of pups. A deviation from the normal behaviour of both pups and dams was observed in the hypo- and normothermic groups. In these groups the rectal temperatures of pups were markedly decreased, especially in the early phase of the study (PND 10,12). Neonates that received either test substance displayed changes in body weights and brain weights at terminal sacrifice (PND 17) when subjected temporarily to a non-physiological environment. An enormous influence of environmental temperature on the density of muscarinic receptors in the crude synaptosomal fraction of the cerebral cortex was ascertained. In summary, these results demonstrate that the direct dosing of thermolabile neonatal mice by gavage is subject to significant artefacts that render the interpretation of findings from such studies difficult. It appears that if direct dosing of neonatal pups is mandated, and inhalation is a relevant route of exposure, the combined inhalation exposure of dams with their litters is an alternative procedure that does not cause disruption of the ,natural habitat' of pups. However, owing to their higher ventilation, under such conditions the pups may receive dosages at least double those of the dams. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Microvolt T Wave Alternans Inducibility in Normal Newborn Puppies: Effects of Development

T Wave Alternans in Normal Newborn Puppies.Introduction: The cause of sudden infant death syndrome is unknown, but increased cardiac vulnerability due to repolarization instability may be a contributing factor. The QT interval normally is long at birth and increases further during the first few postnatal months. Although excessive QT intervals indicate increased cardiac vulnerability in the long QT syndrome, the impact of less pronounced QT prolongation during this developmental period is unclear. In adults and older children, the ease of inducing microvolt-level T wave alternans (TWA) is used as a measure of repolarization instability and arrhythmia vulnerability. The aim of this study was to determine if TWA is inducible in normal newborn puppies. Methods and Results: Atrial pacing was performed in 15 anesthetized beagle puppies 7 to 35 days old. The pacing drive cycle length was systematically decreased in 20-msec steps from baseline until AV conduction blocked. Pacing was performed for 8 minutes at each cycle length. Three-lead ECGs were recorded continuously during the last 5 minutes of pacing at each cycle length. The recordings were analyzed off-line for the presence of microvolt-level TWA using a sensitive spectral analysis technique. Microvolt-level TWA was present in all puppies. TWA was not present at baseline but developed and increased in amplitude as heart rate increased. The threshold heart rate for TWA did not correlate with age. However, due to age-dependent changes in baseline heart rate, the 7- to 14-day-old animals needed a 50% to 78% increase in heart rate to reach threshold heart rate, whereas the oldest animals needed only a 5% to 25% increase. Conclusion: These data suggest that developmentally dependent dynamic repolarization instability exists in puppies as manifest by the inducibility of TWA. [source]

Continuity and change in social and physical aggression from middle childhood through early adolescence

Marion K. Underwood
For a sample followed from age 9,13 (N=281), this investigation examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression as measured by teacher ratings. Trajectories for both forms of aggression were estimated first separately, then jointly. Mean levels of both social and physical aggression decreased over time for the overall sample, but with high variability of individual trajectories. Subgroups followed high trajectories for both social and physical aggression. Joint estimation yielded six trajectories: low stable, low increasers, medium increasers, medium desisters, high desisters, and high increasers. Membership in the high increaser group was predicted by male gender, unmarried parents, African American ethnicity, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting. Permissive parenting also predicted membership in the medium increaser group. This is one of the first studies to examine social aggression longitudinally across this developmental period. Though the results challenge the claim that social aggression is at its peak in early adolescence, the findings emphasize the importance of considering different developmental trajectories in trying to understand origins and outcomes of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 35:357,375, 2009. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Translationally distinct populations of NMDA receptor subunit NR1 mRNA in the developing rat brain

Marc Awobuluyi
Abstract The translational activity of the NMDA subunit 1 (NR1) mRNA was examined in the developing rat brain by sucrose gradient fractionation. One translationally-active pool of NR1 mRNA was associated with large polyribosomes (polysomes) over the entire developmental period examined. A second NR1 mRNA pool, approximately half of the NR1 mRNA at post-natal day 4, sedimented only within the two to three ribosome range, indicating that it was translationally blocked during early brain development despite active translation of mRNAs coding for the NR2 subunits of the receptor. At post-natal day 4, both NR1 mRNA pools were distributed throughout the brain and contained similar profiles of NR1 mRNA splice variants, except that NR1-3 appeared to be present only in the translationally-blocked NR1 pool. After post-natal day 8, the translationally-blocked NR1 mRNA pool became progressively active within a background of globally-decreasing brain translational activity. [source]

