Developmental Defects (developmental + defect)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Multiple Nevoid Hypertrichosis as An Isolated Developmental Defect

Dimitrios Sotiriadis M.D., Ph.D.
Neither similar or relevant family history nor associated extracutaneous abnormalities was detected after a thorough examination. Clinical diagnosis of patchy nevoid hypetrichosis was confirmed by histology. Nevoid hypertrichosis is a rare hair growth disorder that usually presents at or soon after birth. It is characterized by patches of hypertrichosis distributed in a segmental pattern. It may be accompanied by mental, ocular, or myoskeletal abnormalities. Cases of nevoid hypertrichosis with multiple patches presenting as a solitary developmental defect have been rarely described in the literature. [source]

Fascin1 is dispensable for mouse development but is favorable for neonatal survival

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 8 2009
Yoshihiko Yamakita
Abstract Fascin1, an actin-bundling protein, has been demonstrated to be critical for filopodia formation in cultured cells, and thus is believed to be vital in motile activities including neurite extension and cell migration. To test whether fascin1 plays such essential roles within a whole animal, we have generated and characterized fascin1-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, fascin1-deficient mice are viable and fertile with no major developmental defect. Nissl staining of serial coronal brain sections reveals that fascin1-deficient brain is grossly normal except that knockout mouse brain lacks the posterior region of the anterior commissure neuron and has larger lateral ventricle. Fascin1-deficient, dorsal root ganglion neurons are able to extend neurites in vitro as well as those from wild-type mice, although fascin1-deficient growth cones are smaller and exhibit fewer and shorter filopodia than wild-type counterparts. Likewise, fascin1-deficient, embryonic fibroblasts are able to assemble filopodia, though filopodia are fewer, shorter and short-lived. These results indicate that fascin1-mediated filopodia assembly is dispensable for mouse development. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

A novel role of differentiation-inducing factor-1 in Dictyostelium development, assessed by the restoration of a developmental defect in a mutant lacking mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK2

Hidekazu Kuwayama
It has been previously reported that the differentiating wild-type cells of Dictyostelium discoideum secrete a diffusible factor or factors that are able to rescue the developmental defect in the mutant lacking extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), encoded by the gene erkB. In the present study, it is demonstrated that differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1) for stalk cells can mimic the role of the factor(s) and the mechanism of the action of DIF-1 in the erkB null mutant is also discussed. The mutant usually never forms multicellular aggregates, because of its defect in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling. In the presence of 100 n M DIF-1, however, the mutant cells formed tiny slugs, which eventually developed into small fruiting bodies. In contrast, DIF-1 never rescued the developmental arrest of other Dictyostelium mutants lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), cAMP receptors cAR1 and cAR3, heterotrimeric G-protein, the cytosolic regulator of ACA, or the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-C). Most importantly, it was found that DIF-1 did not affect the cellular cAMP level, but rather elevated the transcriptional level of pka during the development of erkB null cells. These results suggest that DIF-1 may rescue the developmental defect in erkB null cells via the increase in PKA activity, thus giving the first conclusive evidence that DIF-1 plays a crucial role in the early events of Dictyostelium development as well as in prestalk and stalk cell induction. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2003
Kathryn D. Kavanagh
Abstract The switch between the cell cycle and the progress of differentiation in developmental pathways is prevalent throughout the eukaryotes in all major cell lineages. Disruptions to the molecular signals regulating the switch between proliferative and differentiating states are severe, often resulting in cancer formation (uncontrolled proliferation) or major developmental disorders. Uncontrolled proliferation and developmental disorders are potentially lethal defects in the developing animal. Therefore, natural selection would likely favor a tightly controlled regulatory mechanism to help prevent these fundamental defects. Although selection is usually thought of as a consequence of environmental or ecological influences, in this case the selective force to maintain this molecular switch is internal, manifested as a potentially lethal developmental defect. The morphogenetic consequences of this prevalent, deeply embedded, and tightly controlled mechanistic switch are currently unexplored, however experimental and correlative evidence from several sources suggest that there are important consequences on the control of growth rates and developmental rates in organs and in the whole animal. These observations lead one to consider the possibility of a developmental constraint on ontogenetic rates and morphological evolution maintained by natural selection against cancer and other embryonic lethal defects. [source]

