Detailed Guidelines (detailed + guideline)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Beyond Accountability and Average Mathematics Scores: Relating State Education Policy Attributes to Cognitive Achievement Domains

Laura M. Desimone
We found moderate correlations among four policy attributes (consistency, specificity, authority, and power), which suggest that in many states, at least in design, standards-based reform is working as advocates imagined,aligned content standards and assessments established, backed up by detailed guidelines and frameworks, incentivized by rewards and sanctions, and supported with extra resources and programs for struggling students and their teachers. Our findings suggest that specificity and authority may be related to improvements in procedural knowledge, and no change in problem solving or conceptual understanding, while power (accountability) may be associated with a small decrease in all types of learning. We found that disadvantaged students showed gains in procedural knowledge and did not lose ground in either conceptual understanding or problem solving. Implications for developing an improved theory of policy effects on achievement are discussed. [source]

The Persistence and Forecast Accuracy of Earnings Components in the USA and Japan

Don Herrmann
Not all components of earnings are expected to provide similar information regarding future earnings. For example, basic financial statement analysis indicates that the persistence of ordinary income should be greater than the persistence of special, extraordinary, or discontinued operations. Because the market assigns higher multiples to earnings components that are more persistent, differentiating earnings components on the basis of relative persistence would appear to be useful. A focus on relative predictive value is consistent with research findings and user recommendations on separating earnings components that are persistent or permanent from those that are transitory or temporary. This paper examines the persistence and forecast accuracy of earnings components for retail and manufacturing companies listed in the world's two largest equity markets; the USA and Japan. We find the forecast accuracy of earnings in both the USA and Japan increases with greater disaggregation of earnings components. The results further indicate that the improvements in forecast accuracy due to earnings disaggregation are greater in the USA than in Japan. The greater emphasis and more detailed guidelines for reporting earnings components in the USA produce a better differentiation in the persistence of earnings components resulting in greater forecast improvements from earnings disaggregation. [source]

Urinary catheter care in the intensive care unit

Anna Marklew
Summary ,,Urinary catheters are associated with a number of complications, and nurses are ideally suited to minimize the associated risks by utilizing the available research in their practice ,,Urine tract infections caused by urine catheters are associated with increased mortality; however, urine catheter care is a nursing procedure, the importance of which is sometimes overlooked ,,This study reviews recommended guidelines on urine catheter care and current published literature on the subject ,,The aim of the study was to identify recommended practice and compare it with the current research and literature to conclude best practice ,,Conclusions made from this study are that existing guidelines correspond to the recommendations and findings in recent research and literature. However, more detailed guidelines and further research on how to prevent catheter-associated urine tract infections and other complications may be of benefit [source]

Guidelines for the use of EEG methodology in the diagnosis of epilepsy

International League Against Epilepsy: Commission Report Commission on European Affairs: Subcommission on European Guidelines
The Commission of European Affairs of the International League Against Epilepsy published `Appropriate Standards for Epilepsy Care Across Europe' which contained recommendations for the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in the diagnosis of epilepsy (Brodie et al. Epilepsia 1997; 38:1245). The need for a more specific basic document of EEG methodology was recognized and the Subcommission on European Affairs was asked to produce more detailed guidelines to be used across Europe recognizing the range of practices in EEG laboratories. There are many general guidelines published on EEG methodology but this document focuses on the diagnosis of epilepsy. Details from previously published guidelines are included in references and in an appendix. These guidelines are not meant to be used as minimal standards but recommendations that can be applied to all EEG laboratories despite variations in equipment. [source]

Towards integrated paediatric services in the Netherlands: a survey of views and policies on collaboration in the care for children with cerebral palsy

B. J. G. Nijhuis
Abstract Aim, Worldwide, family-centred and co-ordinated care are seen as the two most desirable and effective methods of paediatric care delivery. This study outlines current views on how team collaboration comprising professionals in paediatric rehabilitation and special education and the parents of children with disabilities should be organized, and analyses the policies of five paediatric rehabilitation settings associated with the care of 44 children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the Netherlands. Methods, For an overview of current ideas on collaboration, written statements of professional associations in Dutch paediatric rehabilitation were examined. The policy statements of the five participating settings were derived from their institutional files. Documents detailing the collaborative arrangements involving the various professionals and parents were evaluated at the institutional level and at the child level. Involvement of the stakeholders was analysed based on team conferences. Results, Also in the Netherlands collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is endorsed as the key principle in paediatric rehabilitation, with at its core the team conference in which the various priorities and goals are formulated and integrated into a personalized treatment plan. As to their collaborative approaches between rehabilitation centre and school, the five paediatric settings rarely differed, but at the child level approaches varied. Teams were large (averaging 10.5 members), and all three stakeholder groups were represented, but involvement differed per setting, as did the roles and contributions of the individual team members. Conclusion, Collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is supported and encouraged nationwide. Views on collaboration have been formulated, and general guidelines on family-centred and co-ordinated care are available. Yet, collaborative practices in Dutch paediatric care are still developing. Protocols that carefully delineate the commitments to collaborate and that translate the policies into practical, detailed guidelines are needed, as they are a prerequisite for successful teamwork. [source]