Development

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Development

  • aberrant development
  • abnormal brain development
  • abnormal development
  • abnormal heart development
  • academic development
  • accelerated development
  • active development
  • adipocyte development
  • adolescent development
  • adult development
  • agricultural development
  • algorithm development
  • allergy development
  • altered development
  • alternative development
  • analytical development
  • and development
  • animal development
  • antiviral drug development
  • application development
  • arch development
  • assessment development
  • asthma development
  • asymmetric development
  • atherosclerosis development
  • atypical development
  • b-cell development
  • basin development
  • behavioral development
  • behavioural development
  • biofilm development
  • biomarker development
  • bioprocess development
  • bloom development
  • body development
  • bone development
  • brain development
  • breast cancer development
  • breast development
  • bud development
  • business development
  • cancer development
  • capability development
  • capacity development
  • capital development
  • capitalist development
  • carcinoma development
  • cardiac development
  • cardiovascular development
  • career development
  • caries development
  • cartilage development
  • cataract development
  • cell culture process development
  • cell development
  • cell line development
  • cellular development
  • central nervous system development
  • cerebellar development
  • chick development
  • child development
  • children development
  • chloroplast development
  • clinical development
  • clinical drug development
  • cns development
  • coastal development
  • code development
  • cognitive development
  • color development
  • colour development
  • commercial development
  • communication development
  • community development
  • competency development
  • complete development
  • conceptual development
  • concurrent development
  • consequent development
  • considerable development
  • contemporary development
  • continued development
  • continuing development
  • continuing professional development
  • continuous development
  • continuous professional development
  • cord development
  • cortical development
  • country development
  • crack development
  • cranial development
  • craniofacial development
  • crest development
  • crop development
  • cultivar development
  • cultural development
  • culture process development
  • current development
  • curriculum development
  • database development
  • dc development
  • delayed development
  • democratic development
  • dendrite development
  • dendritic development
  • dental development
  • diabetes development
  • direct development
  • disc development
  • disease development
  • drosophila development
  • drug development
  • during development
  • ear development
  • early brain development
  • early development
  • early embryo development
  • early embryonic development
  • early language development
  • early larval development
  • early postnatal development
  • early reading development
  • early vertebrate development
  • economic development
  • economic growth and development
  • ecosystem development
  • educational development
  • egg development
  • ego development
  • embryo development
  • embryological development
  • embryonic development
  • embryonic heart development
  • embryonic skeletal development
  • emotional development
  • employee development
  • enamel development
  • endoderm development
  • endosperm development
  • energy development
  • epidemic development
  • epithelial development
  • epithelium development
  • estate development
  • evolutionary development
  • exciting development
  • extensive development
  • eye development
  • faculty development
  • fan development
  • fast development
  • faster development
  • fetal development
  • fiber development
  • fibrosis development
  • field development
  • fin development
  • financial development
  • flavour development
  • flower development
  • foetal development
  • follicle development
  • follicular development
  • force development
  • forebrain development
  • forest development
  • formulation development
  • fruit development
  • full development
  • functional development
  • fungal development
  • future development
  • gametophyte development
  • gastric cancer development
  • germ cell development
  • gland development
  • glandular development
  • global development
  • gonad development
  • gonadal development
  • good development
  • gradual development
  • gross motor development
  • growth and development
  • guideline development
  • gut development
  • hair development
  • hair follicle development
  • hcc development
  • head development
  • health development
  • health policy development
  • health service development
  • heart development
  • hematopoietic development
  • hippocampal development
  • historical development
  • housing development
  • human brain development
  • human capital development
  • human development
  • human embryonic development
  • human resource development
  • human resources development
  • hyphal development
  • identity development
  • impaired development
  • important development
  • indirect development
  • individual development
  • industrial development
  • industry development
  • infant development
  • influence development
  • information systems development
  • infrastructure development
  • inhibitor development
  • initial development
  • inner ear development
  • insect development
  • insidious development
  • institutional development
  • instrument development
  • instrumental development
  • intellectual development
  • internal development
  • international development
  • intervention development
  • intrauterine development
  • irrigation development
  • joint development
  • juvenile development
  • key development
  • kidney development
  • knowledge development
  • land development
  • landform development
  • language development
  • larval development
  • late development
  • latest development
  • leadership development
  • leaf development
  • legal development
  • lens development
  • lesion development
  • lexical development
  • limb development
  • limited development
  • line development
  • linguistic development
  • literacy development
  • liver development
  • liver tumor development
  • local development
  • local economic development
  • long-term development
  • longitudinal development
  • lung development
  • lymphocyte development
  • lymphoma development
  • macroeconomic development
  • major development
  • male development
  • mammalian development
  • mammary gland development
  • management development
  • many development
