Developmental Index (developmental + index)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Developmental Index

  • mental developmental index

  • Selected Abstracts

    Early neurodevelopmental markers predictive of mortality in infants infected with HIV-1

    Antolin Llorente PhD
    One-hundred and fifty-seven vertically infected HIV-1 positive infants (85 males, 72 females) underwent longitudinal assessment to determine whether early neurodevelopmental markers are useful predictors of mortality in those infants who survive to at least 4 months of age. Survival analysis methods were used to estimate time to death for quartiles of 4-month scores (baseline) on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Cox proportional hazards progression was used to estimate relative hazard (RH, 95% CI) of death for BSID scores and potential confounders. Thirty infants with BSID scores at 4 months of age died during follow-up. Survival analysis revealed greater mortality rates in infants with BSID (Mental Developmental Index and Psychomotor Developmental Index) scores in the lower quartile(p=0.004,p=0.036). Unadjusted univariate analyses revealed increased mortality associated with baseline CD4+ 29%, gestational age <37 weeks, smaller head circumference, advanced HIV and higher plasma viral load. BSID scores independently predicted mortality after adjusting for treatment, clinical category, gestational age, plasma viral load and CD4+ percentage. [source]

    Cognitive outcome at 2 years of age in Finnish infants with very low birth weight born between 2001 and 2006

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 3 2010
    P Munck
    Abstract Aim:, To study cognitive outcome of premature, very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in relation to parental education and neonatal data. Methods:, A regional cohort of 182 VLBW infants born between 2001 and 2006 was followed up. Brain ultrasounds (US) were examined serially until term age and brain magnetic resonance imaging at term age. Neurological status was examined systematically. Cognitive development was assessed using the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of Bayley Scales at 2 years of corrected age. A total of 192 healthy full-term (FT) controls were assessed with the MDI at 2 years of age. Results:, The mean MDI in VLBW infants was 101.7 (SD 15.4), which was lower compared with FT controls (109.8, SD 11.7, p < 0.001). In regression analysis of the demographic and medical data of VLBW infants, postnatal corticosteroids (p = 0.04), intestinal perforation (p = 0.03) and major brain pathology (p = 0.02) were negatively associated with the MDI. In VLBW infants, the prevalence of neurodevelopmental impairment was 9.9% (3.3% MDI below 70, 7.1% cerebral palsy, 2.2% hearing aid, no blind infants). Conclusion:, Cognitive development of VLBW infants seemed to have improved in comparison with earlier publications, but it differed from the FT controls. Neonatal factors affected cognitive development. Therefore, updated regional follow-up data are important for clinicians. [source]

    No association between maternal psychological symptoms and infant outcome after pregnancy complicated by early-onset hypertensive disorders

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2009
    Ageeth G Kaspers
    Abstract Aim: The aim of this work was to study the effect of maternal psychological symptoms on infant development 1 year after early-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Methods: All mothers were enrolled in the Pre-eclampsia, Eclampsia TRial Amsterdam. Mothers were asked to complete the 90-item Symptom Check List (SCL-90) at the corrected ages of their infants of 0, 3 and 12 months. The total sum score of these three checklists was calculated. Infants were examined at the corrected age of 12 months using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (Mental Developmental Index [MDI] and Psychomotor Developmental Index [PDI] subscales). The Bayley scores were compared between infants of mothers with SCL-90 sum scores in the highest 25% and lowest 75%. Results: For 141 mother,infant pairs (80%) all three SCL-90 checklists and Bayley scores were available. Mean gestational age was 32 weeks and 90% of the infants were growth restricted. The mean MDI was 87 in the highest 25% and 89 in the lowest 75% group. This was 79 versus 80 for the PDI. Conclusion: In this population of high-risk growth-restricted infants born after a pregnancy complicated by early-onset hypertensive disorders, there is no additional impact of negative maternal psychological symptoms on infant development after 1 year. [source]

