Detection

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Detection

  • ESI-M detection
  • absorbance detection
  • accurate detection
  • airborne light detection
  • amperometric detection
  • aneuploidy detection
  • antibody detection
  • antigen detection
  • apoptosi detection
  • array detection
  • automate detection
  • automatic detection
  • bacterial detection
  • breast cancer detection
  • cancer detection
  • capture detection
  • caries detection
  • carrier detection
  • case detection
  • cd detection
  • cell detection
  • chain reaction detection
  • change detection
  • chemiluminescence detection
  • chemiluminescent detection
  • clinical detection
  • coherent detection
  • collision detection
  • colorimetric detection
  • conductivity detection
  • contactless conductivity detection
  • cytometric detection
  • damage detection
  • diode array detection
  • diode-array detection
  • direct detection
  • disease detection
  • dna detection
  • early detection
  • ecl detection
  • edge detection
  • effective detection
  • efficient detection
  • electrochemical detection
  • electrochemiluminescence detection
  • electron capture detection
  • enhanced detection
  • error detection
  • evaporative light scattering detection
  • event detection
  • experimental detection
  • failure detection
  • false detection
  • fault detection
  • feature detection
  • first detection
  • flame ionization detection
  • flame photometric detection
  • flow cytometric detection
  • fluorescence detection
  • fluorescent detection
  • fluorimetric detection
  • frequent detection
  • gene detection
  • glucose detection
  • good detection
  • highly sensitive detection
  • hpv detection
  • imaging detection
  • immunocytochemical detection
  • immunohistochemical detection
  • imperfect detection
  • improved detection
  • increased detection
  • indirect detection
  • initial detection
  • intrusion detection
  • ion detection
  • ionization detection
  • label-free detection
  • laser-induced fluorescence detection
  • lesion detection
  • lie detection
  • light detection
  • light scattering detection
  • mammographic detection
  • mass detection
  • mass spectrometric detection
  • mass spectrometry detection
  • microscopic detection
  • minimal residual disease detection
  • molecular detection
  • motion detection
  • mri detection
  • multiuser detection
  • mutation detection
  • naked-eye detection
  • non-invasive detection
  • noninvasive detection
  • object detection
  • olfactory detection
  • optical detection
  • optimal detection
  • outlier detection
  • parallel detection
  • pathogen detection
  • pcr detection
  • peak detection
  • photodiode array detection
  • photometric detection
  • polymerase chain reaction detection
  • polymorphism detection
  • predator detection
  • prenatal detection
  • prey detection
  • prostate cancer detection
  • protein detection
  • pulsed amperometric detection
  • qtl detection
  • qualitative detection
  • quantitative detection
  • rapid detection
  • reaction detection
  • real-time detection
  • reliable detection
  • residual disease detection
  • rna detection
  • robust fault detection
  • routine detection
  • rt-pcr detection
  • scattering detection
  • selective detection
  • sensitive detection
  • signal detection
  • simultaneous detection
  • situ detection
  • specific detection
  • spectrometric detection
  • spectrometry detection
  • spectrophotometric detection
  • structural damage detection
  • subsequent detection
  • successful detection
  • tandem mass spectrometric detection
  • target detection
  • timely detection
  • tumor cell detection
  • tumor detection
  • tumour detection
  • ultrasensitive detection
  • ultrasound detection
  • ultraviolet detection
  • uv detection
  • virus detection
  • visual detection
  • vivo detection
  • x-ray detection

  • Terms modified by Detection

  • detection ability
  • detection accuracy
  • detection algorithm
  • detection algorithms
  • detection analysis
  • detection approach
  • detection capability
  • detection cell
  • detection device
  • detection efficiency
  • detection frequency
  • detection kit
  • detection level
  • detection limit
  • detection mechanism
  • detection method
  • detection methodology
  • detection methods
  • detection mode
  • detection performance
  • detection potential
  • detection power
  • detection probability
  • detection problem
  • detection procedure
  • detection process
  • detection program
  • detection protocol
  • detection range
  • detection rate
  • detection scheme
  • detection sensitivity
  • detection step
  • detection strategy
  • detection system
  • detection task
  • detection technique
  • detection techniques
  • detection technology
  • detection test
  • detection theory
  • detection threshold
  • detection time
  • detection tool
  • detection wavelength