  • market development
  • material development
  • mathematical development
  • melanocyte development
  • melanoma development
  • memory development
  • mental development
  • metamorphic development
  • metazoan development
  • method development
  • methodological development
  • microstructural development
  • microstructure development
  • mind development
  • mixed-income development
  • model development
  • molecular weight development
  • moral development
  • morphological development
  • morphology development
  • motor development
  • mouse brain development
  • mouse development
  • mouse embryo development
  • mouse embryonic development
  • muscle development
  • myopia development
  • national development
  • natural development
  • neonatal development
  • neoplastic development
  • nervous system development
  • network development
  • neural crest development
  • neural development
  • neurite development
  • neurobehavioral development
  • neurological development
  • neuron development
  • neuronal development
  • new development
  • new drug development
  • new product development
  • newest development
  • normal brain development
  • normal development
  • normal embryonic development
  • normal fetal development
  • normal growth and development
  • normative development
  • notochord development
  • novel development
  • nymphal development
  • ocular development
  • offspring development
  • oligodendrocyte development
  • ongoing development
  • ongoing professional development
  • ontogenetic development
  • oocyte development
  • optimal development
  • organ development
  • organization development
  • organizational development
  • osteoclast development
  • otic development
  • ovarian development
  • own development
  • palate development
  • pancreas development
  • pancreatic development
  • parallel development
  • parasite development
  • parthenogenetic development
  • pathological development
  • perinatal development
  • personal development
  • personality development
  • pharmaceutical development
  • pharmaceutical research and development
  • phenological development
  • phenotype development
  • physical development
  • physiological development
  • pigmentation development
  • placental development
  • plant development
  • plant growth and development
  • plantation development
  • plaque development
  • pod development
  • policy development
  • political development
  • pollen development
  • poor development
  • population development
  • positive development
  • positive youth development
  • possible development
  • possible future development
  • post-embryonic development
  • post-natal development
  • postembryonic development
  • postnatal development
  • potential development
  • practical development
  • practice development
  • preclinical development
  • preimplantation development
  • preliminary development
  • prenatal development
  • pressure development
  • pressure ulcer development
  • private sector development
  • process development
  • product development
  • professional development
  • program development
  • progressive development
  • project development
  • promising development
  • proper development
  • property development
  • prostate cancer development
  • prostate development
  • proximal development
  • psychological development
  • psychomotor development
  • psychosocial development
  • pubertal development
  • public policy development
  • pupal development
  • rapid application development
  • rapid development
  • rapid economic development
  • rational development
  • reading development
  • recent development
  • recent technical development
  • recent theoretical development
  • regional development
  • regional economic development
  • relationship development
  • relevant development
  • reproductive development
  • reproductive tract development
  • research and development
  • research development
  • residential development
  • resistance development
  • resource development
  • resources development
  • retinal development
  • rill development
  • role development
  • root development
  • rural development
  • salivary gland development
  • scale development
  • schwann cell development
  • scientific development
  • sclerotial development
  • sea urchin development
  • sector development
  • seed development
  • seedling development
  • sequential development
  • service development
  • sexual development
  • shoot development
  • significant development
  • similar development
  • skeletal development
  • skeletal muscle development
  • skill development
  • skull development
  • slow development
  • social development
  • socio-economic development
  • socioeconomic development
  • socioemotional development
  • software development
  • soil development
  • somatic development
  • spatial development
  • spermatid development
  • spiritual development
  • spontaneous development
  • staff development
  • stage development
  • stand development
  • state development
  • stem cell development
  • stock market development
  • stomatal development
  • strain development
  • strategic development
  • strategy development
  • stress development
  • structural development
  • structure development
  • student development
  • subsequent development
  • substantial development
  • successful development
  • support development
  • survey development
  • sustainable development
  • symptom development
  • synapse development
  • synaptic development
  • system development
  • systematic development
  • systems development
  • teacher development
  • teacher professional development
  • technical development
  • technological development
  • technology development
  • temporal development
  • tension development
  • test development
  • testicular development
  • testis development
  • texture development
  • theoretical development
  • theory development
  • therapeutic development
  • thymic development
  • thymocyte development
  • thymus development
  • tissue development
  • tolerance development
  • tool development
  • tooth development
  • tourism development
  • tract development
  • training and development
  • tube development
  • tumor development
  • tumour development
  • ulcer development
  • under development
  • uneven development
  • urban development
  • urchin development
  • vaccine development
  • vascular development
  • vegetation development
  • vegetative development
  • venture development
  • vertebrate development
  • vertebrate limb development
  • vessel development
  • visual development
  • vitro development
  • vivo development
  • vocabulary development
  • water development
  • watershed development
  • weight development
  • wing development
  • workforce development
  • world development
  • xenopus development
  • xylem development
  • youth development
  • zebrafish development

