Developmental Instability (developmental + instability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Fluctuating asymmetry as a bio-indicator in isolated populations of the Taita thrush: a Bayesian perspective

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 5-6 2002
Luc Lens
Aim We examined whether developmental instability can be used as a bio-monitoring tool in the endangered Taita thrush (Turdus helleri L.) through the measurement of individual levels of fluctuating asymmetry in tarsus length. Because estimates of the association between developmental instability, stress and fitness derived from traditional regression are biased, we compared parameter estimates obtained from likelihood based analysis with those obtained from a Bayesian latent variable model. Location Taita thrushes were captured and measured in three isolated cloud forest fragments located in the Taita Hills of south-east Kenya. Methods We applied mixed-effects regression with Restricted Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation (performed with SAS version 8.0) and Bayesian latent variable modelling (performed with WINBUGS version 1.3 and CODA version 0.4) to estimate unbiased levels of developmental instability and to model relationships between developmental instability and body condition in 312 Taita thrushes. Results Likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded highly comparable results. Individual levels of developmental instability were strongly inversely related to body condition in the subpopulation with the lowest average condition. In contrast, both variables were unrelated in two other subpopulations with higher average condition. Such heterogeneity in association was in the direction expected by developmental theory, given that higher condition suggests more benign ambient conditions. The estimated levels of body condition in the three subpopulations did not support their presumed ranking in relation to environmental stress. Developmental instability and body condition are therefore believed to reflect different aspects of individual fitness. Main conclusions Variation in developmental homeostasis, either modelled as observable variable (fluctuating asymmetry) or latent variable (developmental instability), appears a useful indicator of stress effects in the Taita thrush. Because relationships between environmental stress and developmental instability may depend on the extent to which stress-mediated changes in other components of phenotypic variation are correlated, the study of trait asymmetry should preferably be combined with that of other measures of trait variability, such as trait size or organismal condition. [source]


Evolutionary history shapes the association between developmental instability and population-level genetic variation in three-spined sticklebacks

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
S. VAN DONGEN
Abstract Developmental instability (DI) is the sensitivity of a developing trait to random noise and can be measured by degrees of directionally random asymmetry [fluctuating asymmetry (FA)]. FA has been shown to increase with loss of genetic variation and inbreeding as measures of genetic stress, but associations vary among studies. Directional selection and evolutionary change of traits have been hypothesized to increase the average levels of FA of these traits and to increase the association strength between FA and population-level genetic variation. We test these two hypotheses in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) populations that recently colonized the freshwater habitat. Some traits, like lateral bone plates, length of the pelvic spine, frontal gill rakers and eye size, evolved in response to selection regimes during colonization. Other traits, like distal gill rakers and number of pelvic fin rays, did not show such phenotypic shifts. Contrary to a priori predictions, average FA did not systematically increase in traits that were under presumed directional selection, and the increases observed in a few traits were likely to be attributable to other factors. However, traits under directional selection did show a weak but significantly stronger negative association between FA and selectively neutral genetic variation at the population level compared with the traits that did not show an evolutionary change during colonization. These results support our second prediction, providing evidence that selection history can shape associations between DI and population-level genetic variation at neutral markers, which potentially reflect genetic stress. We argue that this might explain at least some of the observed heterogeneities in the patterns of asymmetry. [source]


Hybridization, developmental stability, and functionality of morphological traits in the ground beetle Carabus solieri (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2006
STEPHANE GARNIER
The assessment of developmental stability in hybrids can provide valuable information in the study of species formation because it allows an evaluation of the degree of incompatibility of genetic systems that control developmental processes. The present study assessed the impact of two hybridization events, assumed to have occurred at different times, on developmental instability in the ground beetle Carabus solieri. Developmental instability was estimated in 678 individuals from 27 populations from the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) levels of four morphological traits: the tibia length of middle and hind legs, which are functional structures, and the length and the proximal width of the hind wings, which are vestigial and thus nonfunctional structures. Significant variations of FA levels between populations were shown only for the wing width. For this trait, FA levels in hybrids were higher than in their parental entities for both hybridization events, indicating a significant divergence of the gene systems controlling development between the parental entities in the two hybridization cases. As expected, wing traits exhibited FA levels at least three times higher than leg trait. Finally, the potential interest of vestigial traits in the particular context of hybridization is discussed. 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 89, 151,158. [source]


Genetic Allee effects on performance, plasticity and developmental stability in a clonal plant

ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 6 2000
M. Fischer
Negative effects of small population size on fitness, so-called Allee effects, may threaten population persistence even in intact habitat remnants. We studied genotypes of 14 isolated populations of the clonal plant Ranunculus reptans, for which molecular genetic (RAPD-) variability is higher for large than for small populations. In a competition-free greenhouse environment vegetative offspring of genotypes from large populations produced more rosettes and flowers, indicating higher fitness. Within-genotype coefficients of variation in performance traits, indicating developmental instability, were lower for genotypes from populations with higher RAPD-variability. In competition with a taller grass, we found relative reduction in leaf length less pronounced for plants from large populations, suggesting higher adaptive plasticity. Our experimental study of a plant with predominantly vegetative reproduction suggests, that negative genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation, which so far rather were expected in plants with frequent sexual reproduction, are more severe and more common than previously acknowledged. [source]


Fluctuating asymmetry as a bio-indicator in isolated populations of the Taita thrush: a Bayesian perspective

JOURNAL OF BIOGEOGRAPHY, Issue 5-6 2002
Luc Lens
Aim We examined whether developmental instability can be used as a bio-monitoring tool in the endangered Taita thrush (Turdus helleri L.) through the measurement of individual levels of fluctuating asymmetry in tarsus length. Because estimates of the association between developmental instability, stress and fitness derived from traditional regression are biased, we compared parameter estimates obtained from likelihood based analysis with those obtained from a Bayesian latent variable model. Location Taita thrushes were captured and measured in three isolated cloud forest fragments located in the Taita Hills of south-east Kenya. Methods We applied mixed-effects regression with Restricted Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation (performed with SAS version 8.0) and Bayesian latent variable modelling (performed with WINBUGS version 1.3 and CODA version 0.4) to estimate unbiased levels of developmental instability and to model relationships between developmental instability and body condition in 312 Taita thrushes. Results Likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded highly comparable results. Individual levels of developmental instability were strongly inversely related to body condition in the subpopulation with the lowest average condition. In contrast, both variables were unrelated in two other subpopulations with higher average condition. Such heterogeneity in association was in the direction expected by developmental theory, given that higher condition suggests more benign ambient conditions. The estimated levels of body condition in the three subpopulations did not support their presumed ranking in relation to environmental stress. Developmental instability and body condition are therefore believed to reflect different aspects of individual fitness. Main conclusions Variation in developmental homeostasis, either modelled as observable variable (fluctuating asymmetry) or latent variable (developmental instability), appears a useful indicator of stress effects in the Taita thrush. Because relationships between environmental stress and developmental instability may depend on the extent to which stress-mediated changes in other components of phenotypic variation are correlated, the study of trait asymmetry should preferably be combined with that of other measures of trait variability, such as trait size or organismal condition. [source]


Evolutionary history shapes the association between developmental instability and population-level genetic variation in three-spined sticklebacks

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 8 2009
S. VAN DONGEN
Abstract Developmental instability (DI) is the sensitivity of a developing trait to random noise and can be measured by degrees of directionally random asymmetry [fluctuating asymmetry (FA)]. FA has been shown to increase with loss of genetic variation and inbreeding as measures of genetic stress, but associations vary among studies. Directional selection and evolutionary change of traits have been hypothesized to increase the average levels of FA of these traits and to increase the association strength between FA and population-level genetic variation. We test these two hypotheses in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) populations that recently colonized the freshwater habitat. Some traits, like lateral bone plates, length of the pelvic spine, frontal gill rakers and eye size, evolved in response to selection regimes during colonization. Other traits, like distal gill rakers and number of pelvic fin rays, did not show such phenotypic shifts. Contrary to a priori predictions, average FA did not systematically increase in traits that were under presumed directional selection, and the increases observed in a few traits were likely to be attributable to other factors. However, traits under directional selection did show a weak but significantly stronger negative association between FA and selectively neutral genetic variation at the population level compared with the traits that did not show an evolutionary change during colonization. These results support our second prediction, providing evidence that selection history can shape associations between DI and population-level genetic variation at neutral markers, which potentially reflect genetic stress. We argue that this might explain at least some of the observed heterogeneities in the patterns of asymmetry. [source]


Fluctuating asymmetry and developmental instability in evolutionary biology: past, present and future

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
S. V. DONGEN
Abstract The role of developmental instability (DI), as measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA), in evolutionary biology has been the focus of a wealth of research for more than half a century. In spite of this long period and many published papers, our current state of knowledge reviewed here only allows us to conclude that patterns are heterogeneous and that very little is known about the underlying causes of this heterogeneity. In addition, the statistical properties of FA as a measure of DI are only poorly grasped because of a general lack of understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive DI. If we want to avoid that this area of research becomes abandoned, more efforts should be made to understand the observed heterogeneity, and attempts should be made to develop a unifying statistical protocol. More specifically, and perhaps most importantly, it is argued here that more attention should be paid to the usefulness of FA as a measure of DI since many factors might blur this relationship. Furthermore, the genetic architecture, associations with fitness and the importance of compensatory growth should be investigated under a variety of stress situations. In addition, more focus should be directed to the underlying mechanisms of DI as well as how these processes map to the observable phenotype. These insights could yield more efficient statistical models and a unified approach to the analysis of patterns in FA and DI. The study of both DI and canalization is indispensable to obtain better insights in their possible common origin, especially because both have been suggested to play a role in both micro- and macro-evolutionary processes. [source]