  • Selected Abstracts


    NARROW BAND IMAGING IN THE DETECTION OF COLORECTAL POLYP: KOREAN EXPERIENCE

    DIGESTIVE ENDOSCOPY, Issue 2 2008
    Jeong-Sik Byeon
    Background:, Although white light (WL) colonoscopy is a gold standard to detect colorectal polyps, substantial polyps are missed. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a new technology that enables a more detailed visualization of the mucosal surface. The aim of the present study was to determine whether NBI can improve the detection of colorectal polyps. Methods:, We prospectively enrolled 188 (M : F = 99:89, 21,80 years) subjects undergoing colonoscopy as a screening procedure in nine referral centers. After a careful WL examination of the whole colorectum, rectosigmoid colon (0,30 cm from the anal verge) was reobserved by NBI. Size, macroscopic morphology, and the histology of all the polyps detected during WL and NBI examination were analyzed. Results:, WL examination detected 162 polyps in 188 subjects, of which 106 lesions were neoplastic, while NBI of rectosigmoid colon detected an additional 61 polyps of which eight lesions were neoplastic. Only 10 (6.2%) of 162 polyps discovered during WL examination were flat polyps compared to 10 (16.4%) of 61 newly detected polyps during NBI being flat type (P = 0.002). The mean polyp size detected by NBI was smaller than that found by WL colonoscopy (2.8 ▒ 1.0 mm vs 6.5 ▒ 4.5 mm, P < 0.001). Conclusion:, Many additional colorectal polyps, especially flat type, could be detected by NBI examination for normal-looking rectosigmoid mucosa. The role of NBI in colorectal neoplasm screening needs to be further investigated in future studies. [source]


    PERSPECTIVE: EVOLUTION AND DETECTION OF GENETIC ROBUSTNESS

    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2003
    J. Arjan G. M. de Visser
    Abstract Robustness is the invariance of phenotypes in the face of perturbation. The robustness of phenotypes appears at various levels of biological organization, including gene expression, protein folding, metabolic flux, physiological homeostasis, development, and even organismal fitness. The mechanisms underlying robustness are diverse, ranging from thermodynamic stability at the RNA and protein level to behavior at the organismal level. Phenotypes can be robust either against heritable perturbations (e.g., mutations) or nonheritable perturbations (e.g., the weather). Here we primarily focus on the first kind of robustness,genetic robustness,and survey three growing avenues of research: (1) measuring genetic robustness in nature and in the laboratory; (2) understanding the evolution of genetic robustness; and (3) exploring the implications of genetic robustness for future evolution. [source]


    PCR-BASED TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFICATION AND DETECTION OF TRICHOGRAMMA SPP. (HYMENOPTERA: TRICHOGRAMMATIDAE) WITH SPECIFIC PRIMERS

    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2002
    LI Zheng-xi
    Abstract The rDNA-ITS2 regions of T. dendrolimi Matsumura and T. ostriniae Pang et Chen (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) were cloned and sequenced. The homologous sequences available in GenBank were retrieved and analyzed, and then specific primers were designed for molecular identification and detection of T. dendrolimi. Repeated screening showed that PCR amplification by the diagnostic primers enabled the differentiation of not only bulk samples and single adult (male or female), but also eggs and juveniles, which was not possible by conventional methods. The advantage of this system over morphology-based systems is that non-specialists are able to identify individuals or trace specimens efficiently. The derived molecular detection technique was then used to identify 12 specimens collected from different localities on the Chinese mainland; the results showed that this protocol could be applied to molecular monitoring of Trichogramma species in the field. Finally, 1132s of 6 geographical populations of T. dendrolimi (TdCHA, TDJL, TdXZ, TdKH, TdCZ and TdYBL) were cloned and sequenced. The multialignment analysis of intraspecific ITS2 sequences showed that the diagnostic primers have their own theoretical bases. [source]


    SIMPLIFYING DETECTION OF MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT SUBTYPES

    JOURNAL OF AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY, Issue 5 2010
    AGSF, Manuel Montero-Odasso MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    CARIES DETECTION WITH LASER FLUORESCENCE

    JOURNAL OF ESTHETIC AND RESTORATIVE DENTISTRY, Issue 4 2006
    Edward J. Swift Jr. DMD, MS Associate Editor
    [source]


    SPECIFIC DETECTION OF AMANITA PHALLOIDES MYCELIUM AND SPORES BY PCR AMPLIFICATION OF THE GPD (GLYCERALDEHYDE-3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE) GENE FRAGMENT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, Issue 3 2000
    OWSKI, ROMAN KOT
    ABSTRACT Oligonucleotide primers designed to flank a 635 bp fragment of the gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd) from Araanita muscaria were used to amplify the corresponding gpd fragment from Amanita phalloides. The A. phalloides PCR product was cloned, sequenced and found to be 70 - 77% similar to the known basidiomycetes gpd genes within the exon part and 25 - 52% within the intron part. Based on these data, species-specific amplification was achieved using a pair of oligonucleotide primers complementary to the A. phalloides gpd intron sequences. These primers allowed the amplification of the corresponding gpd fragment from the A. phalloides but not from various other basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and human matrices. PCR amplification of the A. phalloides DNA gave the predicted PCR product of 284 bp. The created PCR system is an efficient tool for the specific, rapid and sensitive detection of A. phalloides mycelium and spores. [source]


