Design Process (design + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Kinds of Design Process

  • instructional design process

  • Selected Abstracts

    Automated Creativity: Digital Morphology and the Design Process

    Kathleen Gibson M.A.
    ABSTRACT Literature shows that traditional creative methods may reinforce repetitive and habitual behavior resulting in ineffective environmental design solutions (Lawson, 1980; Lang, 1987; Laseau, 1989). Two case studies explored the use of an automated system called cyber-ideation (Gibson, 2000b) as a method to stimulate idea generation. This procedure employed individual and team involvement, recursive and linear exploration, and manual and digital processes. Analysis compared students' production using traditional ideation processes with that resulting from cyber-ideation. Results from this case study found that: 1) digital creation was more linear when evaluated against traditional ideation output, 2) cyber-ideation had a positive impact on team dynamics, and 3) automated output possessed greater surface delineation when compared with subjects' manual sketching. [source]

    Green Footstep: A Tool for Evaluating a Building's Life-Cycle Carbon Footprint and Informing Carbon Decisions During the Building Design Process

    Michael Bendewald
    Abstract The Green Footstep model provides a valuable set of metrics for ecodesign and masterplanning. Here Michael Bendewald and Victor Olgyay of the Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI), with Ken Yeang, describe the significance of this new online tool. In addition to supplying the basis for balancing the built environment's engineering systems, the Green Footstep enables efficiency with the use of renewable energy systems, such as photovoltaics (illustrated here). By presenting the critical case for increasing the percentage of new vegetation and trees in new developments, it enhances local biodiversity. Carbon emissions are offset from: on-site clearance of vegetation, the disturbance of the many constituents of the local ecosystem and the removal of organic rich soil by new construction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sketches from a Design Process: Creative Cognition Inferred From Intermediate Products

    Saskia Jaarsveld
    Abstract Novice designers produced a sequence of sketches while inventing a logo for a novel brand of soft drink. The sketches were scored for the presence of specific objects, their local features and global composition. Self-assessment scores for each sketch and art critics' scores for the end products were collected. It was investigated whether the design evolves in an essentially random fashion or according to an overall heuristic. The results indicated a macrostructure in the evolution of the design, characterized by two stages. For the majority of participants, the first stage is marked by the introduction and modification of novel objects and their local and global aspects; the second stage is characterized by changes in their global composition. The minority that showed the better designs has a different strategy, in which most global changes were made in the beginning. Although participants did not consciously apply these strategies, their self-assessment scores reflect the stages of the process. [source]

    Idealized design of perinatal care

    Faith McLellan PhD
    Idealized Design of Perinatal Care is an innovation project based on the principles of reliability science and the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI's) model for applying these principles to improve care.1 The project builds upon similar processes developed for other clinical arenas in three previous IHI Idealized Design projects. The Idealized Design model focuses on comprehensive redesign to enable a care system to perform substantially better in the future than the best it can do at present. The goal of Idealized Design of Perinatal Care is to achieve a new level of safer, more effective care and to minimize some of the risks identified in medical malpractice cases. The model described in this white paper, Idealized Design of Perinatal Care, represents the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's best current assessment of the components of the safest and most reliable system of perinatal care. The four key components of the model are: 1) the development of reliable clinical processes to manage labor and delivery; 2) the use of principles that improve safety (i.e., preventing, detecting, and mitigating errors); 3) the establishment of prepared and activated care teams that communicate effectively with each other and with mothers and families; and 4) a focus on mother and family as the locus of control during labor and delivery. Reviews of perinatal care have consistently pointed to failures of communication among the care team and documentation of care as common factors in adverse events that occur in labor and delivery. They are also prime factors leading to malpractice claims.2 Two perinatal care "bundles", a group of evidence-based interventions related to a disease or care process that, when executed together, result in better outcomes than when implemented individually , are being tested in this Idealized Design project: the Elective Induction Bundle and the Augmentation Bundle. Experience from the use of bundles in other clinical areas, such as care of the ventilated patient, has shown that reliably applying these evidence-based interventions can dramatically improve outcomes.3 The assumption of this innovation work is that the use of bundles in the delivery of perinatal care will have a similar effect. The authors acknowledge that other organizations have also been working on improving perinatal care through the use of simulation training and teamwork and communication training. IHI's model includes elements of these methods. The Idealized Design of Perinatal Care project has two phases. Sixteen perinatal units from hospitals around the US participated in Phase I, from February to August 2005. The goals of Phase I were identifying changes that would make the most impact on improving perinatal care, selecting elements for each of the bundles, learning how to apply IHI's reliability model to improve processes, and improving the culture within a perinatal unit. This white paper provides detail about the Idealized Design process and examines some of the initial work completed by teams. Phase II, which began in September 2005, expands on this work. This phase focuses particularly on managing second stage labor, including common interpretation of fetal heart monitoring, developing a reliable tool to identify harm, and ensuring that patient preferences are known and honored. [source]

