Developmental Expression (developmental + expression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Regional and Developmental Expression of the Npc1 mRNA in the Mouse Brain

A. Prasad
Abstract: Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a fatal, autosomal recessive disorder of cholesterol metabolism that results in progressive central nervous system deterioration and premature death. Recently, a gene mutated in NP-C disease (NPC1) was identified in both human patients and in the npcnih mouse model. Although the function of the NPC1 gene is at present unknown, determining the pattern of its expression in the brain may facilitate identification of the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease and in identifying relevant targets for any potential therapeutic intervention. We have used in situ hybridization techniques to characterize the pattern of Npc1 mRNA expression in both the wild-type and the npcnih mutant mouse brain. In adult animals of both genotypes, the Npc1 mRNA was detected in the majority of neurons in nearly all regions, but at significantly higher levels in the cerebellum and in specific pontine nuclei. Analysis of Npc1 mRNA levels during development in the wild-type mouse indicated that this transcript was expressed in neurons as early as embryonic day 15 and that a significant region-specific pattern of expression was established by postnatal day 7. Our data suggest that whereas the NPC1 gene is widely expressed in neurons of the brain, the higher levels of expression in the cerebellum and pontine structures established by early postnatal ages may make these regions more susceptible to neuronal dysfunction in NP-C disease. [source]

Developmental Expression of Aquaporin 2 in the Mouse Inner Ear ,

Michele Merves
Abstract Objectives The maintenance of endolymph homeostasis is critical for the inner ear to perform its functions of hearing and maintaining balance. The identification and cloning of aquaporins (a family of water channel proteins) has allowed the study of a novel cellular mechanism potentially involved in endolymph homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to define the developmental temporal and spatial e-pression pattern of aquaporin 2 (Aqp2) in the developing mouse inner ear. Study Design A systematic immunohistochemical study of Aqp2 protein e-pression was performed on embryonic mouse inner ears ranging from embryonic day 10 (otocyst stage) to embryonic day 18 (just before birth). Methods Serial cryosections of embryonic mouse inner ears were used for immunohistochemical e-periments. A rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against a synthetic Aqp2 peptide was used with a standard nickel intensified 3,3-diaminobenzidine reaction protocol for immunolocalization of Aqp2 in tissue sections. Results Aquaporin 2 is e-pressed diffusely in the early otocyst, then becomes progressively restricted as the inner ear matures. During early cochlear duct formation (embryonic days 12 and 13), e-pression of Aqp2 is homogeneous; later, it becomes restricted to specific regions of the endolymphatic compartment (embryonic days 15 and 18). Similar restriction of e-pression patterns could be noted for the vestibular structures. Endolymphatic duct and sac and stria vascularis e-pression of Aqp2 was noted to occur fairly late during development but demonstrated a distinct pattern of immunolabeling. Conclusions Aquaporin 2 shows an early and specific pattern of e-pression in the developing mouse inner ear, suggesting a significant role for this water channel protein in the development of endolymph homeostasis and meriting further functional studies of Aqp2 in the inner ear. [source]

Developmental expression of Smoc1 and Smoc2 suggests potential roles in fetal gonad and reproductive tract differentiation

Dorothy E. Pazin
Abstract SMOC1 and SMOC2 are matricellular proteins thought to influence growth factor signaling, migration, proliferation, and angiogenesis. We examined the expression and regulation of Smoc1 and Smoc2 in fetal gonad/mesonephros complexes to discover possible roles for these genes in gonad and mesonephros development. Smoc1 was upregulated at ,E10.75 in a center-to-poles wave in pre-Sertoli and pre-granulosa cells and its expression was greatly reduced in Wt1, Sf1, and Fog2 mutants. After E13.5, Smoc1 was downregulated in an anterior-to-posterior wave in granulosa cells but persisted in Sertoli cells, suggesting a sexually dimorphic requirement in supporting cell lineage differentiation. Smoc2 was expressed in Leydig cells, mesonephroi, and Wnt4 mutant ovaries, but not wildtype ovaries. Using organ culture, we determined that Smoc2 expression was dependent on Hedgehog signaling in testes, mesonephroi, and kidneys. Overall, these results demonstrate that SMOC1 and SMOC2 may mediate intercellular signaling and cell type,specific differentiation during gonad and reproductive tract development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2877,2890, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Developmental expression and comparative genomic analysis of Xenopus cardiac myosin heavy chain genes

Robert J. Garriock
Abstract Myosin heavy chains (MHC) are cytoskeletal motor proteins essential to the process of muscle contraction. We have determined the complete sequences of the Xenopus cardiac MHC genes, ,-MHC and ventricular MHC (vMHC), and have characterized their developmental expression profiles. Whereas ,-MHC is expressed from the earliest stages of cardiac differentiation, vMHC transcripts are not detected until the heart has undergone chamber formation. Early expression of vMHC appears to mark the cardiac conduction system, but expression expands to include the ventricle and outflow tract myocardium during subsequent development. Sequence comparisons, transgenic expression analysis, and comparative genomic studies indicate that Xenopus ,-MHC is the true orthologue of the mammalian ,-MHC gene. On the other hand, we show that the Xenopus vMHC gene is most closely related to chicken ventricular MHC (vMHC1) not the mammalian ,-MHC. Comparative genomic analysis has allowed the detection of a mammalian MHC gene (MyH15) that appears to be the orthologue of vMHC, but evidence suggests that this gene is no longer active. Developmental Dynamics 233:1287,1293, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Developmental expression of Na+ currents in mouse Purkinje neurons