    DETECTION OF OLIVE OIL ADULTERATION WITH RAPESEED AND SUNFLOWER OILS USING MOS ELECTRONIC NOSE AND SMPE-MS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2010
    SYLWIA MILDNER-SZKUDLARZ
    ABSTRACT The study analyzed the effectiveness of two types of electronic nose systems to detect adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with rapeseed and sunflower oils. Tested methods included volatile analysis with the electronic nose based on MOS sensors (HS-E nose) and by direct coupling of SPME to MS (SPME-MS). Volatile compounds were analyzed also by SPME-GC/MS. Samples of EVOO were mixed with different proportions, ranging from 5 to 50% (v/v), of seed oils and fingerprints of volatile profiles of all samples were generated. In order to obtain as much chemical information as possible and to find a volatile marker to detect adulterations of EVOO with seed oils, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) analyses were applied to the data. The application of PCA and PLS analyses to the data from two electronic noses and SMPE-GC/MS were sufficient to differentiate the adulterated samples from pure EVOO. Excellent results were obtained in the prediction of the percentage of adulteration by PLS analysis. SPME-GC-MS analysis with subsequent PCA yielded good results; however, it was time-consuming. The two electronic noses, with subsequent PCA treatment of data, offering the advantages of rapidity and reliability, enabled detection of olive oil adulteration with different contents of seed oils. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Virgin olive oil is highly appreciated by consumers due to its nutritional benefits. Thus, its adulteration with low-grade olive oils or cheaper vegetable oils could potentially be very profitable for sellers or raw material suppliers and may yield large economic profits. In this way, authentication of virgin olive oils has become an interesting subject from both commercial and health perspectives. It has been proved that the two proposed types of electronic nose systems facilitate reliable detection of rapeseed and sunflower oils in extra virgin olive oil. Both MOS and MS electronic noses are faster than the conventional SMPE-GC/MS analysis. These well-correlated methodologies, offering the advantages of rapidity and reliability, opened up a new way of detecting adulteration of virgin olive oils. [source]


    ORGANIC ACIDS PROFILE IN TOMATO JUICE BY HPLC WITH UV DETECTION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 1 2007
    OMBRETTA MARCONI
    ABSTRACT A simple method was developed to determine 10 organic acids simultaneously in tomato products using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with the diode array detector set at 210 nm. After centrifugation and filtration, the samples were passed through to an anion exchange resin and the organic acids were released using 0.1 N HCl. The chromatographic separation was achieved with isocratic analysis in a 20-min run. The method was reliable and sensitive. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is 0.9925 , r2 , 0.9999 and the limit of detection ranged from 0.08 to 6.00 mg/kg for trans -aconitic acid and acetic acid, respectively. The limit of quantification ranged from 0.19 to 15.18 mg/kg for trans-aconitic and acetic acid, respectively. To establish the efficiency of the anion resin the procedure was applied to a standard solution of a mixture of organic acids. The organic acids recovery ranged from 87.0% ▒ 1.9 for citramalic acid to 109.9% ▒ 5.2 for fumaric acid. [source]


    DETECTION OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN OYSTERS BY PCR AND MOLECULAR HYBRIDIZATION

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 5 2006
    A.A. CORR╩A
    ABSTRACT Because shellfish (oysters, clams and mussels) are filter feeders, i.e., able to concentrate pathogens from the surrounding waters within their tissues, they have been widely associated with outbreaks illness. The incidence of salmonellosis caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish, is a primary concern of public health agencies. Then, in recent years, more rapid and specific methods based on the DNA sequence of salmonella genes have been developed to detect low levels of pathogens in environmental and food samples. In this study, we developed a sensitive method to detect low levels of Salmonella typhimurium in oyster tissues (0.1 cfu/g). This methodology consisted of dissection of the gastrointestinal oyster tract, pre-enrichment of the samples in nonselective medium, DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction followed by molecular hybridization using a digoxygenin-labeled amplicon-derived probe. These results can benefit the public health agencies and shellfish producers concerning microbiological and quality aspects of the commercial oyster production. [source]


