Developmental Issues (developmental + issues)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Caregiver Understanding of Adolescent Development in Residential Treatment

Susan Kools PhD
PROBLEM Caretaker knowledge and understanding of adolescent development and its application to clinical practice with severely emotionally disturbed adolescents in residential treatment. METHODS Twenty child-care workers and registered nurses participated in semistructured interviews analyzed using dimensional analysis, a grounded theory method. FINDINGS Three distinct categories of caregivers were identified based on level of expertise and engagement in developmentally appropriate treatment practices: inexperienced, party-liners, and transcenders. Developmental issues identified included lack of resident preparation for puberty and staff discomfort with adolescent sexuality. CONCLUSIONS Caregiver, institutional, and social barriers to developmentally sensitive practice were identified. Practice recommendations include direct preparation of children and adolescents in residential treatment for pubertal changes and sexual development, and carefkl discernment of age-appropriate and psycho-pathological adolescent behaviors. [source]

Dimensions of Normal and Abnormal Personality: Elucidating DSM-IV Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents

Noor B. Tromp
ABSTRACT The present study aimed to elucidate dimensions of normal and abnormal personality underlying DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred to mental health services. Dimensions derived from the Big Five of normal personality and from Livesley's (2006) conceptualization of personality pathology were regressed on interview-based DSM-IV PD symptom counts. When examined independently, both models demonstrated significant levels of predictive power at the higher order level. However, when added to the higher order Big Five dimensions, Livesley's higher and lower order dimensions afforded a supplementary contribution to the understanding of dysfunctional characteristics of adolescent PDs. In addition, they contributed to a better differentiation between adolescent PDs. The present findings suggest that adolescent PDs are more than extreme, maladaptive variants of higher order normal personality traits. Adolescent PDs seem to encompass characteristics that may be more completely covered by dimensions of abnormal personality. Developmental issues and implications of the findings are discussed. [source]

Imaging the developing brain with fMRI

M.C. Davidson
Abstract Advancements in magnetic imaging techniques have revolutionized our ability to study the developing human brain in vivo. The ability to noninvasively image both anatomy and function in healthy volunteers, including young children, has already enhanced our understanding of brain and behavior relations. The application of these techniques to developmental research offers the opportunity to further explore these relationships and allows us to ask questions about where, when and how cognitive abilities develop in relation to changes in underlying brain systems. It is also possible to explore the contributions of maturation versus learning in the development of these abilities through cross-sectional and longitudinal research involving training and intervention procedures. Current imaging methodologies, in conjunction with new and rapidly evolving techniques, hold the promise of even greater insights into developmental issues in the near future. These methodologies and their application to development and learning are discussed in the current paper. MRDD Research Reviews 2003;9:161,167. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Basic principles of MRI and morphometry studies of human brain development

David N. Kennedy
Magnetic resonance imaging has undergone dramatic development in the past years. This has been paralleled by developments in the tools for extracting quantitative information from these images in support of capturing the anatomic features of brain development in living humans. This has revolutionized our expectations for current and future diagnostic and investigative work with the developing brain. This paper will cover the classes of information that are readily available in the MR image, the mechanisms for extracting quantitative results, and a sample of the application of these types of methods to developmental issues. These applications highlight tissue- and anatomic-based contrasts in the nature and rate of developmental maturation within the brain. This will be followed by a discussion of the emergent themes of developmental science as elucidated by these classes of observation. [source]

The experience of living with a chronic illness during adolescence: a critical review of the literature

Rachel M Taylor
Aims., To identify and critique literature on the adolescent lived experience of chronic illness; describe the lived experience; and to make recommendations for clinical practice. Background., Young people with chronic illness have the same developmental issues as those who are healthy. However, development can be disrupted by treatment and repeated hospitalisation. While the physical consequences of chronic illness on development have been established, the subjective personal experience is less known. Design., Literature review. Methods., Electronic databases and hand searches were made of the literature published between January 1990,September 2007. Literature was eligible for inclusion if it involved adolescents between 10,19 years, and published in English and used qualitative methods of data collection. Methodological quality was assessed using the criteria described by Cesario et al. [Journal of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatal Nursing 31 (2002) 31]. Conclusions., Twenty studies were identified involving young people with a wide variety of chronic illnesses. The study quality was variable, however, generally the majority was assessed as being good or fair. Seven common themes were found between the identified studies: developing and maintaining friendships; being normal/getting on with life; the importance of family; attitude to treatment; experiences of school; relationship with the healthcare professionals; and the future. Relevance to practice., As there was commonality in themes between studies strategies to lessen the burden of chronic illness during adolescence do not necessarily need to be disease specific. Nurses need to focus on treating the young person rather than their illness. [source]