Oral health in preschool children with cerebral palsy: a case,control community-based study

International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 2010; 20: 330,335 Objectives., To assess and compare the oral health status of preschool children with and without cerebral palsy (CP). Methods., Preschool children with CP (72) were recruited from 23 Special Child Care Centers in Hong Kong. An age (±3 months) and gender matched sample of preschool children from mainstream preschools were recruited as the control group. Dental caries status, gingival health status, tooth wear, developmental defect of enamel, malocclusion, dental trauma and oral mucosal health were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results., Significant differences in gingival health status were found between children with and without CP (mean plaque index scores, P = 0.001 and mean gingival index scores, P < 0.05). Tooth wear involving dentine was more prevalent among CP children (P < 0.001), as were evidence of anterior open-bite (P < 0.001) and oral mucosal lesions (P < 0.05). Children with and without CP had similar caries experiences (P > 0.05), prevalence of enamel defects (P > 0.05) and dental trauma (P > 0.05). Conclusions., Differences of oral health status exist among preschool children with and without CP. Preschool children fare worse in terms of gingival health, tooth wear, oral mucosal health and malocclusion. [source]

Lymphangioma Circumscriptum of the Vulva Mimicking Genital Wart: A Case Report and Review of Literature

Dr. Shatrughan Prasad Sah
Abstract Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is an uncommon dermatologic problem that rarely affects the vulva and it is considered to be a localised developmental defect of lymphatic tissue in the dermis. We report a case of vulval LC, clinically diagnosed as genital wart, in a 48-year-old woman without evidence of secondary lymphatic damage. The patient required extensive vulval surgery and there was no recurrence after 16 months. [source]

Multiple Nevoid Hypertrichosis as An Isolated Developmental Defect

Dimitrios Sotiriadis M.D., Ph.D.
Neither similar or relevant family history nor associated extracutaneous abnormalities was detected after a thorough examination. Clinical diagnosis of patchy nevoid hypetrichosis was confirmed by histology. Nevoid hypertrichosis is a rare hair growth disorder that usually presents at or soon after birth. It is characterized by patches of hypertrichosis distributed in a segmental pattern. It may be accompanied by mental, ocular, or myoskeletal abnormalities. Cases of nevoid hypertrichosis with multiple patches presenting as a solitary developmental defect have been rarely described in the literature. [source]

Accessory Tragus: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature

Thomas Jansen M.D.
In the vast majority of cases it is an isolated developmental defect not associated with other abnormalities. However, the remote possibility exists that it could be associated with other abnormalities of the first and second branchial arch. Accessory tragus is a consistent feature of the oculoauriculovertebral syndrome (Goldenhar syndrome). When correctly identified, surgical excision of accessory tragus is quite simple and rarely results in any complications. [source]

Holoprosencephaly: An update on cytogenetic abnormalities,

Claude Bendavid
Abstract Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common developmental defect of the forebrain and midface, is caused by a failure of midline cleavage early in gestation. Isolated HPE, which is highly genetically heterogeneous, can be due to major chromosomal abnormalities. Initially, karyotype approach led to the identification of several recurrent chromosomal anomalies predicting different HPE loci. Subsequently, several genes were isolated from these critical HPE regions, but point mutations and deletions in these genes were found only in 25% of the genetic cases. In order to identify other HPE genes, a more accurate investigation of the genome in HPE patients was necessary. To date, high-resolution cytogenetic techniques such as subtelomeric multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) have enhanced chromosomal aberration analysis. In this article, we have updated the cytogenetic anomalies associated with HPE in a map listing all the subtelomeric and interstitial deletions that have been characterized either by karyotype, MLPA, or array CGH. The accumulation of recurrent genomic imbalances will lead to the further delineation of minimal critical HPE loci, which is the first step to the identification of new HPE genes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pai syndrome: First patient with agenesis of the corpus callosum and literature review