    DETECTION OF COW MILK IN BUFFALO "MOZZARELLA" BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) ASSAY

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 6 2004
    ANGELA DI PINTO
    ABSTRACT The authors used a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay on buffalo mozzarella, a typical Italian dairy product, from the Apulia markets to evaluate the presence of cow milk and verification of the mozzarella label. The results obtained from 30 mozzarella samples demonstrated the presence of the cow genome in 22/30 samples, highlighting contamination as probable fraudulent adding of cow's milk or use of the same equipments in both working cycles. [source]


    FOREIGN BODY DETECTION IN FOODS USING THE ULTRASOUND PULSE/ECHO METHOD

    JOURNAL OF FOOD QUALITY, Issue 4 2004
    BOSEN ZHAO
    ABSTRACT A "Foreign Body" (FB) is any undesirable piece of solid matter (metal, glass, stone, plastic) present in a food product. It is naturally desirable by the food industry that all FBs are detected and removed before they reach the customer. A FB detector was developed based on the ultrasound pulse/echo method. Unlike the time-gating for flaw detection by nondestructive testing (NDT), a FB is detected by examining the amplitude ratios between the echoes from the container's outer and inner surfaces. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the ability of the proposed system to detect glass pieces in packed beverages and other foods. [source]


    A NOVEL MULTIPLEX POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, AEROMONAS AND SALMONELLA FROM CHICKEN MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2010
    K. BALAKRISHNA
    ABSTRACT Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella are among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The majority of human infections caused by all of these organisms are associated with ingestion of undercooked and contaminated meat, dairy products and water where in the secreted bacterial toxins lead to foodborne intoxications. We, here, report a new multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of these important foodborne bacterial pathogens. The mPCR targeted Ail and virF genes of Y. enterocolitica, nuc and entB genes of S. aureus, aerA and 16S rRNA genes of Aeromonas and invA, an invasion protein A gene of Salmonella. An internal amplification control designed to check the false negative reactions in mPCR was also included. This procedure could detect initial populations of 1,100 cfu/g or /mL within 24 h in experimentally spiked food and water samples. When evaluated on a total of 104 naturally occurring food samples, the mPCR detected two samples to contain S. aureus, one was identified to contain Y. enterocolitica and four samples were identified to contain Salmonella species individually. This was compared with the standard microbiological and biochemical identification procedures. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS All the microorganisms selected in this study are food and waterborne and contaminate a variety of food items. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and Aeromonas species are able to grow and multiply and secrete toxins even at low temperatures. The high throughput and cost-effective multiplex polymerase chain reaction method reported here could be a viable alternative for detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, S. aureus, Aeromonas and Salmonella from food and environmental samples. [source]


    IMPROVED MEDIUM FOR DETECTION OF KLEBSIELLA IN POWDERED MILK

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2010
    HONG GAO
    ABSTRACT The selectivities to pathogenic Klebsiella strains of different isolation media were compared by known standard strains. The modified MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin (MCIC) medium (Named MCIAC, MacConkey-inositol-adonitol-carbenicillin) supplemented with adonitol gave no false-negative colonies, and exhibited higher selectivity. MCIC and Simmons citrate agar with inositol (SCAI) media gave two false-negative colonies, respectively. These three media all gave two false-positive colonies, respectively. Salmonella Shigella medium gave four false-negative colonies and five false-positive colonies. Violet red bile glucose agar medium gave the most false-positive colonies, although it gave no false-negative colonies. One hundred samples of powdered milk were examined by MCIAC, MCIC and SCAI plates. The typical positive colonies were further identified using Vitek GNI Auto Microbic system and API 20E system. The results showed that the specificity of the MCIAC medium was higher than MCIC and SCAI media. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS MacConkey-inositol-carbenicillin (MCIC) is the most commonly used selective medium for the detection of Klebsiella. But some inositol-nonfermenting Klebsiella strains would be missed when selected by this medium. We improved the MCIC medium by supplementing with 1% adonitol. The new modified medium (MacConkey-inositol-adonitol-carbenicillin, MCIAC) had advantages over other selective Klebsiella media in having a higher selectivity and an incubation time of only 16,24 h. MCIAC could be routinely used for pathogenic Klebsiella selection of powdered milk and other food samples. [source]


    PATHOGEN DETECTION IN FOOD MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORIES: AN ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE PROFICIENCY TEST DATA, 1999,2007