  • Terms modified by Development

  • development activity
  • development actor
  • development agencies
  • development agenda
  • development agent
  • development aid
  • development alternative
  • development application
  • development approach
  • development assistance
  • development authority
  • development bank
  • development centre
  • development change
  • development communication
  • development community
  • development concern
  • development conference
  • development context
  • development cooperation
  • development cost
  • development country
  • development cycle
  • development decision
  • development discourse
  • development economics
  • development effort
  • development environment
  • development experience
  • development framework
  • development function
  • development fund
  • development geography
  • development goal
  • development ii
  • development impact
  • development index
  • development indicator
  • development industry
  • development initiative
  • development intervention
  • development inventory
  • development issues
  • development lead
  • development leading
  • development literature
  • development management
  • development manager
  • development managers
  • development mechanism
  • development methodology
  • development methods
  • development model
  • development models
  • development necessary
  • development need
  • development nexus
  • development objective
  • development opportunity
  • development organisation
  • development organization
  • development outcome
  • development paradigm
  • development partnership
  • development path
  • development paths
  • development pathway
  • development pattern
  • development period
  • development perspective
  • development phase
  • development plan
  • development planning
  • development point
  • development policy
  • development practice
  • development practitioner
  • development problem
  • development process
  • development program
  • development programme
  • development project
  • development prospect
  • development rate
  • development report
  • development research
  • development similar
  • development speed
  • development stage
  • development strategy
  • development studies
  • development study
  • development success
  • development supplement
  • development survey
  • development system
  • development team
  • development theory
  • development threshold
  • development time
  • development tool
  • development trajectory
  • development unit
  • development work

  • Selected Abstracts


    QUALITY MATTERS: FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATIVE RESEARCH

    CRIMINOLOGY AND PUBLIC POLICY, Issue 3 2006
    PETER R. JONES
    First page of article [source]


    GOVERNMENTALITY, LANGUAGE IDEOLOGY, AND THE PRODUCTION OF NEEDS IN MALAGASY CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    PAUL W. HANSON
    Integrated conservation and development program planning pivots on a critical exchange. In establishing protected areas, part of the subsistence base of resident people is enclosed. Residents are then offered assistance in meeting needs emerging from the enclosure. The elicitation and interpretation of need in such programs forms a technology of governance. This article analyzes differing linguistic ideologies underpinning needs production in Madagascar's Ranomafana National Park Project, arguing that the technology of needs production is part of a green neoliberal rationality through which the Malagasy state and its citizens are being transformed, and from which an increasingly sophisticated countergovernmentality grows. [source]


    POPULATION AGING AND INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: ADDRESSING COMPETING CLAIMS OF DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE

    DEVELOPING WORLD BIOETHICS, Issue 1 2007
    MICHAL ENGELMAN
    ABSTRACT To date, bioethics and health policy scholarship has given little consideration to questions of aging and intergenerational justice in the developing world. Demographic changes are precipitating rapid population aging in developing nations, however, and ethical issues regarding older people's claim to scarce healthcare resources must be addressed. This paper posits that the traditional arguments about generational justice and age-based rationing of healthcare resources, which were developed primarily in more industrialized nations, fail to adequately address the unique challenges facing older persons in developing nations. Existing philosophical approaches to age-based resource allocation underemphasize the importance of older persons for developing countries and fail to adequately consider the rights and interests of older persons in these settings. Ultimately, the paper concludes that the most appropriate framework for thinking about generational justice in developing nations is a rights-based approach that allows for the interests of all age groups, including the oldest, to be considered in the determination of health resource allocation. [source]


    MARGINAL VS INFRAMARGINAL ANALYSIS AND THE THEORY OF DISTRIBUTION VS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A THEORY OF ECONOMIC ORGANISATION

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 2 2006
    CHRISTIS G. TOMBAZOS
    This paper serves as a short introduction to inframarginal economics. Particular emphasis is given to the historical relevance of this approach, as well as to its key feature of reconciling neoclassical questions of distribution with classical insights regarding economic organisation. [source]


    COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ON THE INDIGENOUS ESTATE: A PROFIT-RELATED INVESTMENT PROPOSAL

    ECONOMIC PAPERS: A JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECONOMICS AND POLICY, Issue 3 2005
    Jon Altman
    This article assesses the state of commercial development and resource management on Indigenous land in remote Australia. Indigenous landowners control significant assets,over one million square kilometres of land,often with substantial resource rights and income earning potential. The inactivity and missed opportunities on the Indigenous estate are of such magnitude as to represent a major risk both for Indigenous landowning communities, in terms of their future economic and social well-being, and for national and international interests in terms of ecological vulnerability. The article explores the role of government as risk manager in such circumstances and outlines the principles that might underpin any intervention program targeted to the commercial development of Indigenous land. Using the analytical framework for profit-related loans and elements of an existing venture capital support programme, the Innovation Investment Fund Program, we outline the hypothetical skeleton of a new investment scheme to assist development and natural resource management on the Indigenous estate. Our proposal can be conceptualised as a profit-related loan scheme or as a form of capped public investment. It seeks to address key elements of the market failure that exists in relation to financing development on remote Indigenous land, provides incentives for greater private sector investment, and ensures that commercial and social risks are shared equitably between government, private sector investors and Indigenous-owned corporations to avoid problems of adverse selection and moral hazard. [source]