Marco Castori
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pai syndrome (PS) is a rare regional developmental defect of the face, mainly characterized by the variable association of midline cleft of the upper lip (MCL), duplicated maxillary median frenulum, and midline facial cutaneous and midanterior alveolar process polyps. Its entire clinical spectrum is still poorly delineated and the etiology remains unknown. CASE: We describe a 1-month-old boy presenting with MCL, left nostril hamartomatous mass, midline pedunculated polyp originating from the columella base, midline alveolar cleft, duplication of the upper median frenulum, unilateral persistent papillary membrane, lipoma of the corpus callosum, and additional minor facial dysmorphism. This patient also presents with agenesis of the corpus callosum, which has never been reported in PS. Literature review was carried out comparing clinical data of the 20 previously published patients with those observed in the present case. CONCLUSIONS: The minimum diagnostic criteria for PS has been fixed in one or more hamartomatous nasal polyps plus MCL (with or without cleft alveolus) and/or midanterior alveolar process congenital polyp. Additional common ancillary findings include duplicated median maxillary frenulum, hypertelorism, nasal cleft, midfrontal skin tags, and ocular and CNS structural abnormalities. However, mental retardation is only an occasional feature and seems to be related to coexisting conditions (such as chromosome imbalance). Literature review shows that PS is etiologically heterogeneous, as it may result from chromosome abnormalities and environmental/stochastic events, as well as de novo mutations. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The ups and downs of holoprosencephaly: dorsal versus ventral patterning forces

M Fernandes
Holoprosencephaly (HPE), characterized by incomplete separation of forebrain and facial components into left and right sides, is a common developmental defect in humans. It is caused by both genetic and environmental factors and its severity covers a wide spectrum of phenotypes. The genetic interactions underlying inherited forms of HPE are complex and poorly understood. Animal models, in particular mouse mutants, are providing a growing understanding of how the forebrain develops and how the cerebral hemispheres become split into left and right sides. These insights, along with the characterization to date of some of the genes involved in human HPE, suggest that two distinct mechanisms underlie the major classes of HPE, ,classic' and midline interhemispheric (MIH). Disruption either directly or indirectly of the ventralizing effect of sonic hedgehog signaling appears central to all or most forms of classic HPE, while disruption of the dorsalizing effect of bone morphogenetic protein signaling may be key to cases of MIH HPE. [source]

Heart changes in 17-day-old fetuses of diabetic ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) mothers: Improvement with maternal immune stimulation

Juan Claudio Gutierrez
ABSTRACT Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with increased fetal teratogenesis, including cardiovascular defects. Non-specific maternal immune stimulation with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) or interferon gamma (IFN,) has been associated with protection against birth malformations. Using a diabetic mouse model, late-gestation fetal heart and great vessel morphology were analyzed. Four groups of mice were used: non-diabetic females as a control group, hyperglycemic females induced by streptozotocin as a diabetic group, and diabetic females injected either with FCA or IFN,. At day 17 of gestation, females were euthanized and one fetus was arbitrarily selected per litter for fixation and sectioning. Treatment-induced changes in cardiac development were assessed from digital images of serial sections taken at standardized levels in the thorax. One-way parametric and non-parametric ANOVA and ordinal logistic regression were performed to compare the difference among groups (P < 0.05). Maternal hyperglycemia altered morphology of the late-gestation fetal mouse heart by causing ventricular chamber dilation, sectional myocardial reduction, and an increase in transversal aortic area. FCA protected the fetal heart from cavitary dilation in diabetic mothers. FCA and IFN, protected the fetal heart against reduction of myocardial area, and ascending thoracic aorta dilation. Consequences of late gestation heart chamber dilation and myocardial reduction are not yet known. Maternal immune stimulation partially protected against these developmental defects by mechanisms that remain unclear. [source]

Expression of WASP and Scar1/WAVE1 actin-associated proteins is differentially modulated during differentiation of HL-60 cells