    MATLAB based GUIs for linear controller design via convex optimization

    Wathanyoo Khaisongkram
    Abstract Owing to the current evolution of computational tools, a complicated parameter optimization problem could be effectively solved by a computer. In this paper, a CAD tool for multi-objective controller design based on MATLAB program is developed. In addition, we construct simple GUIs (using GUIDE tools within MATLAB) to provide a visual approach in specifying the constraints. The linear controller design problem can be cast as the convex optimization subjected to time domain and frequency domain constraints. This optimization problem is efficiently solved within a finite dimensional subspace by a practical ellipsoid algorithm. In the design process, we include a model reduction of the resulting controller to speed up the computational efficiency. Finally, a numerical example shows the capability of the program to design multi-objective controller for a one-link flexible robot arm. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 11: 13,24, 2003; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.10035 [source]

    Topology Design of Truss Structures in a Multicriteria Environment

    Won-Sun Ruy
    As an analogy of the general design process, this article presents a novel design approach that could generate structural design alternatives having different topologies and then select the optimal structures from them together with simultaneously determining the optimal design variables related to geometry and member size subjected to a multiple objective design environment. For this purpose, a specialized genetic algorithm, called StrGA_DeAl+MOGA, that can handle the design alternatives and multicriteria problems very effectively is developed for the optimal structural design. To validate the developed method, plain-truss design problems are considered as illustrative examples. To begin with, the promising topologies are generated under the name of "design alternatives" with consideration of the given multiobjective environment. Based on the selected topology of truss structures, the sizing or geometric optimization process starts to determine the optimal design parameters. Three-bar and ten-bar truss problems are treated in the article to test the concept and methodology. [source]

    Strategies for Successful Marine Conservation: Integrating Socioeconomic, Political, and Scientific Factors