    WHEN ONTOGENY REVEALS WHAT PHYLOGENY HIDES: GAIN AND LOSS OF HORNS DURING DEVELOPMENT AND EVOLUTION OF HORNED BEETLES

    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2006
    Armin P. Moczek
    Abstract How ecological, developmental and genetic mechanisms interact in the genesis and subsequent diversification of morphological novelties is unknown for the vast majority of traits and organisms. Here we explore the ecological, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse: beetle horns. Specifically, we focus on the origin and diversification of a particular horn type, those protruding from the pronotum, in the genus Onthophagus, a particularly speciose and morphologically diverse genus of horned beetles. We begin by documenting immature development of nine Onthophagus species and show that all of these species express pronotal horns in a developmentally transient fashion in at least one or both sexes. Similar to species that retain their horns to adulthood, transient horns grow during late larval development and are clearly visible in pupae. However, unlike species that express horns as adults, transient horns are resorbed during pupal development. In a large number of species this mechanisms allows fully horned pupae to molt into entirely hornless adults. Consequently, far more Onthophagus species appear to possess the ability to develop pronotal horns than is indicated by their adult phenotypes. We use our data to expand a recent phylogeny of the genus Onthophagus to explore how the widespread existence of developmentally transient horns alters our understanding of the origin and dynamics of morphological innovation and diversification in this genus. We find that including transient horn development into the phylogeny dramatically reduces the number of independent origins required to explain extant diversity patters and suggest that pronotal horns may have originated only a few times, or possibly only once, during early Onthophagus evolution. We then propose a new and previously undescribed function for pronotal horns during immature development. We provide histological as well as experimental data that illustrate that pronotal horns are crucial for successful ecdysis of the larval head capsule during the larval-to-pupal molt, and that this molting function appears to be unique to the genus Onthophagus and absent in the other scarabaeine genera. We discuss how this additional function may help explain the existence and maintenance of developmentally transient horns, and how at least some horn types of adult beetles may have evolved as exaptations from pupal structures originally evolved to perform an unrelated function. [source]


    EVOLUTIONARY PATHWAYS IN SHOREBIRD BREEDING SYSTEMS: SEXUAL CONFLICT, PARENTAL CARE, AND CHICK DEVELOPMENT

    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2005
    Gavin H. Thomas
    Abstract Sexual selection, mating opportunities, and parental behavior are interrelated, although the specific nature of these relationships is controversial. Two major hypotheses have been suggested. The parental investment hypothesis states that the relative parental investment of the sexes drives the operation of sexual selection. Thus, the sex that invests less in offspring care competes more intensely and monopolizes access to mates. The sexual conflict hypothesis proposes that sexual selection (the competition among both males and females for mates), mating opportunities, and parental behavior are interrelated and predicts a feedback loop between mating systems and parental care. Here we test both hypotheses using a comprehensive dataset of shorebirds, a maximum-likelihood statistical technique, and a recent supertree of extant shorebirds and allies. Shorebirds are an excellent group for these analyses because they display unique variation in parental care and social mating system. First, we show that chick development constrains the evolution of both parental care and mate competition, because transitions toward more precocial offspring preceded transitions toward reduced parental care and social polygamy. Second, changes in care and mating systems respond to one another, most likely because both influenced and are influenced by mating opportunities. Taken together, our results are more consistent with the sexual conflict hypothesis than the parental investment hypothesis. [source]


    THE EVOLUTION OF DEVELOPMENT: TWO PORTRAITS OF SKULL OSSIFICATION IN PIPOID FROGS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2002
    Jennifer Yeh
    Abstract., Development creates morphology, and the study of developmental processes has repeatedly shed light on patterns of morphological evolution. However, development itself evolves as well, often concomitantly with changes in life history or in morphology. In this paper, two approaches are used to examine the evolution of skull development in pipoid frogs. Pipoids have highly unusual morphologies and life histories compared to other frogs, and their development also proves to be remarkable. First, a phylogenetic examination of skull bone ossification sequences reveals that jaw ossification occurs significantly earlier in pipoids than in other frogs; this represents a reversal to the primitive vertebrate condition. Early jaw ossification in pipoids is hypothesized to result from the absence of certain larval specializations possessed by other frogs, combined with unusual larval feeding behaviors. Second, thin-plate spline morphometric studies of ontogenetic shape change reveal important differences between pipoid skull development and that of other frogs. In the course of frog evolution, there has been a shift away from salamander-like patterns of ontogenetic shape change. The pipoids represent the culmination of this trend, and their morphologies are highly derived in numerous respects. This study represents the first detailed examination of the evolution of skull development in a diverse vertebrate clade within a phylogenetic framework. It is also the first study to examine ossification sequences across vertebrates, and the first to use thin-plate spline morphometrics to quantitatively describe ontogenetic trajectories. [source]


    QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF SEXUAL PLASTICITY: THE ENVIRONMENTAL THRESHOLD MODEL AND GENOTYPE-BY-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION FOR PHALLUS DEVELOPMENT IN THE SNAIL BULINUS TRUNCATUS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    Marie-France Ostrowski
    Abstract Sexual polymorphisms are model systems for analyzing the evolution of reproductive strategies. However, their plasticity and other binary traits have rarely been studied, with respect to environmental variables. A possible reason is that, although threshold models offer an adequate quantitative genetics framework for binary traits in a single environment, analyzing their plasticity requires more refined empirical and theoretical approaches. The statistical framework proposed here, based on the environmental threshold model (ETM), should partially fill this gap. This methodology is applied to an empirical dataset on a plastic sexual polymorphism, aphally, in the snail Bulinus truncatus. Aphally is characterized by the co-occurrence of regular hermaphrodites (euphallics) together with hermaphrodites deprived of the male copulatory organ (aphallics). Reaction norms were determined for 40 inbred lines, distributed at three temperatures, in a first experiment. A second experiment allowed us to rule out maternal effects. We confirmed the existence of high broad-sense heritabilities as well as a positive effect of high temperatures on aphally. However a significant genotype-by-environment interaction was detected for the first time, suggesting that sexual plasticity itself can respond to selection. A nested series of four ETM-like models was developed for estimating genetical effects on both mean aphally rate and plasticity. These models were tested using a maximum-likelihood procedure and fitted to aphally data. Although no perfect fit of models to data was observed, the refined versions of ETM models conveniently reduce the analysis of complex reaction norms of binary traits into standard quantitative genetics parameters, such as genetic values and environmental variances. [source]


    DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NEW FACILITY FOR LOW EARTH ORBIT THERMAL CYCLING SIMULATION

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 5 2009
    P. Micciché
    First page of article [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUE FOR MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FABRIC

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 6 2008
    M. Issa
    First page of article [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF A BINOCULAR TYPE SIX-COMPONENT LOAD CELL

    EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES, Issue 1 2003
    D.I. Kang
    First page of article [source]


    GOVERNANCE AND CHARITIES: AN EXPLORATION OF KEY THEMES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF A RESEARCH AGENDA

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 1 2009
    Noel Hyndman
    The concept of governance has been widely discussed in both the business and non-business sectors. The debate has also been entered into within the charity sector, which comprises over 169,000 organizations in the UK. The UK-based Charity Commission, which describes itself as existing to ,promote sound governance and accountability', has taken a lead in this debate by promoting greater regulation and producing numerous recommendations with regard to the proper governance of charitable organizations. However, the concept of what is meant by governance is unclear and a myriad of ideas are placed under the umbrella of ,good governance'. This paper explores the major themes that form the basis of much of this discussion, examining both the theoretical underpinnings and empirical investigations relating to this area (looking from the perspective of the key stakeholders in the charity sector). Based on an analysis of the extant literature, this paper presents a broad definition of governance with respect to charities and outlines a future research agenda for those interested in adding to knowledge in this area [source]


    GOVERNMENTAL ACCOUNTING IN NORWAY: A DISCUSSION WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 2 2008
    Norvald Monsen
    Accrual accounting is now being introduced in governmental organizations internationally. Some scholars have, however, questioned this development, implying that other accounting theories, like cameral accounting, should also be considered for use in these organizations. Since Norway is a country, which has not introduced accrual accounting in the governmental sector, the purpose of this paper is to study the evolution of governmental accounting in this country. Based on the Norwegian experiences, the paper aims to present some conclusions for the further international development of governmental accounting. [source]


    HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL GOVERNMENTAL ACCOUNTING IN NORWAY

    FINANCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY & MANAGEMENT, Issue 4 2006
    Norvald Monsen
    First page of article [source]


    CREATIVE INDUSTRIES IN THE NETHERLANDS: STRUCTURE, DEVELOPMENT, INNOVATIVENESS AND EFFECTS ON URBAN GROWTH

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2008
    Erik Stam
    ABSTRACT. Creativity is central in stimulating economic growth in cities, regions and advanced capitalist economies in general. There is, of course, no one-to-one relation of the number of firms in creative industries to economic growth. Innovation is a key mechanism explaining the relationship of creative industries with economic performance. Based on an empirical study in the Netherlands we explore the effect of creative industries on innovation, and ultimately on employment growth in cities. In the Netherlands the three specific domains of creative industries - arts, media and publishing, and creative business services - make up 9 per cent of the business population. Drawing on survey data we find that firms in creative industries are indeed relatively innovative. Yet substantial differences are found across the three domains: firms in the arts domain are clearly less innovative, most likely due to a different (less market-oriented) dominant ideology. In addition, firms in creative industries located in urban areas are more innovative than their rural counterparts. We go on to analyse how the concentration of creative industries across cities is connected with employment growth. With the exception of the metropolitan city of Amsterdam, we find no measurable spill-over effect from creative industries. The presence of the creative class (in all kinds of industries other than creative ones) appears to be a much stronger driver of employment growth than creative industries. [source]