    Effect of an early intervention programme on low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries

    S Ohgi
    Objective: To determine the effect of an early intervention programme (EIP) on low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries. Methods: Subjects were 23 high-risk low birthweight infants (periventricular leukomalacia 15, intraventricular haemorrhage 5, both 3) receiving care in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Nagasaki University Hospital. Subjects were randomly assigned to the EIP group (n = 12) or the control group (n = 11). Participants in the EIP group received a Neonatal Behavioral Assessment scale (NBAS)-based intervention combined with developmental support designed to enhance the infants' development and the quality of the parent,infant relationship. The control group received routine medical nursing care without the EIP. The EIP began prior to discharge from the NICU and lasted until 6 months of corrected age. All children were examined on the NBAS preintervention and again at 44 weeks postconceptional age. Maternal anxiety status (STAI) and maternal feelings of confidence in dealing with her baby (LCC) were measured pre and postintervention. Mental and motor development was assessed postintervention using the Bayley Scale of Infant Development. Results: Orientation and State Regulation of infant behavioural profiles, the STAI and LCC scores significantly improved in the EIP group (mean difference (95% CI): Orientation 0.7 (0.4, 1.1), State Regulation 0.9 (0.3, 1.5), STAI ,5.5 (, 9.1, ,1.9, LCC 5.3 (4.2, 6.5)), but not in the control group. Bayley mental developmental index (MDI) score in the EIP group was higher than in the control group, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (mean difference (95% CI): MDI 8.5 (, 0.8, 17.8), PDI 6.7 (, 1.9, 15.4)). Conclusion: The EIP has beneficial effects on neonatal neurobehavioural development and maternal mental health of low birthweight infants with cerebral injuries. This evidence suggests that short-term changes in maternal mental health and infant neurobehaviour promoted by an EIP may serve to initiate a positive interaction between parents and infants. [source]

    Distinguishing the effects of light and temperature variations on the growth, development, multiplication potential and ex vitro survival rates of in vitro cassava

    Summary Dissemination of cassava tissue culture plantlets is difficult in the arid tropics due to low eux vitro survival rates. Increased in vitro light intensity has been reported to induce high ex vitro survival rates. The results from earlier experiments suggested that it would be worthwhile to analyse the separate effects of in vitro light and of temperature on the in vitro growth pattern as well as differentiate its relation to ex vitro survival. Accordingly, analysis of a range of in vitro light intensities from 0 to 369 ,mol,1 m,2 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was conducted both with and without fans to control the heat. Temperature proved stable at low PPFD levels but increased above 204 ,mol s,1 m,2 when no fans were used. Increased PPFD levels induced larger fresh and dry masses as well as stem thickness. PPFD levels affected the developmental index (senescent leaf numbers) in vitro when it rose above 204 ,mol s,1 m,2 PPFD. Raised temperature ranges increased the multiplication index (node numbers) in vitro and ex vitro. It increased root number and leaf development (lobe anatomy). As in vitro temperatures of up to 40C improve multiplication rates and PPFD levels above 101 ,mol s,1 m,2 were detrimental for ex vitro survival (as low as 60%), it is suggested that simpler and less costly laboratories with low light levels and a wide range of temperature tolerance could be successfully established in the tropics for in vitro cleaning and rapidly multiplying crops like cassava. [source]

    Neuropsychological outcome of children with asymmetric ventricles or unilateral mild ventriculomegaly identified in utero