Mark Fry
Abstract As Purkinje neurons mature during postnatal development, they change from electrically quiescent to active and exhibit high frequency spontaneous action potentials. This change in electrical activity is determined by both alteration in ion channel expression and the acquisition of synaptic input. To gain a better understanding of the development the intrinsic electrical properties of these neurons, acutely isolated Purkinje neurons from mice aged postnatal day 4 (P4) to P18 were examined. This included recording action potential frequency, threshold, height and slope, and input resistance and capacitance. Changes in a number of these properties were observed, suggesting significant changes in voltage-gated Na+ currents. Because voltage-gated Na+ currents, including the transient, resurgent and persistent currents, are known to play important roles in generating spontaneous action potentials, the developmental changes in these currents were examined. A large increase in the density of transient current, resurgent current and persistent current was observed at times corresponding with changes in action potential properties. Interestingly, the developmental up-regulation of the persistent current and resurgent current occurred at rate which was faster than the up-regulation of the transient current. Moreover, the relative amplitudes of the persistent and resurgent currents increased in parallel, suggesting that they share a common basis. The data indicate that developmental up-regulation of Na+ currents plays a key role in the acquisition of Purkinje neuron excitability. [source]

Developmental expression of potassium-channel subunit Kv3.2 within subpopulations of mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneurons,

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 2 2002
Emily Phillips Tansey
Abstract The developmental expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv3.2, and its localization within specific mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneuron populations were determined using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical techniques. Using immunoblotting techniques, the Kv3.2 protein was weakly detected at postnatal age day 7 (P7), and full expression was attained at P21 in tissue extracts from homogenized hippocampal preparations. A similar developmental profile was observed using immunohistochemical techniques in hippocampal tissue sections. Kv3.2 protein expression was clustered on the somata and proximal dendrites of presumed inhibitory interneurons. Using double immunofluorescence, Kv3.2 subunit expression was detected on subpopulations of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. Kv3.2 was detected in ,100% of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, 86% of interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase, and ,50% of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells. Kv3.2 expression was absent from both calbindin- and calretinin-containing interneurons. Using immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrate that Kv3.2 and its related subunit Kv3.1b are coexpressed within the same protein complexes in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that potassium channel subunit Kv3.2 expression is developmentally regulated in a specific set of interneurons. The vast majority of these interneuron subpopulations possess a "fast-spiking" phenotype, consistent with a role for currents through Kv3.2 containing channels in determining action potential kinetics in these cells. Hippocampus 2002;12:137,148. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Developmental expression and differential cellular localization of obscurin and obscurin-associated kinase in cardiac muscle cells

Andrei B. Borisov
Abstract Obscurin and obscurin-associated kinase are two products of the obscurin transcriptional unit that encodes a recently identified giant muscle-specific protein obscurin. In this study, we characterized the developmental expression and cellular localization of obscurin and obscurin-associated kinase in cardiac muscle cells. We cloned murine obscurin-associated kinase and found that it is abundantly expressed in the heart as two isotypes encoded by 2.2 and 4.9 kb sequences. The 2.2 kb isotype of the kinase was more prominently expressed than the 4.9 kb isotype. Both obscurin and the kinase-like domains were progressively upregulated since the early stages of cardiac development. Obscurin-associated kinase was expressed at higher levels than obscurin at early stages of cardiomyogenesis. Increasing intensity of obscurin expression in the developing heart positively correlated with progressive cell differentiation and was higher in the ventricles compared to the atria. These data were supported by the results of experiments with primary cardiac cell cultures. Obscurin localization changed from a weakly immunopositive diffuse pattern in poorly differentiated cells to an intensely immunolabeled cross-striated distribution at the level of mid-A-bands and Z-disks during the assembly of the myofibrillar contractile apparatus. In dividing myocytes, unlike the interphase cells, obscurin translocated from disassembling myofibrils into a diffuse granulated pattern segregated separately from ,-actinin-immunopositive aggregates. Obscurin-associated kinase was localized mainly to cell nuclei with increasing incorporation into the Z-disks during differentiation. Our results suggest that these two novel proteins are involved in the progression of cardiac myogenesis during the transition to advanced stages of heart development. J. Cell. Biochem. 103: 1621,1635, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A family of octapamine receptors that specifically induce cyclic AMP production or Ca2+ release in Drosophila melanogaster

