Developmental Implications (developmental + implication)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Possible antecedents and developmental implications of shame in young girls

Rosemary S. L. MillsArticle first published online: 14 MAR 200
Abstract The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of parenting style and child emotionality on the development of proneness to shame in young girls, and the mediating effect of shame on the development of adjustment problems. Eighty-eight girls were assessed twice, at 3 and 5 years of age, along with their mothers and fathers. Shame was assessed by observations (reactions to failure and criticism); parenting style and child emotions (fearfulness, sadness, anger) were measured using parent reports; and adjustment problems were assessed by parent and teacher reports. Girls were more likely to show shame at age 5 when both their mothers and fathers had been relatively authoritarian at age 3; their emotional dispositions did not have any direct longitudinal effects on shame. Authoritarian parenting predicted subsequent internalizing problems as assessed by teachers, but there was no evidence for a mediational effect of shame. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Socialization Ambiguity in Samoan Adolescents: A Model for Human Development and Stress in the Context of Culture Change

Thomas W. McDade
Rapid globalization is forcing youth around the world to confront new developmental challenges, and conceptual models are needed that can capture this experience and its developmental implications. Exposure to nontraditional lifestyles opens up new socialization opportunities and raises the possibility of stress-inducing dissonance between participating socializing agents and the messages they deliver. Socialization ambiguity is introduced as a model for culture change and adolescent stress, and it is applied to a sample of 10- to 20-year-olds (N=295) in the islands of Samoa. A physiological marker of stress (antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus) is employed to overcome some of the difficulties associated with measuring stress outcomes. Socialization ambiguity is found to be a significant source of stress on the remote island of Savai'i and the transitional area of rural Upolu, although the direction of the association is different, possibly reflecting divergent socialization goals in these two regions. [source]

A new microswitch to enable a boy with minimal motor behavior to control environmental stimulation with eye blinks

Giulio E. Lancioni
This study assessed whether a boy with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using repeated eye blinks with a newly developed microswitch (i.e. an electronically regulated optic sensor mounted on an eyeglasses frame). The study was carried out according to an ABAB design and included a 3 month post-intervention check. Data showed that the boy had a large increase in the target response (repeated eye blinks) to activate the microswitch and produce environmental stimulation during the B (intervention) phases. This performance was maintained at the post-intervention check. Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Drug disposition of chiral and achiral drug substrates metabolized by cytochrome P450 2D6 isozyme: case studies, analytical perspectives and developmental implications

Nuggehally R. Srinivas
Abstract The concepts of drug development have evolved over the last few decades. Although number of novel chemical entitities belonging to varied classes have made it to the market, the process of drug development is challenging, intertwined as it is with complexities and uncertainities. The intention of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of novel chemical entities (NCEs) that are substrates to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isozyme. Topics covered in this review aim: (1) to provide a framework of the importance of CYP2D6 isozyme in the biotransformation of NCEs as stand-alones and/or in conjunction with other CYP isozymes; (2) to provide several case studies of drug disposition of important drug substrates, (3) to cover key analytical perspectives and key assay considerations to assess the role and involvement of CYP2D6, and (4) to elaborate some important considerations from the development point of view. Additionally, wherever applicable, special emphasis is provided on chiral drug substrates in the various subsections of the review. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]