CYTOSKELETON, Issue 4 2003
Sophie Launay
Abstract The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS) is a disease associated with mutations in the WAS gene and characterised by developmental defects in haematopoietic cells such as myeloid cells. The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASP)-family includes Scar1 and WASP, which are key regulators of actin reorganization in motile cells. To understand the roles of Scar1 and WASP in myeloid cells and their cytoskeletal control in haematopoietic tissues, we have explored their expression during differentiation of the promyeloid cell line HL-60. Undifferentiated HL-60 cells expressed Scar1 and WASP, and differentiation to neutrophils, induced by retinoic acid or non-retinoid agent treatments, led to a decrease in the level of expression of Scar1, whereas WASP expression was unaffected. Differentiation to monocytes/macrophages, induced by phorbol ester treatment, resulted in a decreased expression of both proteins in the adherent mature cells. Vitamin D3 treatment or cytochalasin D in combination with PMA treatment did not affect WASP expression suggesting that adhesion and cytoskeletal integrity were both essential to regulate WASP expression. Scar1 expression was regulated by differentiation, adhesion, and cytoskeletal integrity. Recently, WASP was found to colocalize with actin in the podosomes. In contrast, we show here that Scar1 did not localize with the podosomes in mature monocytes/macrophages. These observations show for the first time that modulation of Scar1 and WASP expression is a component of the differentiation program of myeloid precursors and indicate that WASP and Scar1 have different roles in mature myeloid cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 54:274,285, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Type I collagen is a genetic modifier of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in murine skeletal development

Mikala Egeblad
Abstract Recessive inactivating mutations in human matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2, gelatinase A) are associated with syndromes that include abnormal facial appearance, short stature, and severe bone loss. Mmp2,/, mice have only mild aspects of these abnormalities, suggesting that MMP2 function is redundant during skeletal development in the mouse. Here, we report that Mmp2,/, mice with additional mutations that render type I collagen resistant to collagenase-mediated cleavage to TCA and TCB fragments (Col1a1r/r mice) have severe developmental defects resembling those observed in MMP2 -null humans. Composite Mmp2,/,;Col1a1r/r mice were born in expected Mendelian ratios but were half the size of wild-type, Mmp2,/,, and Col1a1r/r mice and failed to thrive. Furthermore, composite Mmp2,/,;Col1a1r/r animals had very abnormal craniofacial features with shorter snouts, bulging skulls, incompletely developed calvarial bones and unclosed cranial sutures. In addition, trabecular bone mass was reduced concomitant with increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and osteopenia. In vitro, MMP2 had a unique ability among the collagenolytic MMPs to degrade mutant collagen, offering a possible explanation for the genetic interaction between Mmp2 and Col1a1r. Thus, because mutations in the type I collagen gene alter the phenotype of mice with null mutations in Mmp2, we conclude that type I collagen is an important modifier gene for Mmp2. Developmental Dynamics 236:1683,1693, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Bauxite manufacturing residues from Gardanne (France) and Portovesme (Italy) exert different patterns of pollution and toxicity to sea urchin embryos

Giovanni Pagano
Abstract This study was designed to investigate the composition and toxicity of solid residues from bauxite manufacturing plants. Soil and dust samples were collected in the proximity of two bauxite plants (Gardanne, France, and Portovesme, Italy). Samples were analyzed for their content of some selected inorganic contaminants by means of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) either following acid digestion procedures or by seawater release of soluble components. Toxicity was tested by sea urchin bioassays to evaluate a set of toxicity endpoints including acute embryotoxicity, developmental defects, changes in sperm fertilization success, transmissible damage from sperm to the offspring, and cytogenetic abnormalities. Inorganic analysis showed two distinct sets of inorganic contaminants in Gardanne versus Portovesme, including Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, and Zn; sample composition (seawater-soluble cotaminants) and toxicity showed a noteworthy association. The most severe toxicity to embryogenesis and to sperm fertilization success was exerted by some Portovesme samples (0.03,0.5% w/v), with a significant association between toxicity and dose-related seawater release of Zn, Pb, and Mn. Seawater extraction of a toxic dust sample (G20) from the Gardanne factory showed increasing seawater release of Al, Fe, and Mn; the G20 sample, at the level of 0.5%, affected both developing sea urchin embryos and sperm (offspring quality). Soil samples around the Gardanne factory showed the highest frequency of toxic soil sites eastward from the factory. The present data point to solid deposition from bauxite plants as a potential subject of environmental health concern. The results suggest that extraction methods for evaluating the toxicity of complex mixtures should be based on the environmental availability of mixture components. The differences in sample toxicity among the tested sites, however, suggest possible site-to-site variability in geochemical and/or technological parameters. [source]