Sabine Balfanz
Abstract In invertebrates, the biogenic-amine octopamine is an important physiological regulator. It controls and modulates neuronal development, circadian rhythm, locomotion, ,fight or flight' responses, as well as learning and memory. Octopamine mediates its effects by activation of different GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor types, which induce either cAMP production or Ca2+ release. Here we describe the functional characterization of two genes from Drosophila melanogaster that encode three octopamine receptors. The first gene (Dmoa1) codes for two polypeptides that are generated by alternative splicing. When heterologously expressed, both receptors cause oscillatory increases of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in response to applying nanomolar concentrations of octopamine. The second gene (Dmoa2) codes for a receptor that specifically activates adenylate cyclase and causes a rise of intracellular cAMP with an EC50 of ,3 × 10,8 m octopamine. Tyramine, the precursor of octopamine biosynthesis, activates all three receptors at ,,100-fold higher concentrations, whereas dopamine and serotonin are non-effective. Developmental expression of Dmoa genes was assessed by RT,PCR. Overlapping but not identical expression patterns were observed for the individual transcripts. The genes characterized in this report encode unique receptors that display signature properties of native octopamine receptors. [source]

Developmental expression and biochemical properties of a ,-1,4-endoglucanase family in the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines

Bingli Gao
SUMMARY The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, produces ,-1,4-endoglucanases (cellulases) that are secreted during infection of soybean. The gene structures of three, hg-eng-4, hg-eng-5 and hg-eng-6, of the six ,-1,4-endoglucanase genes, all family 5 glycosyl hydrolases previously identified from H. glycines, are presented here. Furthermore, we present the detailed expression analyses of ,-1,4-endoglucanase genes as well as the biochemical properties of four H. glycines endoglucanase enzymes. Two of the endoglucanases, HG-ENG-5 and HG-ENG-6, differed significantly in their amino acid sequence of the catalytic domains and their gene structure from that of the other four ,-1,4-endoglucanases. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed distinct developmental expression differences among the hg-eng family members during the early stages of parasitism and relatively low expression levels in late parasitic stages, with the exception of the adult male stage for some eng genes. Recombinant HG-ENGs degraded carboxymethylcellulose and optimum enzyme activity ranged from pH 5.5 for HG-ENG-5 to pH 8 for HG-ENG-6. EDTA, Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ did not affect enzyme activity of any ENG protein, whereas Zn2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ inhibited enzyme activity from 23% to 73% in some cases. In tests with 12 different polysaccharide substrates, enzyme activity was restricted to ,-1,4 linkages with all ENG proteins tested. Only HG-ENG-5 and HG-ENG-6 had relatively high activity on xylan and slightly degraded microcrystalline cellulose. Together, these data reveal distinct differences in expression and biochemistry of cyst nematode parasitism genes and proteins, respectively, and cast light on the intricate interactions between a parasitic animal and its plant host. [source]

Developmental expression of glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, and their receptor mRNA in the rat urinary bladder

Takahiro Kawakami
Abstract Aims: Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and related factors neurturin (NRTN), artemin, and persephin are members of the GDNF family of neurotrophic factors. GDNF and NRTN bind to the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret and the receptors GFR,1 and GFR,2. The objective was to examine the developmental expression of GDNF, NRTN, and their receptors within the rat urinary bladder. Methods: Rat bladders dissected from embryonic day (E) 15, postnatal day (P) 0, P14, P28, and adult rats (P60) were investigated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Embryos (E15, E16, and E17) were immunohistochemically stained for neurofilament. Results: GDNF and Ret mRNA levels at E15 were the highest of all the stages we examined and then immediately decreased. In contrast, NRTN mRNA levels did not change between E15 and postnatal day 14; thereafter, they gradually but insignificantly increased. GFR,1 and GFR,2 mRNA levels were high at E15, after which their signal intensities decreased. In whole-mounted specimens, neurofilament-positive axons were first detected in the bladder at E16. Conclusions: Our results suggest that GDNF and NRTN may act as trophic factors for neural in-growth to the bladder and/or for the maintenance of mature neurons innervating the bladder. These factors might also be involved in bladder morphogenesis. Neurourol. Urodynam. 22:83,88, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Developmental expression of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in the embryos of Locusta migratoria

Yanxue Yu
Abstract We have investigated the development of chemosensilla and the secretion of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in the embryo of Locusta migratoria manilensis. We first report the changes of each sensillum in embryo just preceding hatch in detail and show that different sensilla have different developmental processes. Trichogen cells are first involved in forming the structure of pegs, and then, after retraction, they start secreting OBPs and CSPs in the sensillar lymph. The synthesis of LmigOBP1 starts during the embryogenesis about 0.5,h preceding hatching, specifically in sensilla trichodea and basiconica of the antenna. LmigOBP2, instead, was only found in the outer sensillum lymph (oSl) of sensilla chaetica of the antenna, while we could not detect LmigOBP3 in any type of sensilla of the antenna. The ontogenesis of CSPs in the embryos is similar to that of OBPs. Expression of CSPI homolog in Locusta migratoria is detected using the antiserum raised against SgreCSPI. CSPI is specifically expressed in the outer sensillum lymph of sensilla chaetica of the antenna, and anti- LmigCSPII dose not label any sensilla of the embryos. These data indicate that in locusts, OBPs and CSPs follow different temporal expression patterns, and also that OBPs are expressed in different types of sensilla. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Panic disorder: a review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-V,