    áreas marinas protegidas; planificación de conservación; reservas marinas Abstract:,As the process of marine-protected-area design and implementation evolves, the incorporation of new tools will advance our ability to create and maintain effective protected areas. We reviewed characteristics and approaches that contribute to successful global marine conservation efforts. One successful characteristic emphasized in most case studies is the importance of incorporating stakeholders at all phases of the process. Clearly defined goals and objectives at all stages of the design process are important for improved communication and standardized expectations of stakeholder groups. The inclusion of available science to guide the size and design of marine protected areas and to guide clear monitoring strategies that assess success at scientific, social, and economic levels is also an important tool in the process. Common shortcomings in marine conservation planning strategies include government instability and resultant limitations to monitoring and enforcement, particularly in developing nations. Transferring knowledge to local community members has also presented challenges in areas where in situ training, local capacity, and existing infrastructure are sparse. Inaccessible, unavailable, or outdated science is often a limitation to conservation projects in developed and developing nations. To develop and maintain successful marine protected areas, it is necessary to acknowledge that each case is unique, to apply tools and lessons learned from other marine protected areas, and to maintain flexibility to adjust to the individual circumstances of the case at hand. Resumen:,A medida que evoluciona el proceso de diseńo e implementación de áreas marinas protegidas, la incorporación de nuevas herramientas mejorará nuestra habilidad para crear y mantener áreas protegidas efectivas. Revisamos las características y enfoques que contribuyen a los esfuerzos exitosos de conservación marina global. La importancia de incorporar a los actores en todas las fases del proceso es una característica exitosa enfatizada en la mayoría de los estudios de caso. Es importante que haya metas y objetivos claramente definidos para todas las etapas del proceso de diseńo para mejorar la comunicación y estandarizar las expectativas de los grupos interesados. La inclusión de la ciencia disponible para guiar el tamańo y diseńo de áreas marinas protegidas y para guiar las estrategias de monitoreo que evalúa el éxito a nivel científico, social y económico también son herramientas importantes en el proceso. Defectos comunes en las estrategias de planificación de conservación marina incluyen la inestabilidad gubernamental y las resultantes limitaciones para el monitoreo y vigilancia, particularmente en países en desarrollo. La transferencia de conocimiento a miembros de la comunidad local también ha enfrentado retos en áreas donde el entrenamiento in situ, la aptitud local y la infraestructura existente son escasos. La ciencia inaccesible, no disponible u obsoleta a menudo es una limitación para los proyectos de conservación en países desarrollados y en desarrollo. Para desarrollar y mantener áreas marinas protegidas exitosas, es necesario reconocer que cada caso es único, aplicar herramientas y lecciones aprendidas en otras áreas marinas protegidas y mantener la flexibilidad para ajustarse a las circunstancias individuales de cada caso. [source]

    Performance-based seismic analysis and design of suspension bridges

    Serafim Arzoumanidis
    Abstract This paper presents a performance-based seismic analysis and design of a large suspension bridge, the new Tacoma Narrows Parallel Crossing in the State of Washington. The scope of the project included establishment of design criteria, extensive analysis and validation of the design. The analysis was performed using detailed three-dimensional models that included geometric and material non-linearity. The target post-earthquake level of service was verified using stress, deformation and ductility criteria. In the absence of well-established criteria, which relate the structural response of tower shafts to specific levels of performance, capacity analyses were performed to demonstrate that the design fulfills the performance objectives. The seismic analysis and design of this bridge was reviewed throughout the design process. An independent check team also performed separate analysis and validation of the design. Thus, this bridge constitutes an example of a large-scale design project where the performance-based seismic design procedures underwent rigorous assessment. This work demonstrated that the performance-based approach for seismic design is an appropriate way for designing earthquake-resistant structures. Further data that relate the structural response with the performance objectives are necessary. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Extending drug ethno-epidemiology using agent-based modelling

    ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
    David Moore
    ABSTRACT Aims To show how the inclusion of agent-based modelling improved the integration of ethno-epidemiological data in a study of psychostimulant use and related harms among young Australians. Methods Agent-based modelling, ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews and epidemiological surveys. Setting Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, Australia. Participants Club drug users in Melbourne, recreational drug users in Perth and street-based injecting drug users in Sydney. Participants were aged 18,30 years and reported monthly or more frequent psychostimulant use. Findings Agent-based modelling provided a specific focus for structured discussion about integrating ethnographic and epidemiological methods and data. The modelling process was underpinned by collective and incremental design principles, and produced ,SimAmph', a data-driven model of social and environmental agents and the relationships between them. Using SimAmph, we were able to test the probable impact of ecstasy pill-testing on the prevalence of harms,a potentially important tool for policy development. The study also navigated a range of challenges, including the need to manage epistemological differences, changes in the collective design process and modelling focus, the differences between injecting and non-injecting samples and concerns over the dissemination of modelling outcomes. Conclusions Agent-based modelling was used to integrate ethno-epidemiological data on psychostimulant use, and to test the probable impact of a specific intervention on the prevalence of drug-related harms. It also established a framework for collaboration between research disciplines that emphasizes the synthesis of diverse data types in order to generate new knowledge relevant to the reduction of drug-related harms. [source]