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2009
    DANIEL C. EDSON
    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess laboratories' ability to detect or rule out the presence of four common food pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. To do this, qualitative proficiency test data provided by one proficiency test provider from 1999 to 2007 were examined. The annual and cumulative 9-year percentages of false-negative and false-positive responses were calculated. The cumulative 9-year false-negative rates were 7.8% for E. coli O157:H7, 5.9% for Salmonella spp., 7.2% for L. monocytogenes and 13.6% for Campylobacter spp. Atypical strains and low concentrations of bacteria were more likely to be missed, and the data showed no trend of improving performance over time. Percentages of false-positive results were below 5.0% for all four pathogens. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS The results imply that food testing laboratories often fail to detect the presence of these four food pathogens in real food specimens. To improve pathogen detection, supervisors should ensure that testing personnel are adequately trained, that recommended procedures are followed correctly, that samples are properly prepared, that proper conditions (temperature, atmosphere and incubation time) are maintained for good bacterial growth and that recommended quality control procedures are followed. Supervisors should also always investigate reasons for unsatisfactory proficiency test results and take corrective action. Finally, more research is needed into testing practices and proficiency test performance in food testing laboratories. [source]


    SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES, STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, SALMONELLA ENTERICA AND ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN FOOD SAMPLES USING MULTIPLEX PCR METHOD

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 3 2009
    D. ZHANG
    ABSTRACT In this study, one multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of four foodborne pathogens, i.e., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Five specific primer pairs were designed based on the nucleotide sequences of hemolysin gene (hly) of Listeria monocytogenes, thermostable nuclease gene (nuc) of Staphylococcus aureus, invasion gene (invA) of Salmonella enterica, shiga-like toxin gene (stx) and intimin gene (eae) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in this assay. The specificity and sensitivity of the MPCR method were validated, and the limit of detection (LOD) of this method was about 10 copies. One cfu/mL each of these foodborne pathogens spiked in practical food samples, i.e., ground meat, beef, pork, fish, shrimp, cheese, canola leaf and cabbage, could be detected simultaneously after 24 h enrichment at a rate of 87.5%, indicating that the established MPCR detection method was effective and suitable for practical use. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This study presents a quick and effective identification method to simultaneous monitor four foodborne pathogens in food samples. The specificity and sensitivity of this method can be used to unambiguously identify these four foodborne pathogens in practical food samples based on the species-specific genes. Therefore, this detection method is applicable for surveillance measures of these four foodborne pathogens in the food production chain. [source]


    FREQUENCY OF SALMONELLA, CAMPYLOBACTER, LISTERIA AND ENTEROBACTERIACEAE DETECTION IN COMMERCIALLY COOL WATER-WASHED SHELL EGGS

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 4 2006
    DEANA R. JONES
    ABSTRACT The effect of cool water washing on shell egg temperature and pathogen detection was examined. Three temperature schemes were utilized in commercial dual washer systems: (1) HH = 48.9C, 48.9C; (2) HC = 48.9C, 23.9C; and (3) CC = 23.9C, 23.9C. HH eggsmaintainedthe highest surface temperature (26.25C in-line, 20.25C off-line and 23.25C combined, P < 0.05). The lowest temperatures were found in the CC eggs (21.25C in-line, 17.25C off-line and 19.25C combined). The frequency of Enterobacteriaceae detection in shell and membrane emulsions was greatest for the CC eggs (P < 0.05 for in-line and combined). There was no difference in Enterobacteriaceae detection for the off-line facility. Salmonella was detected in three of 384 samples from the in-line facility. They were found in HC (2) and CC (1) shell emulsions. Two of 384 samples were positive for Campylobacter from the in-line facility (CC). Three wash water samples were positive for Listeria in the off-line facility (1 HC, 2 CC). No pathogens were detected in the egg contents during this study. The results of this study indicate that warm followed by cool water washing has the potential of decreasing egg temperature while maintaining surface microbiology at an acceptable level. [source]


    SIMULTANEOUS RECOVERY AND DETECTION OF FOUR HEAT-INJURED FOODBORNE PATHOGENS IN GROUND BEEF AND MILK BY A FOUR-COMPARTMENT THIN AGAR LAYER PLATE

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 2 2006
    VIVIAN C.H. WU
    ABSTRACT A four-compartment thin agar layer (4-TAL) system was developed to improve operation efficiency and recover injured foodborne pathogens simultaneously. The system consisted of a layer of nonselective agar overlaid on four different selective agars (xylose lysine desoxycholate [XLD], cefsulodin irgasan novobiocin [CIN], modified Oxford medium [MOX] and MacConkey sorbitol agar [MSA]) housed in a four-compartment petri dish. We applied this system to simultaneously recover heat-injured (55C, 10 min) Escherichia coli O157:H7 (MSA), Listeria monocytogenes (MOX), Salmonella Typhimurium (XLD) and Yersinia enterocolitica (CIN) from ground beef and pasteurized milk. No significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between the single recovery unit (nonselective agar overlaid on one selective agar in a standard petri dish) and the 4-TAL for detecting four heat-injured pathogens in tested samples. Both TAL methods showed greater recovery of four heat-injured pathogens than the pathogen-specific selective media (P < 0.05). The 4-TAL system appears to be efficient for recovery and detection of injured pathogens in food in terms of operation, material and labor costs, and space of incubation. [source]