Michelle G. Craske Ph.D
Abstract This review covers the literature since the publication of DSM-IV on the diagnostic criteria for panic attacks (PAs) and panic disorder (PD). Specific recommendations are made based on the evidence available. In particular, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria for PAs to ease the differentiation between panic and surrounding anxiety; simplification and clarification of the operationalization of types of PAs (expected vs. unexpected) is proposed; and consideration is given to the value of PAs as a specifier for all DSM diagnoses and to the cultural validity of certain symptom profiles. In addition, slight changes are proposed for the wording of the diagnostic criteria to increase clarity and parsimony of the criteria. Finally, based on the available evidence, no changes are proposed with regard to the developmental expression of PAs or PD. This review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V. Depression and Anxiety, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

,Salience syndrome' replaces ,schizophrenia' in DSM-V and ICD-11: psychiatry's evidence-based entry into the 21st century?

J. Van Os
Objective:, Japan was the first country to abandon the 19th century term of ,mind-splitting disease' (schizophrenia). Revisions of DSM and ICD are forthcoming. Should the rest of the world follow Japan's example? Method:, A comprehensive literature search was carried out in order to review the scientific evidence for the validity, usefulness and acceptability of current concepts of psychotic disorder. Results:, The discussion about re-classifying and renaming schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is clouded by conceptual confusion. First, it is often misunderstood as a misguided attempt to change societal stigma instead of an attempt to change iatrogenic stigma occasioned by the use of misleading and mystifying terminology. Second, the debate is misunderstood as purely semantic, whereas in actual fact it is about the core concepts underlying psychiatric nosology. Third, it has been suggested that the debate is political. However, solid scientific evidence pointing to the absence of nosological validity of diagnostic categories lies at the heart of the argument. Fourth, there is confusion about what constitutes a syndrome (a group of symptom dimensions that cluster in different combinations in different people and for which one or more underlying diseases may or may not be found) and a disease (a nosologically valid entity with specific causes, symptoms, treatment and course). Conclusion:, Scientific evidence favours a syndromal system of classification combining categorical and dimensional representations of psychosis. The concept of ,salience' has the potential to make the public recognize psychosis as relating to an aspect of human mentation and experience that is universal. It is proposed to introduce, analogous to the functional-descriptive term ,Metabolic syndrome', the diagnosis of ,Salience syndrome' to replace all current diagnostic categories of psychotic disorders. Within Salience syndrome, three subcategories may be identified, based on scientific evidence of relatively valid and specific contrasts, named Salience syndrome with affective expression, Salience syndrome with developmental expression and Salience syndrome not otherwise specified. [source]

Cloning a novel developmental regulating gene, Xotx5: Its potential role in anterior formation in Xenopus laevis

Hiroki Kuroda
The vertebrate Otx gene family is related to otd, a gene contributing to head development in Drosophila. In Xenopus, Xotx1, Xotx2, and Xotx4 have already been isolated and analyzed. Here the cloning, developmental expression and functions of the additional Otx Xenopus gene, Xotx5 are reported. This latter gene shows a greater degree of homology to Xotx2 than Xotx1 and Xotx4. Xotx5 was initially expressed in Spemann's organizer and later in the anterior region. Ectopic expression of Xotx5 had similar effects to other Xotx genes in impairing trunk and tail development, and especially similar effects to Xotx2 in causing secondary cement glands. Taken together, these findings suggest that Xotx5 stimulates the formation of the anterior regions and represses the formation of posterior structures similar to Xotx2. [source]

Phylogeny of the teashirt-related zinc finger (tshz) gene family and analysis of the developmental expression of tshz2 and tshz3b in the zebrafish

Joana S. Santos
Abstract The tshz genes comprise a family of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors. However, despite the major role played by Drosophila tsh during the development of the fruit fly, the expression and function of other tshz genes have been analyzed in a very limited set of organisms and, therefore, our current knowledge of these genes is still fragmentary. In this study, we perform detailed phylogenetic analyses of the tshz genes, identify the members of this gene family in zebrafish and describe the developmental expressions of two of them, tshz2 and tshz3b, and compare them with meis1, meis2.1, meis2.2, pax6a, and pax6b expression patterns. The expression patterns of these genes define a complex set of coexpression domains in the developing zebrafish brain where their gene products have the potential to interact. Developmental Dynamics 239:1010,1018, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Muscle fiber differentiation in fish embryos as shown by in situ hybridization of a large repertoire of muscle-specific transcripts