    DIFFERENTIAL SUBURBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE PRAGUE URBAN REGION

    GEOGRAFISKA ANNALER SERIES B: HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2007
    Martin Ou
    ABSTRACT. Numerous authors have asserted that suburbanization contributes to many problems in both suburban and inner city localities. Research of suburban development demonstrates variations in spatial patterns, the intensity of spatial processes, and the social and economic status of new suburbanites. While some forms of suburban development could cause serious problems throughout the urban region, other forms could be perceived as processes improving the quality of life in suburbia. This paper seeks to investigate different types of suburban development in the Prague urban region over the past fifteen years of transformation. The focus of my interest is residential suburbanization, which is one of the most significant spatial processes today in the settlement systems of post-socialist countries. The theoretical part of the contribution deals with the differentiation of spatial processes changing the suburban zone. Here I discuss the concepts of several processes of suburban development and their distinctive impact on both suburban and inner city localities. The empirical part of the contribution is based on an analysis of migration flows in the various localities of the Prague urban region in the period 1995 to 2003. I attempt to describe the magnitude and spatial patterns of suburbanization and the composition of migrants to suburbia. The paper concludes with a discussion about the possible future development of suburbanization in the Prague urban region. [source]


    EXPLORING MARKET-BASED DEVELOPMENT: MARKET INTERMEDIARIES AND FARMERS IN CALAKMUL, MEXICO,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 1 2005
    ERIC KEYS
    ABSTRACT. Market intermediaries play important roles in the development of tropical-forest frontiers but are often overlooked in the assessment of land-change dynamics. Consistent with research beyond land-change studies, intermediaries are found to be a pivotal element in land-use and land-cover change in southeastern Mexico. They have stimulated commercial chili cultivation in this development frontier, providing transportation and other services to smallholders who could otherwise not enter the chili market. This role comes at the cost of a near monopoly on chili marketing. The various roles played by these intermediaries, or coyotes, the means by which they operate, and the consequences for smallholders and land use are detailed for the Calakmul Municipality, Campeche, Mexico. [source]


    SOCIAL CAPITAL, DEVELOPMENT, AND INDIGENOUS POLITICS IN ECUADORIAN AMAZONIA,

    GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW, Issue 3 2003
    THOMAS PERREAULT
    ABSTRACT. This article examines the formation of social capital,defined as the norms of trust and reciprocity integral to social relations,and the ways in which it may help rural people's organizations gain access to rights and resources. The formation of social capital must be viewed within the context of the symbolic systems, or cultural capital, that imbues social relations with meaning. The concept of social capital provides a valuable conceptual framework for analyzing the multiscale processes of environmental management, rural development, and resource conflicts with which many rural social movements are involved. The role played by social capital is illustrated through a detailed case study of an indigenous political and cultural organization in the Ecuadorian Amazon. The organizational history of a lowland Quichua federation and the successes and problems it has had in managing development projects and achieving political objectives provide insight into the importance of social capital in the development of the region. [source]


    CELLULAR LOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF pygo DURING DROSOPHILA DEVELOPMENT

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
    LIN Xin-da
    Abstract Wg/Wnt signaling is a key signaling pathway in Drosophila. Many genes involved in Wingless(wg) signal transduction pathway downstream of Wg, or it s vertebrate Wg homologue Wnt, have been identified. Transduction of the Wg signal downstream of Wg is mediated by nuclear TCF/LEF-1, through association with Armadillo (Arm),-catenin. Pygopus (pygo) is a new identified component in this pathway. Cellular localization experiment showed that pygo was expressed specifically in the nucleus. The expression profile of pygo in embryos was examined using in situ hybridization. Although pygo expressed ubiquitously in the embryos, it expressed at relatively high level in pre-blastoderm embryos which indicate a high degree of maternally provided message, followed by a low level of ubiquitous zygotic expression. This continues into larval tissues (including wing disc, eye disc and leg disc), where pygo appears to be expressed at low level. Comparison of pygo expression levels, in the wing disc, eye disc and leg disc, showed pygo expression level in the wing disc pouch and leg disc were relative higher. [source]


    THE EFFECT OF MATERNAL EMPLOYMENT AND CHILD CARE ON CHILDREN'S COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT,

    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, Issue 4 2008
    Raquel Bernal
    This article develops and estimates a dynamic model of employment and child care decisions of women after childbirth to evaluate the effects of these choices on children's cognitive ability. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate it. Results indicate that the effects of maternal employment and child care on children's ability are negative and sizable. Having a mother that works full-time and uses child care during one year is associated with a reduction in ability test scores of approximately 1.8% (0.13 standard deviations). We assess the impact of policies related to parental leave and child care on children's outcomes. [source]