    Text as design, writers as designers

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 2 2005
    Ian Maun
    Abstract Acknowledging the changing nature of writing in the 21st century, particularly the increasing significance of visual characteristics in written texts, this paper explores the implications of multimodality for the pedagogy of writing. It considers the potential disjunction between children's life experiences of written texts and the demands of the writing curriculum, particularly in the secondary phase, and whilst arguing for greater recognition of the role of the visual, the paper also notes the importance of ensuring all children also have access to powerful verbal texts. Drawing on two separate research studies, the paper demonstrates how visual characteristics of written texts influence readers' responses to texts, but also how writers are aware of some of the choices they make in shaping verbal texts. The paper argues for a reconceptualisation of the writing process as a design process, and for a pedagogy of writing which encourages, supports and enables writers to become confident and effective designers of texts. [source]

    Implementing life cycle assessment in product development

    Gurbakhash Singh Bhander
    The overall aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development, and the capacity of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of a product from the outset, and to provide a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. The barriers that prevent product developers from using LCA are presented, as well as opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process by meeting the designer's information requirements at the different life cycle stages. This can lead to an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of product developers towards the subject area, and an understanding of possible future directions for product development. This paper introduces an Environmentally Conscious Design method, and presents trade-offs between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are also addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience, and provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The end result of this presentation is to define the requirements for performance measurement techniques, and the environment needed to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system. [source]

    Design for the environment at Johnson & Johnson: A product design process

    Al Iannuzzi
    First page of article [source]

    Managing the curriculum , for a change

    M. Manogue
    Abstract:, This article reports the model used to design a new dental curriculum, the design process used and its underlying rationale. The evidence base for the process is reviewed and discussed. Some suggestions are offered for those engaged in developing new curricula. The main conclusions drawn are that the design process needs to be managed openly and democratically; the alignment model is the most appropriate for designing dental curricula; the process of curriculum design is inextricably linked to organisational development; and the concepts of learning organisations, communities of practice and culture all have their part to play in the process of introducing deep innovations, such as new curricula'. [source]

    The design process of expert systems development: some concerns

    EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 2 2006
    Mehdi Sagheb-Tehrani
    Abstract: A discussion is presented of why some expert systems that organizations have developed are not successful. The concept of design process plays a very significant role at the outset of the expert system development process. This concept has not been the subject of much debate and attention in expert systems development. From the author's point of view, one of the main issues is how the designer (knowledge engineer) thinks about the design process. In general, the designer's process is influenced by the knowledge engineer's conception. This paper endeavors to disclose some of the main factors related to the knowledge engineer's conception of the design process and an attempt is made to put forward a conceptual model of the expert system design process. This conceptual model is an initial step towards a successful implementation of expert system projects. [source]

    A reasoning method for a ship design expert system

    EXPERT SYSTEMS, Issue 2 2005
    Sebnem Helvacioglu
    Abstract: The ship design process is a highly data-oriented, dynamic, iterative and multi-stage algorithm. It utilizes multiple abstraction levels and concurrent engineering techniques. Specialized techniques for knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation and reasoning must be developed to solve these problems for a ship design expert system. Consequently, very few attempts have been made to model the ship design process using an expert system approach. The current work investigates a knowledge representation,reasoning technique for such a purpose. A knowledge-based conceptual design was developed by utilizing a prototype approach and hierarchical decompositioning. An expert system program called ALDES (accommodation layout design expert system) was developed by using the CLIPS expert system shell and an object-oriented user interface. The reasoning and knowledge representation methods of ALDES are explained in the paper. An application of the method is given for the general arrangement design of a containership. [source]