    S Sadan
    Design, To assess the neuropsychological outcome of children with asymmetric ventricles and unilateral ventriculomegaly identified in utero. Setting, Fetal neurology clinic. Population, We assessed 21 children with asymmetric ventricles (group 1) and 20 children with unilateral ventriculomegaly (group 2) identified in utero and compared them with a group of 20 children with symmetric ventricles using a formal neuropsychological tool: the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II (BSID-II). Main outcome measures, The group of children with unilateral ventriculomegaly scored significantly lower than the control group on the mental developmental index (MDI) and on the behaviour rating scale (BRS) but not on the psychomotor index. The group of children with asymmetric ventricles did not differ significantly from the control group on either the MDI or psychomotor developmental index but differed from the latter on the BRS. Fifteen percent of the children in the asymmetric ventriculomegaly group performed two SDs below average compared with 4% of children in the asymmetrical ventricles group and none of the control. Conclusion, Our results indicate that prenatally observed unilateral ventriculomegaly is a significant risk factor for developmental delay. The mental and motor outcome of children with asymmetric ventricles is similar to that of the control group, but these children are at a significant risk for behavioural abnormalities. [source]

    Impact of chorioamnionitis and preeclampsia on neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants below 32 weeks gestational age

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 10 2010
    Luregn J Schlapbach
    Abstract Aim:, Intrauterine conditions may interfere with foetal brain development. We compared the neurodevelopmental outcome between infants <32 weeks gestational age after maternal preeclampsia or chorioamnionitis and controls. Methods:, Case-control study on infants with maternal preeclampsia, chorioamnionitis and controls (each n = 33) matched for gestational age. Neurodevelopment at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. Results:, A total of 99 infants were included with a median gestational age of 29 weeks (range 25,32). Median mental developmental index (MDI) was 96 in the control, 90 in the chorioamnionitis and 86 in the preeclampsia group. Preeclampsia infants had a lower MDI compared with the control group (univariate p = 0.021, multivariate p = 0.183) and with the chorioamnionitis group (univariate p = 0.242; multivariate p = 0.027). Median psychomotor index was 80.5 in the control, 80 in the preeclampsia and 85 in the chorioamnionitis group and was not different between these three groups (p > 0.05). Chorioamnionitis or preeclampsia exposure was not associated with major neurodevelopmental impairments (cerebral palsy, MDI<70, PDI<70). Conclusion:, The results of this preliminary study suggest that preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis play a relatively minor role among risk factors for adverse neurodevelopment outcome. Postnatal factors such as ventilation and bronchopulmonary dysplasia may have a greater impact on neurodevelopmental outcome. [source]

    Smoking in pregnancy: a risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants?

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 7 2010
    U Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
    Abstract Aim:, To assess whether smoking in pregnancy influences neurodevelopmental outcome at 2-years of age in preterm infants with a gestational age <32 weeks. Methods:, Between January 2003 and December 2005 we prospectively enrolled 181 infants born alive between 23 and 32 weeks of gestation; 142 infants (78.5%) completed the follow-up visit. The association between candidate risk factors and delayed motor or mental development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development II; psychomotor or mental developmental index <85) was analysed by means of logistic regression analysis. Results:, Low maternal age, smoking in pregnancy, low gestational age, low birth weight, small for gestational age, chronic lung disease, intracerebral haemorrhage, periventricular leucomalacia, and retinopathy of prematurity (stages 3 and 4) all were associated with an increased risk for delayed development (p < 0.05, each). Smoking in pregnancy, small for gestational age and chronic lung disease maintained significance in a multivariable analysis. Conclusion:, Smoking in pregnancy emerged as a risk predictor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in our study. Strategies to reduce smoking in pregnancy should be further endorsed. [source]

    Adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants: risk factor profiles for different gestational ages