Dorsally derived BMP4 inhibits the induction of spinal cord oligodendrocyte precursors

R. H. Miller
During development oligodendrocyte precursors arise in a distinct domain of the ventral ventricular zone in the spinal cord that they share with motor neurons. The localized appearance of oligodendrocyte and motor neuron precursors is the result of local inductive signals including sonic hedgehog (Shh). Previous studies suggested that inhibitory signals from dorsal spinal cord act to sharpen the boundaries of the Shh induced region. Here we show that the dorsal spinal cord contains BMP4 during the developmental period when oligodendrocyte precursors first appear. In dissociated cultures of embryonic spinal cord cells, BMP4 competitively blocks the induction of oligodendrocyte precursors by Shh. Similarly, in embryonic slice preparations addition of BMP4 inhibited the appearance of oligodendrocyte precursors in the ventral spinal cord while addition of Shh enhanced their appearance. In vivo, transplantation of a BMP4 coated bead adjacent to the dorsal spinal cord inhibited ventral oligodendrogenesis while transplantation of a Shh coated bead enhanced ventral oligodendrogenesis. These data suggest that the initial localization of oligodendrocytes in the ventral spinal cord reflects the neutralization of dorsally-derived BMP4 inhibition by locally supplied Shh. [source]

Temperature Influences the Ontogenetic Expression of Aromatase and Oestrogen Receptor mRNA in the Developing Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Brain

C. -L.
Abstract Water temperature has a differential influence on the development of central neurotransmitter systems according to the developmental period in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aromatase and oestrogen receptors (ERs) represent important components of the mechanism of brain differentiation. Gene expression of aromatase and ERs is modulated by neurotransmitters in the developing brain. In the present study, the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method was used to investigate the effects of temperature on the ontogenetic expression of aromatase and ERs in the developing tilapia brain. Before day 10 posthatching, exposure to a higher temperature (32 C) resulted in a significant increase in the expression of brain aromatase; conversely, a lower temperature (20 C) resulted in a decrease. ER, expression was depressed in accordance with the decrease of temperature, but ER, was unaffected by temperature. Between days 10 and 20, neither brain aromatase nor ER, expression was altered by temperature, whereas ER, expression was significantly enhanced by exposure to 32 C. Between days 20 and 30, brain aromatase significantly increased at the higher temperature and decreased at 20 C, but neither ER, nor ER, was affected by temperature. The expression of both brain aromatase and ERs, differentially regulated according to the temperature and to the developmental period, could be related to brain,sex differentiation. [source]

Ethanol-Induced Social Facilitation in Adolescent Rats: Role of Endogenous Activity at Mu Opioid Receptors

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2009
Elena I. Varlinskaya
Background:, Ethanol consumption is considerably elevated during adolescence. Attractiveness of alcohol for humans during the adolescent developmental period is based, in part, on its ability to induce social facilitation,a facilitation of social interactions not only evident in human adolescents but also in adolescent rats. Endogenous opioid systems are among the multiple neural systems implicated in the behavioral and reinforcing effects of ethanol and may play a substantial role in modulating stimulatory effects of low doses of ethanol on social behavior during adolescence. This possibility was explored in the present study through the use of an animal model of peer-directed social behavior. Methods:, Sprague,Dawley rats were challenged early in adolescence with saline or ethanol intraperitoneally (i.p.), placed into an individual holding cage for 30 minutes, and then tested in a familiar situation with a nonmanipulated partner of the same age and sex. In Experiment 1, each test subject was injected subcutaneously with one of the three doses of a nonselective opioid antagonist naloxone (0, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg), 5 minutes prior to the social interaction test and 25 minutes following challenge with saline or ethanol (0.5 g/kg), whereas in Experiment 2 animals were challenged with one of the six doses of ethanol (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 g/kg) prior to injection of either saline or naloxone (0.05 mg/kg). In Experiment 3, animals were pretreated i.p. with the selective ,-opioid antagonist CTOP (0, 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg) 30 minutes prior to challenge with saline or ethanol (0.5 g/kg). Results:, Low doses of ethanol (0.5 and 0.75 g/kg) produced social facilitation, as indexed by significant increases in play fighting and social investigation. Both doses of naloxone and the three highest doses of CTOP blocked the stimulatory effects of ethanol on play fighting but not on social investigation. These effects were not associated with alterations in ethanol pharmacokinetic properties or with shifts in the biphasic ethanol dose,response curve. Conclusions:, Ethanol-induced facilitation of social play behavior seen in adolescent animals is mediated in part through ethanol-induced release of endogenous ligands for the ,-opioid receptor or an ethanol-associated enhancement of sensitivity of these receptors for their endogenous ligands. [source]