    Rapid risk assessment using probability of fracture nomographs

    ABSTRACT Traditional risk-based design process involves designing the structure based on risk estimates obtained during several iterations of an optimization routine. This approach is computationally expensive for large-scale aircraft structural systems. Therefore, this paper introduces the concept of risk-based design plots that can be used for both structural sizing and risk assessment for fracture strength when maximum allowable crack length is available. In situations when crack length is defined as a probability distribution the presented approach can only be applied for various percentiles of crack lengths. These plots are obtained using normalized probability density models of load and material properties and are applicable for any arbitrary load and strength values. Risk-based design plots serve as a tool for failure probability assessment given geometry and applied load or they can determine geometric constraints to be used in sizing given allowable failure probability. This approach would transform a reliability-based optimization problem into a deterministic optimization problem with geometric constraints that implicitly incorporate risk into the design. In this paper, cracked flat plate and stiffened plate are used to demonstrate the methodology and its applicability. [source]

    The Financialization of Urban Redevelopment

    Ted Rutland
    Spurred by the conviction that not only financial capital but also changes in finance and changes in its relations with non-financial activities have immense and complicated consequences for ongoing processes of urban redevelopment, this article puts the presently separate financialization and urban redevelopment literatures in conversation. The article begins with a review of the financialization literature, outlining and evaluating four different approaches to the topic and seeking to consider what, if anything, they might have to offer to an area of inquiry that has long considered finance to be a central concern. The second section examines how financial capital has been analyzed in the urban redevelopment literature since the pioneering work of David Harvey in the 1970s. The final section examines how financialization has played out in the medium-sized port city of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Drawing on interviews with financiers and property developments, as well as secondary research materials, the study describes how a recent urban design process in Halifax enlisted urban images and ideas to rewrite development regulations, eliminate popular political involvement in the development approvals process, and lever open the downtown landscape to the whims of worldwide financial markets. The essay concludes that studies of urban redevelopment would indeed gain something by engaging with the financialization literature, so long as the former continue to attend not just to financial capital but also to the material and ideological mechanisms through which property is continually reproduced as a financial asset. [source]

    A Numerical Simulation Model for Shield Tunnelling with Compressed Air Support

    Felix Nagel Dipl.-Ing.
    This paper is concerned with a numerical simulation model (ekate) specifically designed for shield tunnelling in fully and partially saturated soils based upon the Finite Element Method (FEM). The model considers all relevant components , the soil, the lining, the tail void grouting, the hydraulic jacks and different types of face support , involved in shield tunnelling. The surrounding soft soil is formulated as a three-phase material, consisting of the soil skeleton, pore water and air. This model allows for the simulation of consolidation processes in partially saturated soils as well as of flow of compressed air often used as temporary face support during repair interventions at the cutting wheel. Despite the complexity connected with the relatively high degree of realism of the simulation model, only little effort is required from the user to establish a realistic 3D model for shield tunnelling. To this end an automatic model generator has been developed which allows for a user friendly generation of the discretized model including all components involved and to investigate variants with a minimum effort for the user. The model allows for realistic predictions of settlements and also provides information on deformations and stresses in the ground, the lining and the TBM, respectively. In addition to its use as a prognosis tool in the design process, in particular for tunnelling projects in sensitive urban areas, the model also may be used to assist the driving and steering process in mechanized tunnelling. The paper provides an overview over the main components of the model, the automatic model generator and the tri-phasic representation of the soil. A simulation of a compressed air intervention of a shield tunnel in soft soil demonstrates the applicability of the model. Ein numerisches Simulationsmodell für druckluftgestützte Schildvortriebe In diesem Beitrag wird ein Simulationsmodell basierend auf der Methode der Finiten Elemente (FEM) für die Berechnung schildvorgetriebener Tunnel in un-, voll- und teilgesättigten Böden vorgestellt. In diesem numerischen Modell werden alle beim maschinellen Tunnelbau wesentlichen Komponenten , der Boden, der Ausbau, die Schildschwanzverpressung, die Vortriebspressen sowie unterschiedliche Arten der Ortsbruststützung , wirklichkeitsnah berücksichtigt. Der Baugrund wird im Simulationsmodell als dreiphasiges Material modelliert, bestehend aus dem Korngerüst, dem Porenwasser und der Porenluft. Diese Materialformulierung für den Baugrund ermöglicht die Analyse von Konsolidierungsprozessen in teilgesättigten Böden ebenso wie von Strömungsvorgängen im Boden bei Verwendung von Druckluft als temporärer Ortsbruststützung. Druckluft wird häufig beim Wechsel von Schneidwerkzeugen eingesetzt. Ungeachtet der Komplexität des Modells, die mit der relativ wirklichkeitsnahen Abbildung des Vortriebsgeschehens verbunden ist, ist nur ein sehr geringer Aufwand für die Modellgenerierung erforderlich. Um diesen Eingabeaufwand auf ein Minimum zu reduzieren, wurde ein automatischer Modellgenerator entwickelt, der den Ingenieur bei der Eingabe unterstützt und die Untersuchung von Planungsalternativen deutlich vereinfacht. Das Modell ermöglicht wirklichkeitsnahe Prognosen von Bodenbewegungen und Beanspruchungen, wie sie für die Planung von Vortrieben insbesondere unter setzungsempfindlichen, innerstädtischen Gebieten erforderlich sind. Darüber hinaus stellt das Modell ein wertvolles Hilfsmittel bei der vortriebsbegleitenden Steuerung von Vortriebsmaschinen in Lockergestein dar. Neben den wesentlichen Komponenten des numerischen Modells, des Modellgenerators und der Dreiphasen-Formulierung für den Boden enthält der Beitrag als prototypisches Anwendungsbeispiel die Simulation einer Druckluftintervention in Lockergestein. [source]