F. Chauvigné
Abstract Skeletal muscles are composed of different fiber types, largely defined by differential expression of protein isoforms involved in myofibrillogenesis or metabolism. To learn more about the gene activations that underlie the differentiation and the diversification of embryonic fish myotomal fibers, we investigated the developmental expression of 25 muscle genes in trout embryos by in situ hybridization of muscle-specific transcripts. The earliest event of muscle differentiation, at approximately the 25-somite stage, was the expression of a variety of muscle-specific genes, including slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle isoforms. The activation of these muscle genes started in the deep somitic domain, where the slow muscle precursors (the adaxial cells) were initially located, and progressively spread laterally throughout the width of the myotome. This mediolateral progression of gene expression was coordinated with the lateral migration of slow adaxial cells, which specifically expressed the slow myosin light chain 1 and the SLIM1/FHL1 genes. Subsequently, the fast and slow skeletal muscle isoforms precociously expressed in the course of the mediolateral wave of muscle gene activation became down-regulated in the superficial slow fibers and the deep fast fibers, respectively. Finally, several muscle-specific genes, including troponins, a slow myosin-binding protein C, tropomodulins, and parvalbumin started their transcription only in late embryos. Taken together, these findings show in fish embryos that a common myogenic program is triggered in a mediolateral progression in all muscle cells. The acquisition of the slow phenotype involves the additional activation of several slow-specific genes in migrating adaxial muscle cells. These events are followed by sequential gene activations and repressions in fast and slow muscle cells. Developmental Dynamics 233:659,666, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ci-GATAa, a GATA -class gene from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis: Isolation and developmental expression

Palmira D'Ambrosio
Abstract Members of the GATA family of zinc finger transcription factors have been shown to play important roles in controlling gene expression in a variety of cell types in many metazoan. Here, we describe the identification of Ci-GATAa, a member of this gene family, in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Ci-GATAa was expressed in a highly dynamic manner. The maternal transcript was evenly distributed in the embryo during early stages of development; however, the signal gradually decreased until it disappeared at the 64-cell stage. A zygotic transcript was detected at the 110-cell stage in the blastomeres precursors of three different tissues (brain vesicle, mesenchyme, and trunk lateral cells) and the signal was conserved in these territories up to the larval stage, indicating an important role for Ci-GATAa during ascidian differentiation. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Multiple sites of L-histidine decarboxylase expression in mouse suggest novel developmental functions for histamine

Kaj Karlstedt
Abstract Histamine mediates many types of physiologic signals in multicellular organisms. To clarify the developmental role of histamine, we have examined the developmental expression of L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA and the production of histamine during mouse development. The predominant expression of HDC in mouse development was seen in mast cells. The HDC expression was evident from embryonal day 13 (Ed13) until birth, and the mast cells were seen in most peripheral tissues. Several novel sites with a prominent HDC mRNA expression were revealed. In the brain, the choroid plexus showed HDC expression at Ed14 and the raphe neurons at Ed15. Close to the parturition, at Ed19, the neurons in the tuberomammillary (TM) area and the ventricular neuroepithelia also displayed a clear HDC mRNA expression and histamine immunoreactivity (HA-ir). From Ed14 until birth, the olfactory and nasopharyngeal epithelia showed an intense HDC mRNA expression and HA-ir. In the olfactory epithelia, the olfactory receptor neurons (ORN) were shown to have very prominent histamine immunoreactivity. The bipolar nerve cells in the epithelium extended both to the epithelial surface and into the subepithelial layers to be collected into thick nerve bundles extending caudally toward the olfactory bulbs. Also, in the nasopharynx, an extensive subepithelial network of histamine-immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen. Furthermore, in the peripheral tissues, the degenerating mesonephros (Ed14) and the convoluted tubules in the developing kidneys (Ed15) showed HDC expression, as did the prostate gland (Ed15). In adult mouse brain, the HDC expression resembled the neuronal pattern observed in rat brain. The expression was restricted to the TM area in the ventral hypothalamus, with the main expression in the five TM subgroups called E1,E5. A distinct mouse HDC mRNA expression was also seen in the ependymal wall of the third ventricle, which has not been reported in the rat. The tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns of HDC and histamine presented in this work indicate that histamine could have cell guidance or regulatory roles in development. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Localization of KCNC1 (Kv3.1) potassium channel subunits in the avian auditory nucleus magnocellularis and nucleus laminaris during development

Suchitra Parameshwaran-Iyer
Abstract The KCNC1 (previously Kv3.1) potassium channel, a delayed rectifier with a high threshold of activation, is highly expressed in the time coding nuclei of the adult chicken and barn owl auditory brainstem. The proposed role of KCNC1 currents in auditory neurons is to reduce the width of the action potential and enable neurons to transmit high frequency temporal information with little jitter. Because developmental changes in potassium currents are critical for the maturation of the shape of the action potential, we used immunohistochemical methods to examine the developmental expression of KCNC1 subunits in the avian auditory brainstem. The KCNC1 gene gives rise to two splice variants, a longer KCNC1b and a shorter KCNC1a that differ at the carboxy termini. Two antibodies were used: an antibody to the N-terminus that does not distinguish between KCNC1a and b isoforms, denoted as panKCNC1, and another antibody that specifically recognizes the C terminus of KCNC1b. A comparison of the staining patterns observed with the panKCNC1 and the KCNC1b specific antibodies suggests that KCNC1a and KCNC1b splice variants are differentially regulated during development. Although panKCNC1 immunoreactivity is observed from the earliest time examined in the chicken (E10), a subcellular redistribution of the immunoproduct was apparent over the course of development. KCNC1b specific staining has a late onset with immunostaining first appearing in the regions that map high frequencies in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL). The expression of KCNC1b protein begins around E14 in the chicken and after E21 in the barn owl, relatively late during ontogeny and at the time that synaptic connections mature morphologically and functionally. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 55: 165,178, 2003 [source]