    A STUDY ON SUITABILITY OF FOUR ENRICHMENT BROTHS FOR PCR-BASED DETECTION OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES FROM RAW MEAT

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SAFETY, Issue 1 2006
    J. BALAMURUGAN
    ABSTRACT Four enrichment broths were evaluated for their compatibility with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Listeria monocytogenes from raw meat after single-step enrichment. Standardized PCR protocols for listeriolysin O (hlyA) gene were used for the species-specific identification of L. monocytogenes. Four broths, namely, modified University of Vermont broth (MUVM), Listeria enrichment broth (LEB), Fraser broth (FB) and polymyxin, acriflavin, lithium chloride, ceftazidime, aesculin, mannitol, egg yolk broth (PALCAM) , were inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The enriched cultures were subjected for PCR. Similarly, meat samples were artificially spiked with various concentrations of L. monocytogenes, these spiked samples were enriched in the above-mentioned four broths and subjected to PCR to determine the medium that was most compatible for PCR-based detection of L. monocytogenes. The aliquots taken during different incubation periods were subjected to three different procedures for the concentration of the target organism for use in PCR. Results revealed that MUVM was better than other broths for the detection of L. monocytogenes by both PCR and cultural method; moreover, it was able to support the growth of as low as 10 cfu/g of meat. Concentration of the target organisms by centrifugation and washing with PCR buffer was the most suitable method for improving PCR performance for detection of L. monocytogenes. Goat (n = 67) and buffalo (n = 45) meat samples from local markets were also screened by both PCR and cultural method to validate the results obtained from the spiking studies. Both results were in agreement in spiking studies as well as screening of market meat samples. [source]


    OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PRIMERS FOR THE DETECTION OF BIOLUMINESCENT DINOFLAGELLATES REVEAL NOVEL LUCIFERASE SEQUENCES AND INFORMATION ON THE MOLECULAR EVOLUTION OF THIS GENE,

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
    Andrea Baker
    Bioluminescence is reported in members of 18 dinoflagellate genera. Species of dinoflagellates are known to have different bioluminescent signatures, making it difficult to assess the presence of particular species in the water column using optical tools, particularly when bioluminescent populations are in nonbloom conditions. A "universal" oligonucleotide primer set, along with species and genus-specific primers specific to the luciferase gene were developed for the detection of bioluminescent dinoflagellates. These primers amplified luciferase sequences from bioluminescent dinoflagellate cultures and from environmental samples containing bioluminescent dinoflagellate populations. Novel luciferase sequences were obtained for strains of Alexandrium cf. catenella (Whedon et Kof.) Balech and Alexandrium fundyense Balech, and also from a strain of Gonyaulax spinifera (Clap. et Whitting) Diesing, which produces bioluminescence undetectable to the naked eye. The phylogeny of partial luciferase sequences revealed five significant clades of the dinoflagellate luciferase gene, suggesting divergence among some species and providing clues on their molecular evolution. We propose that the primers developed in this study will allow further detection of low-light-emitting bioluminescent dinoflagellate species and will have applications as robust indicators of dinoflagellate bioluminescence in natural water samples. [source]


    DETECTION OF LOCAL INTERACTIONS FROM THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF NAMES IN FRANCE,

    JOURNAL OF REGIONAL SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    Keith Head
    ABSTRACT Using data on the geographic distribution of names in France, we investigate the social transmission of parental preferences. Drawing on recent work on nonmarket interactions, we develop a linear discrete choice model that relates choices made in one location to those made in nearby areas. We explain the shares of parents that give their children Saint, Arabic, and American-type names. We also examine the effect of distance between locations on differences in naming patterns. We find that the importance of geographic distance is declining over time while differences in class and national origins have increasing explanatory power. [source]


    SUCROSE DETECTION AND THE STABILITY OF THE 2-AFC PROCEDURE IN THE PRESENCE OF A CONFOUNDING VARIABLE

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 5 2008
    DANIEL SHEPHERD
    ABSTRACT This study attempted to measure absolute thresholds for sucrose in aqueous solution for 51 experienced judges. Two experiments utilizing the two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) procedure generated 6-point psychometric functions plotting percentage correct as a function of sucrose concentration. In both experiments, the judges were divided into two groups and tested in either purpose-built sensory booths or on open tables situated in a laboratory. In the first experiment, the influence of a confounding variable was apparent, with nonmonotonic psychometric functions being obtained. In experiment II, the confounding variable was eliminated, permitting the estimation of absolute thresholds. In both experiments, there was no main effect of gender or session, though there was an effect of testing locality (P < 0.05). Data are reported to emphasize the importance of controlling extraneous variables and to demonstrate the robustness of the 2-AFC procedure. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This research contributes to an otherwise impoverished database on the detection of sucrose in a solution. The uses of the research include estimates of sucrose detection thresholds for comparative purposes; confirmation of the stability of the two-alternative forced-choice procedure; the utility of using formal testing areas as opposed to ad hoc testing stations; and the dangers of utilizing substandard experimental equipment while conducting research of this nature. [source]