    ADDRESSING THE CHALLENGE OF CONTRIBUTING TO PEACE AND DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA

    INTERNATIONAL REVIEW OF MISSION, Issue 354 2000
    Koilor Kimba
    First page of article [source]


    DEVELOPMENT OF A ROTARY PULVERIZER FOR CASSAVA CAKE IN GARI PRODUCTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 6 2008
    L.A. SANNI
    ABSTRACT The use of a raffia sieve for pulverizing and sifting cassava cake during gari processing is slow, unhygienic and hazardous. A rotary brush and screen mechanism was developed for the pulverization of cassava cake with a view to eliminate the above-mentioned limitations of the existing methods. Machine performance was measured by comparing the product from the raffia sieve with that from a rotary sifter. The 5-mm screen aperture gave a gari of about the same bulk density with that of the raffia sieve. Although the throughput of the rotary sifter using a 5-mm sieve (227.71 kg/h) was lower than that of a 7-mm sieve (350 kg/h), the uniformity coefficient of 1.72 using the 5-mm sieve compared favorably with that of the raffia sieve. The pulverizing efficiency was higher (81.2%), with the 5-mm sieve than with the 7-mm sieve. The higher pulverizing efficiency of the machine reduces the drudgery associated with the pulverization of pressed cassava cake and improves productivity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This research reduces the drudgery and hazard associated with the pulverization and sifting of cassava cake during gari processing in rural West Africa, where the bulk of the world's gari is being processed manually. [source]


    DEVELOPMENT and EVALUATION of MICROWAVE HEATING of APPLE MASH AS A PRETREATMENT to PRESSING

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESS ENGINEERING, Issue 1 2004
    J.S. ROBERTS
    ABSTRACT Fuji, McIntosh, and Red Delicious apple mashes were heated in a 2450 MHz oven to achieve bulk temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70C. Three kilograms of mash at a depth of 0.016 m heated using 1500 W were the optimum parameters to heat apple mash in the microwave. Variety of the apple mash was shown not to have a significant effect on the heating performance. Comparing actual bulk temperature to the predicted bulk temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70C showed reproducibility of heating these mashes using microwave energy. Average variation between actual and predicted bulk temperatures were 1.48C for the Fuji mash, 0.98C for the McIntosh mash, and 1.13C for the Red Delicious mash. In addition, regional heating was investigated and four distinct regions of heating were observed: the corner, the edge, the middle, and the center. Color and moisture content of the mash were also measured and compared to unheated mash at 21C. [source]


    MIXTURES OF BEEF TRIPE, BEEF LIVER AND SOYBEANS APPLIED TO FOOD DEVELOPMENT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 3 2007
    L. MALVESTITI
    ABSTRACT A nutritive sausage-type product was developed with beef tripe, beef liver and soybeans as ingredients. A three-component mixture design was used to obtain seven different formulations (minimum of each main ingredient: 16.5%, maximum: 67.0%). Ingredients were ground, mixed and packed tightly with a polypropylene film to obtain a roll. Pieces were cooked in boiling water for 90 min. The composition of the obtained products varied within the following ranges: proteins 17.32,25.56 g/100 g, lipids 3.22,3.87 g/100 g, crude fiber 1.50,4.50 g/100 g, minerals 1.44,2.72 g/100 g. Total iron levels varied between 1.39 and 2.98 mg/100 g and calcium levels between 15.07 and 34.01 mg/100 g. Surface response analysis was applied to parameters obtained from texture profile analysis (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and elasticity). Products hardness increased when the soy content increased; on the contrary, formulations enriched in beef tripe were those of higher elasticity and cohesiveness. Color was mainly determined by the incorporation of liver. A nontrained panel was used to evaluate the acceptance of the different formulations. The most accepted one was that with equal proportions of the three main ingredients. Microbiological challenge testing showed that the thermal treatment was enough for assuring the product safeness even in samples with high initial microbial charge. [source]


    JOURNAL of FOOD PROCESSING and PRESERVATION SEP 2000 Vol-24.4. DEVELOPMENT of A PROCESS FOR DETECTING NONTHERMAL EFFECTS of MICROWAVE ENERGY ON MICROORGANISMS AT LOW TEMPERATURE,

    JOURNAL OF FOOD PROCESSING AND PRESERVATION, Issue 4 2000
    MICHAEL KOZEMPEL
    We developed an experimental process capable of isolating thermal and nonthermal effects of microwave energy relative to the destruction of microorganisms at low temperature. the concept combines instantaneous energy input to the food system by microwaves with rapid removal of thermal energy. the process used a double tube heat exchanger inside a continuous microwave dryer. the outer tube was transparent to microwaves, whereas the inner tube was stainless steel and was used for cooling the system. the microwave energy, 5,6 kW power, was absorbed by the process fluid in the annulus. the cooling water flowing in the inner tube removed the thermal energy from the process fluid to control temperature at or below 45C. the process was at turbulent flow to assure a uniform temperature and dwell time. There were no detected nonthermal effects from microwave energy for yeast, Pediococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, or Enterobacter aerogenes in various test fluids, such as water, liquid egg, beer, apple juice, apple cider, and tomato juice. [source]


    Rural poverty report 2001: the challenge of ending rural poverty edited by the INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (IFAD). (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, pp.