A new look at an old visual system: structure and development of the compound eyes and optic ganglia of the brine shrimp artemia salina linnaeus, 1758 (branchiopoda, anostraca)

Miriam Wildt
Abstract Compared to research carried out on decapod crustaceans, the development of the visual system in representatives of the entomostracan crustaceans is poorly understood. However, the structural evolution of the arthropod visual system is an important topic in the new debate on arthropod relationships, and entomostracan crustaceans play a key role in this discussion. Hence, data on structure and ontogeny of the entomostracan visual system are likely to contribute new aspects to our understanding of arthropod phylogeny. Therefore, we explored the proliferation of neuronal stem cells (in vivo incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine) and the developmental expression of synaptic proteins (immunohistochemistry against synapsins) in the developing optic neuropils of the brine shrimp Artemia salina Linnaeus, 1758 (Crustacea, Entomostraca, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) from hatching to adulthood. The morphology of the adult visual system was examined in serial sections of plastic embedded specimens. Our results indicate that the cellular material that gives rise to the visual system (compound eyes and two optic ganglia) is contributed by the mitotic activity of neuronal stem cells that are arranged in three band-shaped proliferation zones. Synapsin-like immunoreactivity in the lamina ganglionaris and the medulla externa initiated only after the anlagen of the compound eyes had already formed, suggesting that the emergence of the two optic neuropils lags behind the proliferative action of these stem cells. Neurogenesis in A. salina is compared to similar processes in malacostracan crustaceans and possible phylogenetic implications are discussed. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol 52: 117,132, 2002 [source]

The amphioxus T-box gene, AmphiTbx15/18/22, illuminates the origins of chordate segmentation

Laura Beaster-Jones
SUMMARY Amphioxus and vertebrates are the only deuterostomes to exhibit unequivocal somitic segmentation. The relative simplicity of the amphioxus genome makes it a favorable organism for elucidating the basic genetic network required for chordate somite development. Here we describe the developmental expression of the somite marker, AmphiTbx15/18/22, which is first expressed at the mid-gastrula stage in dorsolateral mesendoderm. At the early neurula stage, expression is detected in the first three pairs of developing somites. By the mid-neurula stage, expression is downregulated in anterior somites, and only detected in the penultimate somite primordia. In early larvae, the gene is expressed in nascent somites before they pinch off from the posterior archenteron (tail bud). Integrating functional, phylogenetic and expression data from a variety of triploblast organisms, we have reconstructed the evolutionary history of the Tbx15/18/22 subfamily. This analysis suggests that the Tbx15/18/22 gene may have played a role in patterning somites in the last common ancestor of all chordates, a role that was later conserved by its descendents following gene duplications within the vertebrate lineage. Furthermore, the comparison of expression domains within this gene subfamily reveals similarities in the genetic bases of trunk and cranial mesoderm segmentation. This lends support to the hypothesis that the vertebrate head evolved from an ancestor possessing segmented cranial mesoderm. [source]

The fabp4 gene of zebrafish (Danio rerio) , genomic homology with the mammalian FABP4 and divergence from the zebrafish fabp3 in developmental expression

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 6 2007
Rong-Zong Liu
Teleost fishes differ from mammals in their fat deposition and distribution. The gene for adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP or FABP4) has not been identified thus far in fishes. We have determined the cDNA sequence and defined the structure of a fatty acid-binding protein gene (designated fabp4) from the zebrafish genome. The polypeptide sequence encoded by zebrafish fabp4 showed highest identity to the Had -FABP or H6-FABP from Antarctic fishes and the putative orthologs from other teleost fishes (83,88%). Phylogenetic analysis clustered the zebrafish FABP4 with all Antarctic fish H6-FABPs and putative FABP4s from other fishes in a single clade, and then with the mammalian FABP4s in an extended clade. Zebrafish fabp4 was assigned to linkage group 19 at a distinct locus from fabp3. A number of closely linked syntenic genes surrounding the zebrafish fabp4 locus were found to be conserved with human FABP4. The zebrafish fabp4 transcripts showed sequential distribution in the developing eye, diencephalon and brain vascular system, from the middle somitogenesis stage to 48 h postfertilization, whereas fabp3 mRNA was located widely in the embryonic and/or larval central nervous system, retina, myotomes, pancreas and liver from middle somitogenesis to 5 days postfertilization. Differentiation in developmental regulation of zebrafish fabp4 and fabp3 gene transcription suggests distinct functions for these two paralogous genes in vertebrate development. [source]

Identification, developmental expression and regulation of the Xenopus ortholog of human FANCG/XRCC9