Cellular and molecular basis of cadmium-induced deformities in zebrafish embryos

Shuk Han Cheng
Abstract Cadmium is known to cause developmental defects in a varietyof vertebrate species, but relatively little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we used zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos as a model system to investigate cadmium-induced toxicities. Fertilized embryos collected at 5-h after fertilization were incubated for 18 h in culture media containing 1 to 1, 000 ,M CdCl2. The median embryolethal concentration (LC50) was 168 ,M, whereas the median effect concentration (EC50) for total adverse effect (mortality and developmental defects) was 138 ,M. Six major types of deformities were observed: head and eye hypoplasia, hypopigmentation, cardiac edema, yolk sac abnormalities, altered axial curvature, and tail malformations. The frequency of malformations increased with cadmium concentration. Somites of embryos with altered axial curvature were investigated using the antimyosin antibody MF-20. This study demonstrated, to our knowledge for the first time, reduced myotome formation in cadmium-induced spinal deformity. Embryos with head and eye hypoplasia were studied using the anti-neural tissue antibody zns-2, and a poorly developed central nervous system was revealed. Head and eye hypoplasia were associated with lack of expression of the sonic hedgehog gene, which controls the patterning of the neural tube and somites. Genes involved in tail formations, such as evenskipped 1 and no tail, were ectopically expressed in embryos with tail malformations. Our data support the hypothesis that fish embryonic malformations induced by cadmium might be mediated through ectopic expression of developmental regulatory genes. [source]

Salivary gland function in persons with ectodermal dysplasias

Hilde Nordgarden
Ectodermal dysplasias (EDs) constitute a group of conditions comprising developmental defects in two or more of the following tissues: hair, teeth, nails, and sweat glands. The aim of the present study was to contribute to a better understanding of salivary gland involvement in EDs. An ED group (n = 39, median age 12 yr; 24 males, 15 females) and a healthy age- and sex-matched control group were studied. Citric acid stimulated submandibular and parotid salivary flow rates and salivary concentrations, and output of total protein, acidic proline-rich proteins and histatins were analysed. The associations between quantitative and qualitative salivary parameters were also studied. In the ED group, 13 persons (33%) demonstrated a significantly reduced secretion of submandibular and/or parotid saliva, in addition to a low unstimulated and/or chewing-stimulated whole salivary flow. In the ED group as a whole, a reduced median secretory rate of submandibular saliva was found, whereas the median concentrations of some protein parameters were increased. However, the overall output of proteins was normal or reduced. Submandibular glands seemed to be more affected than parotid glands in EDs. In conclusion, salivary secretory tests are recommended in persons with known or suspected EDs. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2007

We used joint-scaling analyses in conjunction with rearing temperature variation to investigate the contributions of additive, non-additive, and environmental effects to genetic divergence and incipient speciation among 12 populations of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, with small levels of pairwise nuclear genetic divergence (0.033 < Nei's D < 0.125). For 15 population pairs we created a full spectrum of line crosses (two parental, two reciprocal F1's, four F2's, and eight backcrosses), reared them at multiple temperatures, and analyzed the numbers and developmental defects of offspring. We assayed a total of 219,388 offspring from 5147 families. Failed crosses occurred predominately in F2's, giving evidence of F2 breakdown within this species. In all cases where a significant model could be fit to the data on offspring number, we observed at least one type of digenic epistasis. We also found maternal and cytoplasmic effects to be common components of divergence among T. castaneum populations. In some cases, the most complex model tested (additive, dominance, epistatic, maternal, and cytoplasmic effects) did not provide a significant fit to the data, suggesting that linkage or higher order epistasis is involved in differentiation between some populations. For the limb deformity data, we observed significant genotype-by-environment interaction in most crosses and pure parent crosses tended to have fewer deformities than hybrid crosses. Complexity of genetic architecture was not correlated with either geographic distance or genetic distance. Our results support the view that genetic incompatibilities responsible for postzygotic isolation, an important component of speciation, may be a natural but serendipitous consequence of nonadditive genetic effects and structured populations. [source]

What can developmental defects of enamel reveal about physiological stress in nonhuman primates?

Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg
First page of article [source]

A Drosophila Model of Mitochondrial DNA Replication: Proteins, Genes and Regulation

IUBMB LIFE, Issue 8 2005
Rafael Garesse
Abstract Mitochondrial biogenesis is a critical process in animal development, cellular homeostasis and aging. Mitochondrial DNA replication is an essential part of this process, and both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations are found to result in mitochondrial dysfunction that leads to developmental defects and delays, aging and disease. Drosophila provides an amenable model system to study mitochondrial biogenesis in normal and disease states. This review provides an overview of current approaches to study the proteins involved in mitochondrial DNA replication, the genes that encode them and their regulation. It also presents a survey of cell and animal models under development to mimic the pathophysiology of human mitochondrial disorders. IUBMB Life, 57: 555-561, 2005 [source]

Dermal cysts: a dermatopathological perspective and histological reappraisal

Joseph R. Jenkins
Dermal cysts constitute an extremely common entity routinely encountered in dermatology and dermatopathology practice. Their ubiquity, overlapping clinical presentation, dermal location, and histologic diversity can engender diagnostic quandary. Though basically defined by the histologic presence of an epithelial lining, cysts derive from a variety of sources including developmental defects, trauma, and tumoral degeneration. Herein, we will discuss the dermatopathologic attributes of the more common dermal cyst entities, updating the most recent and pertinent literature. [source]

SirT1 fails to affect p53-mediated biological functions

AGING CELL, Issue 1 2006
Christopher Kamel
Summary The SirT1 gene encodes a protein deacetylase that acts on a number of nuclear substrates. p53 was identified as a SirT1 substrate whose transcriptional activity was reported to be negatively regulated by SirT1-dependent deacetylation. We set out to determine whether developmental defects and perinatal lethality observed in SirT1-null mice were caused by p53 hyperactivity by creating mice deficient for both SirT1 and p53. Animals null for both proteins were smaller than normal at birth, had eyelid opening defects and died during the late prenatal and early postnatal periods, a phenotype indistinguishable from mice deficient for SirT1 alone. Upon re-examination of the role of SirT1 in modulating p53 activity, we found that while SirT1 interacts with p53, the SirT1 protein had little effect on p53-dependent transcription of transfected or endogenous genes and did not affect the sensitivity of thymocytes and splenocytes to radiation-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that SirT1 does not affect many p53-mediated biological activities despite the fact that acetylated p53 has been shown to be a substrate for SirT1. [source]

Viral vectors carrying NR1 sequences injected into rat hippocampus interfered with learning and memory

V. Cheli
NMDA receptors are relevant to learning and memory as has been shown both by pharmacological and genetic manipulations. Gene knockouts are useful for investigating in vivo functions, but genetic deletions unrestricted in time or region, may lead to developmental defects or death. The challenge is to control expression with temporal and spatial restrictions in the brain. Viral vectors derived from herpes type-1 neurotropic virus are interesting candidates for it. To regulate gene expression of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit, vectors carrying either sense NR1(+) or antisense NR1(,) sequences and that of the green fluorescent protein (GFP), were constructed. The protein or RNA expression were corroborated in cell culture by GFP autofluorescence, Western blots, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, and in rat brain, by Western blots and GFP autofluorescence. The vectors were injected into the dorsal hippocampus of adult male Wistar rats. After 6 days each rat was trained and evaluated for both habituation to an open field and inhibitory avoidance to a foot-shock. The rats injected with GFP-NR1(+) vectors showed habituation and learned the inhibitory avoidance, like sham operated rats; while animals injected with GFP-NR1(,) vectors did not. The vectors were useful to modify endogenous gene expression at a defined period, in restricted regions, leading to investigate in vivo functions. NR1 subunit in the hippocampus is involved in mechanisms leading to habituation and to avoidance behaviour, since even a slight change in the availability of NR1 interfered with them. [source]