    EVALUATION OF LIGHT DETECTION AND RANGING (LIDAR) FOR MEASURING RIVER CORRIDOR TOPOGRAPHY,

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN WATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION, Issue 1 2002
    Zachary H. Bowen
    ABSTRACT: LIDAR is relatively new in the commercial market for remote sensing of topography and it is difficult to find objective reporting on the accuracy of LIDAR measurements in an applied context. Accuracy specifications for LIDAR data in published evaluations range from 1 to 2 m root mean square error (RMSEx,y) and 15 to 20 cm RMSEz. Most of these estimates are based on measurements over relatively flat, homogeneous terrain. This study evaluated the accuracy of one LIDAR data set over a range of terrain types in a western river corridor. Elevation errors based on measurements over all terrain types were larger (RMSEz equals 43 cm) than values typically reported. This result is largely attributable to horizontal positioning limitations (1 to 2 m RMSEx,y) in areas with variable terrain and large topographic relief. Cross-sectional profiles indicated algorithms that were effective for removing vegetation in relatively flat terrain were less effective near the active channel where dense vegetation was found in a narrow band along a low terrace. LIDAR provides relatively accurate data at densities (50,000 to 100,000 points per km2) not feasible with other survey technologies. Other options for projects requiring higher accuracy include low-altitude aerial photography and intensive ground surveying. [source]


    DUSKY DOLPHIN (LAGENORHYNCHUS OBSCURUS) FORAGING IN TWO DIFFERENT HABITATS: ACTIVE ACOUSTIC DETECTION OF DOLPHINS AND THEIR PREY

    MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 2 2004
    Kelly J. Benoit-Bird
    Abstract Active-acoustic surveys were used to determine the distribution of dusky dolphins and potential prey in two different New Zealand locations. During seven survey days off Kaikoura Canyon, dusky dolphins were found within the DeepScattering Layer (DSL) at 2000 when it rose to within 125 m of the surface. As the DSL rose to 30 m at 0100, the observed depth of dolphins decreased, presumably as the dolphins followed the vertical migration of their prey. Acoustically identified subgroups of coordinated animals ranged from one to five dolphins. Time, depth of layer, and layer variance contributed significantly to predicting foraging dusky dolphin subgroup size. In the much shallower and more enclosed Admiralty Bay, dolphins noted at the surface as foraging were always detected with the sonar, but were never observed in coordinated subgroups during the brief (two-day) study there. In Admiralty Bay dolphin abundance was correlated with mean volume scattering from potential prey in the water column; and when volume scattering, an index of prey density, was low, dolphins were rarely present. Ecological differences between the deep waters of Kaikoura Canyon and the shallow nearshore waters of Admiralty Bay may result in differences in how, when, and in what social groupings dusky dolphins forage. [source]


    SEALS, SEQUENCES, AND SIGNAL DETECTION

    MARINE MAMMAL SCIENCE, Issue 4 2002
    Marla M. Holt
    [source]


    FAULT DETECTION, ISOLATION AND RECONSTRUCTION FOR DESCRIPTOR SYSTEMS

    ASIAN JOURNAL OF CONTROL, Issue 4 2005
    Tae-Kyeong Yeu
    ABSTRACT In this paper, we consider fault detection, isolation and reconstruction problem for descriptor systems with actuator faults and sensor faults, respectively. When actuator faults exist in the system, the fault detection and isolation (FDI) problem is solved through an unknown input observer regarding remaining faults excluded a specified fault as unknown inputs. Whereas, in existing sensor faults, the fault detection is only achieved by the unknown input observer and residual signals. Since the derivative signal of sensor fault is generated in the error dynamics between the actual system and the derived observer. The main objective of this work attempts the reconstruction of the faults. The reconstruction can be achieved by sliding mode observer including feedforward injection map and compensation signal. Finally, the isolation problem of sensor faults is solved by reconstructing all of the faults. [source]


    RISK DETECTION IN INDIVIDUAL HEALTH CARE: ANY LIMITS?