Altering women's relationships with food: A relational, developmental approach

Margo Maine
Eating disorders, ranging from body-image distortions to full-blown anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, reflect developmental issues and significant deficits in feelings of self-efficacy. The relational model, an outgrowth of theoretical work specific to the psychology of women, is an appropriate treatment approach. This model appreciates the social context and pressures that foster disconnection from the self and helps the woman to reconnect with self and others, decreasing the need for obsessive control over food and weight. Treatment emphasizes empathy, connection, mutuality, and authenticity and views disconnections and disruptions as the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating factors related to eating disorders. The client,therapist relationship is central to this model as demonstrated by a case illustration. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol/In Session 57: 1301,1310, 2001. [source]

Developmental assessment of children: A survey of Australian and New Zealand paediatricians

Sean Beggs
Objectives: To determine the current practice for developmental assessment of children by Australian and New Zealand paediatricians. To determine factors associated with higher levels of self-reported confidence and expertise in developmental paediatrics and factors associated with better practice. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey of Australian and New Zealand paediatricians conducted in 2003, enquiring about their training in developmental paediatrics and their practice for evaluating development. Results: Of 811 questionnaires sent, 590 (73%) were returned. Ninety-one respondents indicated that they did not see children with developmental issues leaving 499 surveys for analysis. The overwhelming majority of paediatricians felt that more training was required in developmental paediatrics (88%) and that there was a need to be taught a formal developmental assessment tool (83%). Higher self-ratings of confidence and expertise in developmental paediatrics were associated with a period of formal developmental training (OR (95% CI) 2.7 (1.6,4.4), 3.4 (2.0,5.8), respectively), and being taught a formal developmental assessment tool (OR (95% CI) 2.0 (1.2,3.2), 2.2 (1.3,3.7), respectively). Predictors of paediatricians performing a formal developmental assessment included formal developmental training (OR (95% CI) 2.0 (1.1,3.8)) being taught an assessment tool (OR (95% CI) 2.8 (1.5,5.2)) and mandatory training (OR (95% CI) 2.4 (1.4,4.1)). Conclusions: Developmental paediatrics is a significant and important part of paediatric practice. This survey suggests, however, that paediatric training and continuing education should have not reflected this practice. The overall method and content of developmental training including whether formal assessment tools should be taught needs to be reviewed and revised. [source]

Land degradation control and its global environmental benefits

G. Gisladottir
Abstract Acknowledged by world leaders as a global problem, land degradation has been taken seriously in three ways: its extent and the proportion of the global population affected; international environmental policy responses; and its inter-relation with other global environmental issues such as biodiversity. Messages about land degradation have, however, suffered from abuses, which have rendered appropriate policy responses ineffective. For control to be effective, the paper argues that the synergies between land degradation and the two other main global environmental change components (biodiversity and climate change) should be more fully exploited. A focus on the interlinkages, of which there are six possible permutations, is fully supported by empirical findings that suggest that land degradation control would not only technically be better served by addressing aspects of biodiversity and climate change but also that international financing mechanisms and the major donors would find this more acceptable. The DPSIR (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Impacts, Response) conceptual framework model is used to illustrate how land degradation control could be more effective, tackling not only the drivers of change but also major developmental issues such as poverty and food insecurity. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Spiritual development: A missing priority in youth development

Peter L. Benson
Addressing the spiritual development of young people has the potential to strengthen youth work and its outcomes. Spiritual development matters because it is an intrinsic part of being human and because young people themselves view it as important. This article reviews the research that points to positive impacts of spiritual development for youth and notes that in an increasingly pluralistic society, everyone needs to build skills for negotiating religious and spiritual diversity. The authors propose that spiritual development involves, in part, the dynamic interplay of three dimensions: belonging and connecting, awareness and awakening, and a way of living. Three initial challenges and opportunities are emerging: empowering youth to explore core developmental issues, motivation and focus, and multisector engagement. [source]