Costs and benefits of genetic heterogeneity within organisms

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
M. Pineda-Krch
Abstract An increasing number of studies have recently detected within-organism genetic heterogeneity suggesting that genetically homogeneous organisms may be rare. In this review, we examine the potential costs and benefits of such intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity (IGH) on the fitness of the individual. The costs of IGH include cancerous growth, parasitism, competitive interactions and developmental instability, all of which threaten the integrity of the individual while the potential benefits are increased genetic variability, size-specific processes, and synergistic interactions between genetic variants. The particular cost or benefit of IGH in a specific case depends on the organism type and the origin of the IGH. While mosaicism easily arise by genetic changes in an individual, and will be the more common type of IGH, chimerism originates by the fusion of genetically distinct entities, and is expected to be substantially rare in most organisms. Potential conflicts and synergistic effects between different genetic lineages within an individual provide an interesting example for theoretical and empirical studies of multilevel selection. [source]


Relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and fitness within and between stressed and unstressed populations of the wolf spider Pirata piraticus

JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2003
F. Hendrickx
Abstract Although developmental instability, measured as fluctuating asymmetry (FA), is expected to be positively related to stress and negatively to fitness, empirical evidence is often lacking or contradictory when patterns are compared at the population level. We demonstrate that two important properties of stressed populations may mask such relationships: (i) a stronger relationship between FA and fitness, resulting in stronger selection against low quality (i.e. developmental unstable) individuals and (ii) the evolution of adaptive responses to environmental stress. In an earlier study, we found female wolf spiders Pirata piraticus from metal exposed populations to be characterized by both reduced clutch masses and increased egg sizes, the latter indicating an adaptive response to stress. By studying the relationship between these two fitness related traits and levels of FA at individual level, we here show a significant negative correlation between FA and clutch mass in metal stressed populations but not in unstressed reference populations. As a result, levels of population FA may be biased downward under stressful conditions because of the selective removal of developmentally unstable (low quality) individuals. We further show that females that produced larger eggs in stressed populations exhibited lower individual FA levels. Such interaction between individual FA and fitness with stress may confound the effect of metal stress on FA, resulting in an absence of relationships between FA, fitness and stress at the population level. [source]


Extreme body size variability in the golden silk spider (Nephila edulis) does not extend to genitalia

JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
Gabriele Uhl
Abstract Nephila edulis is a spider with large body size variability in males and females. Genital characters show negative allometric values compared to somatic characters. In males, the embolus (the most important structure for sperm transfer) had a significantly lower coefficient of variation than body size. This suggests that male genitalia are under stabilizing selection favouring intermediate size. Female N. edulis showed a trend similar to males regarding allometric values in genitalia. In females, however, the variation coefficient in a specific genital character crucial for successful copulation did not differ from that of indicators for overall body size. This suggests that in Nephila the genitalia of the females experience less stabilizing selection than those of the males. In male and female genitalia, the mode of selection seems to cause developmental instability not in degrees of fluctuating asymmetry but in the degree of data scatter which indicates a lower coefficient of determination. [source]


Cleft lip with or without cleft palate and dermatoglyphic asymmetry: evaluation of a Chinese population

ORTHODONTICS & CRANIOFACIAL RESEARCH, Issue 3 2002
K Neiswanger
Structured Abstract Authors , Neiswanger K, Cooper ME, Weinberg SM, Flodman P, Bundens Keglovits A, Liu Y, Hu D-N, Melnick M, Spence MA, Marazita ML Objective , To determine if Chinese individuals with non syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) display more dermatoglyphic asymmetry than unaffected relatives or controls. Design , Case , control study with two control groups (genetically related and unrelated). Setting and Sample Population , A total of 500 CL/P probands from Shanghai, China, 421 unaffected relatives, and 66 controls of Chinese heritage. Methods , Finger and palm prints were collected, and pattern frequencies, total ridge counts (TRC), and atd angles were calculated. Asymmetry scores between right and left hands were defined for each of the three dermatoglyphic measures. Probands' asymmetry scores were compared statistically with the scores of unaffected relatives and controls. Results , In general, the probands' asymmetry scores for TRC and atd angle did not differ significantly from the scores of either unaffected relatives or controls. However, probands with a positive family history of clefting showed significantly more asymmetry in their pattern types than either probands without a family history, unaffected relatives or controls. Conclusion , These results suggest that a unique genetic mechanism of developmental instability may obtain in CL/P individuals with a positive family history of clefting. [source]


Fluctuating asymmetry of floral organ traits in natural populations of Iris pumila from contrasting light habitats