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2009
    U Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
    Abstract Aim: Assessment of risk predictors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome at 1 year of age in preterm infants with a gestational age <30 weeks (Group I) and 30,32 weeks (Group II). Methods: Between January 2003 and December 2006, we prospectively enrolled 310 live-born infants between 23 and 32 weeks of gestation. The association between candidate risk factors and delayed motor or mental development (Bayley Scales of infant development II; psychomotor or mental developmental index <85) was analysed by means of logistic regression analysis. Results: Two hundred and fifty infants were eligible for follow-up, and 205 (82.0%) completed the follow-up visit. Intracerebral haemorrhage, small for gestational age and late-onset sepsis were associated with an increased risk for delayed development in Group I (p < 0.05, each). Premature rupture of membranes was a risk condition relevant to Group II. Antenatal steroids were associated with a decreased risk of neurodevelopmental delay in both groups. Conclusion: This study identified distinct risk factors for adverse outcome in preterm infants of lower (<30 weeks) and higher (30,32 weeks) gestational age. In the lower gestational age group, neonatal risk predictors are most important. Antenatal steroids appear to decrease the risk for adverse outcome in both age groups. [source]

    Early working memory and maternal communication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2009
    Jean Lowe
    Abstract Aim: Early working memory is emerging as an important indicator of developmental outcome predicting later cognitive, behavioural and academic competencies. The current study compared early working memory in a sample of toddlers (18,22 months) born very low birth weight (VLBW; n = 40) and full term (n = 51) and the relationship between early working memory, mental developmental index (MDI), and maternal communication in both samples. Methods: Early working memory, measured by object permanence; Bayley mental developmental index; and maternal communication, coded during mother-toddler play interaction, were examined in 39 toddlers born VLBW and 41 toddlers born full term. Results: Toddlers born VLBW were found to be 6.4 times less likely to demonstrate attainment of object permanence than were toddlers born full term, adjusting for age at testing. MDI and maternal communication were found to be positively associated with attainment of object permanence in the VLBW group only. Conclusion: The difference found in the early working memory performance of toddlers born VLBW, compared with those born full term, emphasizes the importance of assessing early working memory in at-risk populations, while the maternal communication finding highlights potential targets of intervention for improving working memory in toddlers born VLBW. [source]

    Prediction for developmental delay on Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale in preterm infants without brain lesion

    Sen-Wei Tsai
    Abstract Background:, Preterm infants often have difficulty in achieving a coordinated sucking pattern. To analyze the correlation between preterm infants with disorganized sucking and future development, weekly studies were performed of 27 preterm infants from initiation of bottle feeding until a normal sucking pattern was recognized. Methods:, A total of 27 preterm infants without brain lesion participated in the present study. Neonatal Oral Motor Assessment Scale (NOMAS) was utilized to evaluate the sucking pattern. Infants who were initially assessed as having disorganized sucking on NOMAS and regained a normal sucking pattern by 37 weeks old were assigned to group I; infants with a persistent disorganized sucking pattern after 37 weeks were assigned to group II. The mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) developmental indices of Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition were used for follow-up tests to demonstrate neurodevelopment at 6 months and 12 months of corrected age. Results:, At 6 months follow up, subjects in group I had a significantly higher PDI score than group II infants (P= 0.04). At 12 months follow up, group I subjects had a significantly higher score on MDI (P= 0.03) and PDI (P= 0.04). There was also a higher rate for development delay in group II at 6 months (P= 0.05). Conclusion:, NOMAS-based assessment for neonatal feeding performance could be a helpful tool to predict neurodevelopmental outcome at 6 and 12 months. Close follow up and early intervention may be necessary for infants who present with a disorganized sucking pattern after 37 weeks post-conceptional age. [source]

    LC-PUFA content in human milk: Is it always optimal?

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 11 2005
    Abstract The content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in human milk has been connected with infant growth and developmental indices. The LC-PUFA content of human milk usually reflects the dietary habits of mothers, so questions have been raised regarding the possibility of enriching maternal diet with LC-PUFAs during lactation (or even before) in order to improve infant outcome. Nevertheless, environmental and genetic factors have independent roles in affecting both maternal milk composition and infant development. Conclusion: Diet-related differences in the LC-PUFA composition of human milk are under active investigation for their possible contribution to infant development, but environment- and gene-related differences in both human milk composition and maternal diet should be considered in evaluating the adaptive mechanisms of infants and the effects of specific LC-PUFA dietary supplementations. [source]