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 7 2007
Stacie Stone
Fanconi anemia (FA) is associated with variable developmental abnormalities, bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility. FANCG/XRCC9 is member of the FA core complex, a group of proteins that control the monoubiquitylation of FANCD2, an event that plays a critical role in maintaining genomic stability. Here we report the identification of the Xenopus laevis ortholog of human FANCG (xFANCG), its expression during development, and its molecular interactions with a partner protein, xFANCA. The xFANCG protein sequence is 47% similar to its human ortholog, with highest conservation in the two putative N-terminal leucine zippers and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs. xFANCG is maternally and zygotically transcribed. Prior to the midblastula stage, a single xFANCG transcript is observed but two additional alternatively spliced mRNAs are detected after the midblastula transition. One of the variants is predicted to encode a novel isoform of xFANCG lacking exon 2. The mutual association between FANCG and FANCA required for their nuclear import is conserved in Xenopus egg extracts. Our data demonstrate that interactions between FANCA and FANCG occur at the earliest stage of vertebrate development and raise the possibility that functionally different isoforms of xFANCG may play a role in early development. [source]

cDNA cloning, heat shock regulation and developmental expression of the hsp83 gene in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata

M. A. Theodoraki
Abstract This report presents the cDNA cloning, heat shock regulation and developmental expression of the hsp90 gene homologue of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (medfly). The isolated cDNA contained the coding region, the 3,UTR and most of the 5,UTR of the medfly hsp90 homologue, which was named Cchsp83. The deduced CcHSP83 polypeptide contained all the highly conserved amino acid segments that characterize the cytosolic members of the HSP90 family. Genomic analysis showed that the Cchsp83 gene is unique and was mapped at the 94C division of the sixth polytene chromosome. The size of the Cchsp83 mRNA was found to be approximately 2.7 kb. The predicted molecular mass of the CcHSP83 protein was 81.4 kDa, while the apparent molecular weight estimated by SDS-PAGE was approximately 90 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis based on 14 insect HSP90 amino acid sequences was consistent with the known phylogeny at low taxonomic level. The Cchsp83 gene is constitutively expressed in all stages of medfly development and is induced from a low level to several-fold by heat, depending on the developmental stage. Heat shock induction begins at 30 °C, reaching a maximum between 35 and 41 °C. Cchsp83 RNA expression is highly regulated during embryonic development; however, the temporal fluctuations in RNA levels during embryogenesis were not followed by similar fluctuations in the levels of the protein. [source]

Cloning, expression and localization of a trypsin-like serine protease in the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 6 2009
Wen-Ying He
Abstract, A trypsin-like molting-related serine protease cDNA (CfMRSP) was cloned from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana. The full-length CfMRSP complementary DNA (cDNA) encoded a 43 kDa protein that contained a trypsin-like serine protease catalytic domain, but no clip domain. The C-terminal extension contained five cystein residues, which may allow the protein to form a homodimer through interchain disulfide bonds and regulate the activity of CfMRSP. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that CfMRSP clusters with lepidopteran homologues such as serine protease 1 of Lonomia obliqua, hemolymph proteinase 20 (HP20), pattern recognition serine proteinase precursor (ProHP14) and a trypsin-like protein of Manduca sexta. Northern blot analysis of developmental expression of CfMRSP indicated that its transcripts were found primarily in the epidermis and were produced during all of the tested stadia, from 4th instar larvae to pupae, but increased levels of CfMRSP transcripts were always found after each molt. A high level of the protein was found in the epidermis by immunohistochemistry analysis. Altogether these data suggest that CfMRSP plays a role in the epidermis during molting and metamorphosis. [source]

Developmental expression and differential cellular localization of obscurin and obscurin-associated kinase in cardiac muscle cells

Andrei B. Borisov
Abstract Obscurin and obscurin-associated kinase are two products of the obscurin transcriptional unit that encodes a recently identified giant muscle-specific protein obscurin. In this study, we characterized the developmental expression and cellular localization of obscurin and obscurin-associated kinase in cardiac muscle cells. We cloned murine obscurin-associated kinase and found that it is abundantly expressed in the heart as two isotypes encoded by 2.2 and 4.9 kb sequences. The 2.2 kb isotype of the kinase was more prominently expressed than the 4.9 kb isotype. Both obscurin and the kinase-like domains were progressively upregulated since the early stages of cardiac development. Obscurin-associated kinase was expressed at higher levels than obscurin at early stages of cardiomyogenesis. Increasing intensity of obscurin expression in the developing heart positively correlated with progressive cell differentiation and was higher in the ventricles compared to the atria. These data were supported by the results of experiments with primary cardiac cell cultures. Obscurin localization changed from a weakly immunopositive diffuse pattern in poorly differentiated cells to an intensely immunolabeled cross-striated distribution at the level of mid-A-bands and Z-disks during the assembly of the myofibrillar contractile apparatus. In dividing myocytes, unlike the interphase cells, obscurin translocated from disassembling myofibrils into a diffuse granulated pattern segregated separately from ,-actinin-immunopositive aggregates. Obscurin-associated kinase was localized mainly to cell nuclei with increasing incorporation into the Z-disks during differentiation. Our results suggest that these two novel proteins are involved in the progression of cardiac myogenesis during the transition to advanced stages of heart development. J. Cell. Biochem. 103: 1621,1635, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Differentiation dependent expression of TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels in IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells

Lauri M. Louhivuori
TRPA1 and TRPM8 are transient receptor potential (TRP) channels involved in sensory perception. TRPA1 is a non-selective calcium permeable channel activated by irritants and proalgesic agents. TRPM8 reacts to chemical cooling agents such as menthol. The human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 undergoes a remarkable differentiation in response to treatment with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. The cells acquire a neuronal morphology with increased expression of N-type voltage gated calcium channels and neurotransmitters. Here we show using RT-PCR, that mRNA for TRPA1 and TRPM8 are strongly upregulated in differentiating IMR-32 cells. Using whole cell patch clamp recordings, we demonstrate that activators of these channels, wasabi, allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) and menthol activate membrane currents in differentiated cells. Calcium imaging experiments demonstrated that AITC mediated elevation of intracellular calcium levels were attenuated by ruthenium red, spermine, and HC-030031 as well as by siRNA directed against the channel. This indicates that the detected mRNA level correlate with the presence of functional channels of both types in the membrane of differentiated cells. Although the differentiated IMR-32 cells responded to cooling many of the cells showing this response did not respond to TRPA1/TRPM8 channel activators (60% and 90% for AITC and menthol respectively). Conversely many of the cells responding to these activators did not respond to cooling (30%). This suggests that these channels have also other functions than cold perception in these cells. Furthermore, our results suggest that IMR-32 cells have sensory characteristics and can be used to study native TRPA1 and TRPM8 channel function as well as developmental expression. J. Cell. Physiol. 221: 67,74, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc [source]

Comments on ,Significance of developmental expression of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri and zebrafish Danio rerio Hsd17b10 in biological and medical research'

X. He
The reported data on the developmental expression of Hsd17b10 gene in Danio rerio is crucial to the utilization of the D. rerio embryo as an animal model for human developmental disorders caused either by mutations on HSD17B10 (formerly HADH2) or by defective expression of the gene. Related diseases were summarized, and it was noticed that hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia is not linked to HSD17B10. This inherited disease is actually caused by a deletion in the HADH gene on chromosome 4. Moreover, it was found by a revision of the reported phylogenetic tree that hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase II or rather hydroxysteroid (17beta) dehydrogenase 10 (HSD10) of amphioxus Branchiostoma belcheri,occupies a transition position from HSD10 orthologs of invertebrates to those of vertebrates. [source]

Expression of a Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, Ect2, in the Developing Mouse Pituitary

M. S. Islam
The pituitary gland is a highly mitotically active tissue after birth. Various cell types are known to undergo proliferation in the anterior pituitary. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating mitotic activity in this tissue. When searching for genes specifically expressed in the pituitary gland among those that we previously screened in Drosophila, we found epithelial cell-transforming gene 2 (Ect2). Ect2 is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, which is known to play an essential role in cytokinesis. Although there have been many cellular studies regarding the function of Ect2, the temporal and spatial expression patterns of Ect2 in vivo have not been determined. In the present study, we examined the postnatal developmental expression of Ect2 in the mouse pituitary. Enhanced Ect2 expression was detected in the mouse pituitary gland during the first 3 weeks after birth, which coincided well with the period of rapid pituitary expansion associated with increased growth rate. Immunostaining analysis showed that Ect2-expressing cells were distributed in the anterior and intermediate lobes, but not the posterior lobe, of the pituitary. These Ect2-expressing cells frequently incorporated the thymidine analogue, EdU (5-ethynyl-2,-deoxyuridine), indicating that these cells were mitotically active. Taken together, the results demonstrate the functional role of Ect2 in postnatal proliferating cells in the two lobes of the pituitary, thereby suggesting roles in developmental growth of the mammalian pituitary. [source]

Expression and molecular diversity of Tcf7l2 in the developing murine cerebellum and brain

Tommy A. Nazwar
Abstract The Wingless family of secreted proteins impinges on multiple aspects of vertebrate nervous system development, from early global patterning and cell fate decision to synaptogenesis. Here, we mapped the developmental expression of the Tcf7l2, which is key to the canonical Wingless signaling cascade, in the developing cerebellum. The exclusive and transient expression of Tcf7l2 in ventricular and Olig2-defined precursor cells within the cerebellar anlage, and its predominant expression in postmitotic neurons in the midbrain/inferior colliculus allowed us to ask whether cell type,specific differences are also reflected in splice isoform variability. We also included in this analysis intestinal epithelia, where Tcf7l2 function has been intensively studied. Our data reveal extensive variability of Tcf7l2 splicing in the central nervous system. Additional variability in brain-expressed Tcf7l2 is generated by a length polymorphism of expressed mRNAs in a stretch of normally nine adenines found at the beginning of exon 18, reminiscent of variability observed at the same site in cancers with microsatellite instability. A consensus emerging from our data is that the expression of isoforms comprising or lacking the C-clamp motif, which has been linked by in vitro studies to the regulation of cell growth, is indeed tightly correlated with the proliferative status in vivo. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]