Gender and Age at Drinking Onset Affect Voluntary Alcohol Consumption but Neither the Alcohol Deprivation Effect nor the Response to Stress in Mice

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2008
Sophie Tambour
Background:, Epidemiological studies suggest that initiation of alcohol drinking at an early age is associated with an increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder later in life. Nevertheless, relatively few studies using animal models have investigated the relationship between age of onset of drinking and ethanol drinking patterns in adulthood. Besides age at drinking onset, other factors such as gender could also affect the pattern of development of alcohol consumption. In rodents, many studies have shown that females drink more than males. However, even if it is assumed that hormonal changes occurring at puberty could explain these differences, only one study performed in rats has investigated the emergence of sex-specific alcohol drinking patterns in adolescence and the transition from adolescence to adulthood. The aim of the present study was to compare the acquisition of voluntary alcohol consumption, relapse-like drinking (the Alcohol Deprivation Effect,ADE) and stress-induced alcohol drinking in male and female outbred mice that acquired alcohol consumption during adolescence or adulthood. Methods:, Separate groups of nave female and male WSC-1 mice aged 28 days (adolescents) or 70 days (adults) were given ad libitum access to water and 6% ethanol solution for 8 weeks (1st to 8th week) before undergoing a 2-week deprivation phase (9th and 10th week). After the deprivation period, 2-bottle preference testing (ethanol vs. water) resumed for 3 weeks (11th to 13th). During the 13th week, all animals were subjected to restraint stress for 2 consecutive days. Results:, Over the entire time course of the experiment, ethanol intake and preference increased in females (both adults and adolescents). Adolescent animals (both females and males) showed a transient increase in alcohol consumption and preference compared to adults. However, by the end of continuous alcohol exposure (when all mice were adults), ethanol intake was not affected by age at drinking onset. A deprivation phase was followed by a rise in ethanol intake (ADE) that was not affected by sex or age. Finally, stress did not alter alcohol self-administration either during or after its occurrence. Conclusions:, Emergence of greater alcohol consumption in adult females does not seem to be limited to a specific developmental period (i.e., puberty). Age of voluntary drinking onset (adolescence vs. adulthood) does not affect eventual alcohol intake in adult WSC-1 mice and does not modify the transient increase in ethanol consumption after alcohol deprivation. [source]

Longitudinal Changes in Religiosity Among Emerging Adult College Students

Tara M. Stoppa
Issues of religion are important aspects of the identity process, which for many emerging adults may be intensified by the college experience. This study investigated longitudinal changes in the religiosity of 434 emerging adult college students (52% female) of diverse ethnic backgrounds (32% African American, 29% Latino American, and 39% European American) during the first 3 semesters of university. Results suggest that changes occur throughout this period, but that such changes are not monolithic across dimensions of religiosity. In the aggregate, significant declines in the behavioral aspects of religiosity were observed across semesters. In contrast, importance of religious beliefs remained relatively constant during this time. However, variations in these patterns were observed when considered at the individual level. Findings further demonstrate that heterogeneity in religiosity is also evident based upon gender and religious affiliation, suggesting that it is fruitful to consider the unique ways in which individuals change during this developmental period. [source]