Need to establish a national diagnostic capacity for foetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Raewyn Mutch
Abstract Alcohol exposure in pregnancy can induce a broad range of physical and developmental defects in the child, collectively known as foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In Australia, there are proven gaps in our knowledge and practice for recognising and diagnosing FASD. The challenge for the Australian health professional is agreeing on a model for diagnosing and treating FASD. The diagnostic method must be evidence based, sensitive and specific, and account for other exposures during pregnancy and early life events. Training in application of the diagnostic method needs to be readily available in metropolitan and regional Australia. The University of Washington FASD 4-digit diagnostic code fulfils all of these best practice criteria, recommending itself as the method of choice. [source]

Ethanol Alters the Osteogenic Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2010
Jennifer A. Hipp
Background:, Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Clinical manifestations of FASD are highly variable and include mental retardation and developmental defects of the heart, kidney, muscle, skeleton, and craniofacial structures. Specific effects of ethanol on fetal cells include induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation, differentiation, and migration. This complex set of responses suggests that a bioinformatics approach could clarify some of the pathways involved in these responses. Methods:, In this study, the responses of fetal stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid (AFSCs) to treatment with ethanol have been examined. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of ethanol-treated AFSCs indicates that genes involved in skeletal development and ossification are up-regulated in these cells. Therefore, the effect of ethanol on osteogenic differentiation of AFSCs was studied. Results:, Exposure to ethanol during the first 48 hours of an osteogenic differentiation protocol increased in vitro calcium deposition by AFSCs and increased alkaline phosphatase activity. In contrast, ethanol treatment later in the differentiation protocol (day 8) had no significant effect on the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Conclusions:, These results suggest that transient exposure of AFSCs to ethanol during early differentiation enhances osteogenic differentiation of the cells. [source]

Impaired sexual behavior in male mice deficient for the ,1,3 N -Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I gene

Franziska Biellmann
Abstract The ,1,3 N -acetylglucosaminyltransferase-1 (B3gnt1) gene encodes a poly- N -acetyllactosamine synthase which can initiate and extend poly- N -acetyllactosamine chains [Gal(,1,4)GlcNAc (,1,3)n]. Previous investigations with heterozygous and homozygous null mice for this gene have revealed the importance of poly- N -acetyllactosamine chains for the formation of olfactory axon connections with the olfactory bulb and the migration of gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons to the hypothalamus. The possible long-term effects of these developmental defects, however, has not yet been studied. Here we have examined a reproductive phenotype observed in B3gnt1 -null mice. Whereas the B3gnt1 null females were fertile, the B3gnt1 null males were not able to sire litters at the expected rate when mated to either wildtype or B3gnt1 -null females. We assessed male sexual behavior as well as male reproduction parameters such as testes size, spermatogenesis, sperm number, morphology, and the development of early embryos in order to identify the source of a reduced rate of reproduction. Our findings show that the B3gnt1 null male reproductive organs were functional and could not account for the lower rate at which they produced offspring with wildtype conspecifics. Hence, we propose that the phenotype observed resulted from an impaired sexual response to female mating partners. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 75: 699,706, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Functional neuroanatomy of the human pre-Bötzinger complex with particular reference to sudden unexplained perinatal and infant death

Anna M. Lavezzi
The authors are the first to identify in man the pre-Bötzinger complex, a structure of the brainstem critical for respiratory rhythmogenesis, previously investigated only in rats. The evaluation of the neurokinin 1 receptors and somatostatin immunoreactivity in a total of 63 brains from 25 fetuses, nine newborns and 29 infants, allowed to delineate the anatomic structure and the boundaries of this human neural center in a restricted area of the ventrolateral medulla at the obex level, ventral to the semicompact ambiguus nucleus. The neurons of the pre-Bötzinger complex were roundish in fetuses before 30 gestational weeks and lengthened after birth, embedded in a dendritic system belonging to the reticular formation. Besides, structural and/or functional alterations of the pre-Bötzinger complex were present in a high percentage of sudden deaths (47%), prevalent in late fetal deaths. In particular, different developmental defects (hypoplasia with a decreased neuronal number and/or dendritic hypodevelopment of the reticular formation, abnormal neuronal morphology, immunonegativity of neurotransmitters, and agenesis) were found. The authors suggest that the pre-Bötzinger complex contains a variety of neurons not only involved in respiratory rhythm generation, but more extensively, essential to the control of all vital functions. Sudden death and in particular sudden unexpected fetal death could therefore be ascribed to a selective process when developmental alterations of the pre-Bötzinger complex arise. [source]

Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Cutaneous Mycobacterial Infection in a Patient with Incontinentia Pigmenti

Nilgün Senturk M.D.
Lupus vulgaris following bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is a rare entity. Incontinentia pigmenti is an X-linked dominant genodermatosis in which vesicular, verrucous, and pigmented lesions are associated with various developmental defects. There is evidence of altered immunologic reactivity in some patients with incontinentia pigmenti. A 12-year-old girl hospitalized for pulmonary tuberculosis presented with bizarre-shaped brown macules following Blaschko lines on the left deltoid area, compatible with incontinentia pigmenti, which had appeared following BCG vaccination at the age of 7 years. Histopathologic examination found noncaseated granulomas in the dermis. Antituberculous treatment for pulmonary and cutaneous tuberculosis was initiated along with genetic counseling. Immunologic abnormalities have been reported in conjunction with incontinentia pigmenti. Simultaneous occurrence of pulmonary and cutaneous tuberculosis in our patient might be either coincidental or indicate derangements in the cellular immune system. [source]

New method for age estimation of developmental defects of enamel formation in living populations

Rhonda Gillett-Netting
Histologically based age of occurrence estimates for developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are raising questions about the continued utility of traditional macroscopic methods; however, the new techniques are not appropriate for use on living populations. This study, using methodology suitable for noninvasive use on living populations, compares assignment of defect timing using a histologically informed macroscopic method (HIMM) versus traditional methodology (TM). For this Southern African population, TM estimates later median age of DDE occurrence than HIMM (Z -score: ,13.565, P < 0.000) and modal age is 1 year earlier. HIMM allows for continued collection of DDE in living populations with the added benefit of more precise timing of enamel development. Accuracy for estimating general stressors during childhood is necessary for construction of diachronic analyses. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Duplicated P5CS genes of Arabidopsis play distinct roles in stress regulation and developmental control of proline biosynthesis

Gyöngyi Székely
Summary ,-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase enzymes, which catalyse the rate-limiting step of proline biosynthesis, are encoded by two closely related P5CS genes in Arabidopsis. Transcription of the P5CS genes is differentially regulated by drought, salinity and abscisic acid, suggesting that these genes play specific roles in the control of proline biosynthesis. Here we describe the genetic characterization of p5cs insertion mutants, which indicates that P5CS1 is required for proline accumulation under osmotic stress. Knockout mutations of P5CS1 result in the reduction of stress-induced proline synthesis, hypersensitivity to salt stress, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, p5cs2 mutations cause embryo abortion during late stages of seed development. The desiccation sensitivity of p5cs2 embryos does not reflect differential control of transcription, as both P5CS mRNAs are detectable throughout embryonic development. Cellular localization studies with P5CS,GFP gene fusions indicate that P5CS1 is sequestered into subcellular bodies in embryonic cells, where P5CS2 is dominantly cytoplasmic. Although proline feeding rescues the viability of mutant embryos, p5cs2 seedlings undergo aberrant development and fail to produce fertile plants even when grown on proline. In seedlings, specific expression of P5CS2,GFP is seen in leaf primordia where P5CS1,GFP levels are very low, and P5CS2,GFP also shows a distinct cell-type-specific and subcellular localization pattern compared to P5CS1,GFP in root tips, leaves and flower organs. These data demonstrate that the Arabidopsis P5CS enzymes perform non-redundant functions, and that P5CS1 is insufficient for compensation of developmental defects caused by inactivation of P5CS2. [source]