Developmental History (developmental + history)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage between first-time work at age 16 during the school year and problem behaviors. Our analysis uses group-based trajectory modeling to stratify youths based on their developmental history of crime and substance abuse. This stratification serves to control for preexisting differences between workers and nonworkers and permits us to examine whether the effect of work on problem behaviors depends on the developmental history of those behaviors. Contrary to most prior research we find no overall effect of working on either criminal behavior or substance abuse. However, we do find some indication that work may have a salutary effect on these behaviors for some individuals who had followed trajectories of heightened criminal activity or substance abuse prior to their working for the first time. [source]

De novo mutation in the mitochondrial tRNALeu(UUR) gene (A3243G) with rapid segregation resulting in MELAS in the offspring

Abstract: A 14-year-old Chinese boy with a normal perinatal and early developmental history presented at 5 years of age with migraine, intractable epilepsy, ataxia, supraventricular tachycardia, paralytic ileus and progressive mental deterioration. Computerized tomography revealed multiple cerebral infarcts in the parieto-occipital region without basal ganglial calcification. Magnetic resonance imaging showed increased signal intensity in T2 weighted images in the same regions. A cerebral digital subtraction angiogram was normal. Venous lactate, pyruvate, lactate to pyruvate ratio and cerebrospinal fluid lactate were elevated. Muscle biopsy did not reveal any ragged red fibres; dinucleotide,tetrazolium reductase activity was normal. Mitochondrial DNA analysis detected an adenine to guanine mutation at nucleotide position 3243 of tRNALeu(UUR). All four tissues analysed demonstrated heteroplasmy: leucocyte 56%, hair follicle 70%; buccal cell 64%; muscle 54%. The mother and brother of the proband, both asymptomatic, were also found to have a heteroplasmic A3243G mutation in the leucocytes, hair follicle and buccal cells. Other members of the maternal lineage, including the maternal grandmother, did not have the mutation. This report describes a patient with mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes, who presented with multisystem involvement. The absence of ragged red fibres in muscle biopsy did not preclude the diagnosis. Mutational analysis of mitochodrial DNA conveniently confirmed the diagnosis of the disorder. A de novo mutaton is demonstrated in this family. [source]

Limb morphogenesis in the branchiopod crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus, and the evolution of proximal limb lobes within Anostraca

T. A. Williams
Abstract Crustacean limbs exhibit highly diverse morphologies. One major route of diversification is in the number and position of branches arising from the proximal part of the limb. Here I describe development of larvae of the branchiopod crustacean, Thamnocephalus platyurus and describe in detail the development of the thoracic limbs. The thoracic limbs bear proximal branches both medially and laterally. The most proximal branches on either side (gnathobase and pre-epipod) show a similar developmental history: they develop via fusion of two rudiments into a single adult branch. However, phylogenetic analysis suggests that the developmental fusions have distinct evolutionary histories. In one case (gnathobase), the developmental rudiments reflect the ancestral adult morphology of two distinct branches. In the other (pre-epipod), the rudiments are an apparent novelty within the Anostraca and develop into two adult structures in only a single derived family. Zusammenfassung Die Extremitäten von Krebsen zeigen eine Vielfalt an unterschiedlichen Morphologien. Diversifikation findet zum Grossteil über Anzahl und Position der aus dem proximalen Anteil der Extremitäten entspringenden Äste statt. In dieser Studie wird die Larvalentwicklung von Thamnocephalus platyurus, einem branchiopoden Krebs, beschrieben, vor allem die Entwicklung der Extremitäten der Thoracalsegmente. Diese tragen proximale Äste, sowohl medial, als auch lateral. Die proximalsten Äste beider Seiten (Gnathobasis und Praeepipodit) zeigen ähnliche Entwicklungen: Beide entstehen durch Fusion zweier Rudimente zu einem einzigen Ast im Adultstadium. Phylogenetische Analysen lassen darauf schließen, dass diese Fusionen während der Entwicklung unabhängig entstanden sind. In einem Fall (Gnathobasis) spiegeln die Rudimente im Entwicklungsstadium die ancestrale adulte Morphologie zweier unterschiedlicher Äste wieder. Im anderen Fall (Praeepipodit) sind die Rudimente vermutlich Innovationen innerhalb der Anostraca und entwickeln sich zu zwei verschiedenen Strukturen in nur einer einzigen Familie. [source]

Revisiting Jung's concept of innate sensitiveness

Elaine N. Aron
Abstract:, Jung suggested that innate sensitiveness predisposes some individuals to be particularly affected by negative childhood experiences, so that later, when under pressure to adapt to some challenge, they retreat into infantile fantasies based on those experiences and become neurotic. Recent research by the author and others is reviewed to support Jung's theory of sensitiveness as a distinctly thorough conscious and unconscious reflection on experiences. Indeed, this probably innate tendency is found in about twenty percent of humans, and, in a sense, in most species, in that about this percentage will evidence a strategy of thoroughly processing information before taking action, while the majority depend on efficient, rapid motor activity. Given this thorough processing, sensitive individuals readily detect subtleties,including whatever is distressing or threatening. Hence, as Jung observed, given the same degree of stress in childhood as non-sensitive individuals, sensitive persons will develop more depression, anxiety, and shyness. Without undue stress, they evidence no more of these difficulties than the non-sensitive,or even less, being unusually aware of supportive as well as negative cues from caregivers. Given this interaction, one treatment task is to distinguish the effects of such childhood difficulties from what does not need treatment, which are the typical effects of the trait itself on an adult without a troubled developmental history. [source]

The development of the subplate and thalamocortical connections in the human foetal brain

Ivica Kostovi
Abstract The aim of this review is to present clinically relevant data on prenatal development of thalamocortical connections in the human brain. The analysis is based on extensive Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection, including more than 500 prenatal human brains stained with various classical neurohistological, as well as modern histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The connection of thalamocortical axons during the ,waiting' period with transient cortical subplate zone and subsequent synaptic engagement in the cortical plate is the main connectivity event in the late foetus and preterm infant. This connectivity is the structural substrate for the endogeneous subplate and sensory-driven circuitry generating transient electrical phenomena and may represent a transient network in the developmental history of consciousness. Conclusion:, Findings presented in this review should be considered in the management of pain in preterm infants, in searching for the vulnerability of the subplate zone in diagnostic procedures using the in vivo MRI and in revealing the developmental origin of cognitive and mental disorders. [source]

Emotion regulation therapy for generalized anxiety disorder

Douglas S. Mennin
Generalized anxiety disorder is increasingly being recognized as a considerable mental health concern. However, it remains a poorly understood and insufficiently treated chronic disorder. Recent conceptualizations have highlighted the role of emotion acceptance, utilization and management as a core feature of the disorder. An emotion regulation perspective may shed light on treatment approaches to GAD. An integrative approach to treating GAD, entitled Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) is presented through the case of a young woman. ERT addresses cognitive, emotional and contextual factors of GAD and is divided into four phases: (1) psychoeducation, monitoring and developmental history; (2) skills training in somatic awareness and emotional knowledge, utilization and regulation; (3) use of these skills to confront core thematic issues using experiential exposure exercises; (4) and progress review, relapse prevention and termination processing. ERT was shown to successfully treat symptomatic, functional and qualitative aspects of the case presented, suggesting a future direction for therapeutic investigation of GAD.,Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]