    JOURNAL OF INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2003

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    FROM BOYER'S SCHOLARSHIP OF TEACHING TO THE AACSB'S INSTRUCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR FACULTY REWARD SYSTEMS

    JOURNAL OF LEGAL STUDIES EDUCATION, Issue 2 2000
    Marcia J. Staff
    Finally, the scholarship of teaching, in which research is conducted on effective and appropriate teaching methods, must be emphasized for all scholars. Teaching that is not grounded in the most recent research is not appropriate for a college or university setting. [source]


    ORDOVICIAN,PERMIAN PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF CENTRAL EURASIA: DEVELOPMENT OF PALAEOZOIC PETROLEUM-BEARING BASINS

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2003
    V. A. Bykadorov
    In this paper, we discuss three petroleum-bearing basins of Palaeozoic age in Central Eurasia,the Precaspian, Tarim and Chu-Sarysu Basins. We make use of recently-published palaeogeographic maps of the Central Eurasian region, six of which are presented here (Late Ordovician, Early-Middle Devonian, Late Devonian, Early Carboniferous, Early Permian and Late Permian). The maps illustrate the development through the Palaeozoic of the Palaeoasian and Palaeotethys Oceans; of the East European, Siberian and Tarim cratons; and of the Kazakhstan and other microcontinental blocks. The Kazakhstan block formed during the Late Ordovician and is a collage of Precambrian and Early Palaeozoic microcontinents and island arcs. It is surrounded by collisional foldbelts (Ob-Zaisan, Ural-Tianshan and Junggar-Balkhash) which formed in the Late Carboniferous , Permian. We believe that the formation of a stable Kazakhstan block is not consistent with the existence of the previously-identified "Kipchak arc" within the Palaeoasian ocean, or (as has previously been proposed) with activity on this arc up to the end of the Palaeozoic. The oil and gas potential of the Precaspian, Tarim and Chu-Sarysu Basins depends to a large extent on their tectonic stability during the Palaeozoic and subsequent time. The Precaspian Basin has been stable since the Cadomian orogeny (Early Cambrian) and is known to have major hydrocarbon potential. The Tarim Basin (NW China) has somewhat lower potential because the margins of the Tarim continental block have been affected by a series of collisional events; that margin with the Palaeotethys Ocean, for example, was active during the Late Palaeozoic. The Chu-Sarysu Basin on the Kazakhstan block is the least stable of the three and contains only minor gas accumulations. [source]


    THE EVOLUTION OF A MODEL TRAP IN THE CENTRAL APENNINES, ITALY: FRACTURE PATTERNS, FAULT REACTIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF CATACLASTIC ROCKS IN CARBONATES AT THE NARNI ANTICLINE

    JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM GEOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    F. Storti
    Recent hydrocarbon discoveries in the Southern Apennines of Italy have focussed attention on the importance of studying fracturing and cataclasis in carbonate rocks because of their fundamental impact on reservoir permeability and connectivity. The Narni Anticline in the central Apennines consists of a stack of easterly-verging carbonate thrust sheets compartmentalized by extensional and strike-slip fault zones. The structure provides afield analogue for studying the evolution of superimposed fold- and fault-related fractures in carbonate reservoir rocks. The fracture pattern at the Narni Anticline developed as a result of three mechanisms: (a) layer-parallel shortening predating folding and faulting; (b) thrust-related folding and further thrust breakthrough; and (c) extensional and strike-slip faulting. Along-strike (longitudinal) fractures developed during progressive rollover fault-propagation folding, and their intensity depends on the precise structural position within the fold: fracture intensity is high in the forelimb and low in the crest. The 3-D architecture of the mechanical anisotropy associated with thrusting, folding, and related fracturing constrained the location and geometry of subsequent extensional and strike-slip faulting. The superimposition in damage zones of a fault-related cleavage on the pre-existing fracture pattern, which is associated with layer-parallel shortening and thrust-related folding, resulted in rock fragmentation and comminution, and the development of cataclastic bands. The evolution of fracturing in the Narni Anticline, its role in constraining thrust breakthrough trajectories and the location of extensional and strike-slip faults, and the final development of low-permeability cataclastic bands, will be relevant to studies of known oilfields in the Southern Apennines, as well as for future exploration. [source]