    BIOETHICS, Issue 8 2010
    GER PALMBOOM
    ABSTRACT Background: Biomedical science is producing an avalanche of data about risk factors, often with a small predictive value, associated with a broad diversity of diseases. Prevention and screening are increasingly moving from public health into the clinic. Therefore, the question of which risk factors to investigate and disclose in the individual patient, becomes ethically increasingly urgent. In line with Wilson and Jungner's public health-related 10 principles for screening, it seems crucial to distinguish important from unimportant health risks. Aim: to explore the ways in which clinicians distinguish important from unimportant health risks. Methods: We interviewed 36 respondents (gastroenterologists and gynaecologists/obstetrics) in 5 focus group interviews and 15 open in-depth interviews on their interpretation of what makes a health risk important. Results: Physicians primarily interpreted importance as the severity of the possible harm, less often its probability. Possibilities of prevention or reassurance strongly influenced their judgment on importance. Discussion: It is not likely that interpreting ,important' as ,severe' will help in differentiating meaningful from meaningless risk knowledge. A more fundamental change in our ways of dealing with risk may be called for. We discuss existing literature on resilience as an alternative way to deal with risk. Balancing prevention and risk reduction with resilience could be a fruitful direction. [source]


    WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN FOR THE EARLY DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER?

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2008
    Robert Getzenberg
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    DETECTION OF PROSTATE CANCER FOLLOWING GENDER REASSIGNMENT

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2008
    Chidi N. Molokwu
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    DETECTION OF PERIVASCULAR BLOOD FLOW IN VIVO BY CONTRAST-ENHANCED INTRACORONARY ULTRASONOGRAPHY AND IMAGE ANALYSIS: AN ANIMAL STUDY

    CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY, Issue 12 2007
    Manolis Vavuranakis
    SUMMARY 1Acute coronary syndromes are mostly the result of coronary plaque rupture. Diagnostic techniques focusing on the early detection of those plaques that are prone to rupture are still limited. Increased neovascularization in the adventitia and within the atherosclerotic plaque have recently been identified as common features of inflammation and plaque vulnerability. Contrast-enhanced intravascular imaging with microbubbles can be used to trace perfusion. 2In the present study, we examined the perivascular network of the left anterior descending coronary arteries and left circumflex arteries of four domestic, clinically healthy pigs using intracoronary ultrasound after injection of microbubbles with a differential imaging technique (ACESď; Computational Biomedicine Laboratory, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA). Our aim was to detect blood flow into the coronary lumen and perivascular flow in contrast-enhanced images. Eleven regions of interest (ROI), including perivascular structures, were compared with regard to their grey scale level before and after the injection of SonoVue« (0.06 mL/kg; Bracco Diagnostics, Princeton, NJ, USA). 3A statistically significant (P = 0.018) enhancement was found in the echogenicity of the total perivascular space (adventitial region and perivascular vessels), as indicated by an increase in grey level intensity from 8.33 ▒ 0.80 (before) to 10.11 ▒ 0.88 (after microbubble injection). A significant enhancement of the 11 selected ROI (perivascular structures) was also recorded after the injection of microbubbles (from 7.92 ▒ 2.14 to 14.03 ▒ 2.44; P = 0.008). 4We believe that the detection of perivascular structures with contrast-enhanced intracoronary ultrasonography combined with proper image processing may reinforce our future efforts in the detection of vasa vasorum, an active participant in the creation of acute coronary events. [source]


    Detection of bacterial DNA by PCR and reverse hybridization in the 16S rRNA gene with particular reference to neonatal septicemia

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    S Shang
    Aim: The clinical diagnosis of sepsis is difficult, particularly in neonates. It is necessary to develop a rapid and reliable method for detecting bacteria in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse hybridization of the 16S rRNA gene would permit fast and sensitive determination of the presence of bacteria and differentiate gram-positive bacteria from gram-negative ones in clinical specimens. Methods: We developed a pair of primers according to the gene encoding 16SrRNA found in all bacteria. DNA fragments from different bacterial species and from clinical samples were detected with PCR, and with reverse hybridization using a universal bacterial probe, a gram-positive probe and a gram-negative probe. Results: A 371 bp DNA fragment was amplified from 20 different bacterial species. No signal was observed when human DNA and viruses were used as templates. The sensitivity could be improved to 10T -12 g. All 26 culture-positive clinical samples (22 blood samples and 4 CSF samples) were positive with PCR. The gram-negative and gram-positive probes hybridized to clinical samples and to known bacterial controls, as predicted by Gram's stain characteristics. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the method of PCR and reverse hybridization is rapid, sensitive and specific in detecting bacterial infections. This finding may be significant in the clinical diagnosis of sepsis in neonates. [source]