PLANT SPECIES BIOLOGY, Issue 3 2010
BRANKA TUCI
Abstract Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the subtle, random difference between the left and right side of bilateral structures, has often been used as a tool for evaluating developmental instability (DI) in natural populations subjected to environmental stresses. A general assumption underlying these studies is that the level of DI should increase with stress intensity. We examined the level of floral FA in six natural populations of Iris pumila experiencing sun-exposed (more stressful) and shaded (less stressful) environmental conditions. We used two single-trait indices (size-dependent FA1 and size-scaled FA8a) and one multi-trait index (FA17) to assess the FA levels in three floral traits: fall width, standard width and style branch width. Although floral FA was present in all FAs and appeared to be greater in plants from full sunlight than in those beneath vegetation canopy, only the FA17 index detected a significant FA,stress association. Although the FA1 index had no statistical power to reveal differences in the floral FA at any of the hierarchical levels studied, between alternative light habitats, among populations from comparable environmental conditions, among individual clones within each population or between different floral organs of a single flower, the FA8a index detected significant between-trait variation in the degree of floral FA within the same Iris individuals. [source]


Asymmetric size and shape variation in the Central European transect across the house mouse hybrid zone

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2010
ONDREJ MIKULA
We studied asymmetric variation of the mandible in the Central European portion of the hybrid zone between two house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. Within introgression classes, defined by the share of diagnostic allozymes, we quantified the directional and fluctuating component of asymmetric variation, as well as skewness and kurtosis of individual asymmetry distributions. Furthermore, in the same manner we re-analysed asymmetric variation of the ventral side of the skull. According to the quadratic polynomial model, the mandible shape-fluctuating asymmetry, but not size-fluctuating asymmetry, was significantly decreased in the centre of the hybrid zone (with a minimum predicted for a hybrid index of 0.41). On the contrary, the skull shape-fluctuating asymmetry non-monotonically increased towards the musculus side of the hybrid zone (with a peak predicted for a hybrid index of 0.86). Thus, the impact of hybridization on fluctuating asymmetry is trait-specific in this portion of the house mouse hybrid zone. The only general feature of asymmetric variation we observed was the shift towards the platykurtosis of asymmetry distributions in the centre of the hybrid zone. Taken together, we suggest genetic variability for right,left asymmetries to be generally increased, but the developmental instability of mandible shape to be decreased, by hybridization. We hypothesize the decrease of developmental instability to be caused by overdominant effects on developmental dynamics rather than by increased heterozygosity. 2010 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2010, 101, 13,27. [source]


Hybridization, developmental stability, and functionality of morphological traits in the ground beetle Carabus solieri (Coleoptera, Carabidae)

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 1 2006
STEPHANE GARNIER
The assessment of developmental stability in hybrids can provide valuable information in the study of species formation because it allows an evaluation of the degree of incompatibility of genetic systems that control developmental processes. The present study assessed the impact of two hybridization events, assumed to have occurred at different times, on developmental instability in the ground beetle Carabus solieri. Developmental instability was estimated in 678 individuals from 27 populations from the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) levels of four morphological traits: the tibia length of middle and hind legs, which are functional structures, and the length and the proximal width of the hind wings, which are vestigial and thus nonfunctional structures. Significant variations of FA levels between populations were shown only for the wing width. For this trait, FA levels in hybrids were higher than in their parental entities for both hybridization events, indicating a significant divergence of the gene systems controlling development between the parental entities in the two hybridization cases. As expected, wing traits exhibited FA levels at least three times higher than leg trait. Finally, the potential interest of vestigial traits in the particular context of hybridization is discussed. 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 89, 151,158. [source]


Fitness, developmental instability, and the ontogeny of fluctuating asymmetry in Daphnia magna

BIOLOGICAL JOURNAL OF THE LINNEAN SOCIETY, Issue 2 2006
LEIF CHRISTIAN STIGE
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is the most commonly used measure of developmental instability. The relation between FA and individual fitness remains controversial, partly due to limited knowledge on the mechanisms behind variation in FA. To address this, we investigated the associations between FA, growth and reproduction as well as the ontogeny of FA in a clonal population of Daphnia magna. FA was not correlated with growth and reproduction, either at the between- or the within-individual level, in a high (N = 48 individuals) or in a low (N = 52 individuals) food-quantity regime. There were therefore no indications of functional effects of FA or of phenotypic trade-offs between developmental stability, growth and reproduction. Individual asymmetries varied randomly in sign and magnitude between subsequent molts (N = 19 individuals, 9,11 instars), but the levels of FA were generally lowest at intermediate ages. No feedback between right and left sides was detected. This suggests that FA only reflects the most recent growth history, that developmental instability may increase in old age, and that FA depends on processes operating on each side of the body independently. The results also suggest that FA differences within and among individual Daphnia are largely random, with limited biological significance. 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2006, 88, 179,192. [source]