    Development and Testing of Energetic Materials: The Concept of High Densities Based on the Trinitroethyl Functionality

    Michael Göbel
    Abstract The development of new energetic materials is an emerging area of materials chemistry facilitated by a worldwide need to replace materials used at present, due to environmental considerations and safety requirements, while at the same time securing high performance. The development of such materials is complex, owing to the fact that several different and apparently mutually exclusive material properties have to be met in order for a new material to become widely accepted. In turn, understanding the basic principles of structure property relationships is highly desirable, as such an understanding would allow for a more rational design process to yield the desired properties. This article covers the trinitroethyl functionality and its potential for the design of next generation energetic materials, and describes relevant aspects of energetic materials chemistry including theoretical calculations capable of reliably predicting material properties. The synthesis, characterization, energetic properties, and structure property relationships of several new promising compounds displaying excellent material properties are reported with respect to different kinds of applications and compared to standard explosives currently used. Based on a review of trinitroethyl-containing compounds available in the literature, as well as this new contribution, it is observed that high density can generally be obtained in a more targeted manner in energetic materials taking advantage of noncovalent bonding interactions, a prerequisite for the design of next generation energetic materials. [source]

    System design in normative and actual practice: A comparative study of cognitive task allocation in advanced manufacturing systems

    Sotiris Papantonopoulos
    The Human Factors Engineering approach to human-machine system design is based largely on normative design methods. This article suggests that the scope of Human Factors Engineering shall be extended to the descriptive study of system design in actual practice by the application of theoretical frameworks that emphasize the role of the system-design practitioner and organization in the design process. A comparative study of system design in normative and actual practice was conducted in the design of cognitive task allocation in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) cell. The study showed that the designers' allocation decisions were influenced strongly by factors related to their own design practices, yet exogenous to the tasks to be allocated. Theoretical frameworks from Design Research were applied to illustrate differences between normative and actual practice of system design. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 14: 181,196, 2004. [source]

    Exploration of communication models in the design of distributed embedded systems

    Kazutaka Kobayashi Non-member
    Abstract Distributed embedded systems involve communication in various layers, and therefore their design is more difficult than of single embedded systems. This paper presents how communication exploration can be done in a design process of distributed embedded systems using an example of event-triggered and time-triggered communication. A design process begins from abstract specification without assuming any communication category, then explores the categories in a stepwise manner, followed by physical implementation synthesis. This encourages stepwise decision making, component and framework reuse, and early stage verification. Copyright © 2007 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan© 2007 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Client-Led Information System Creation (CLIC): navigating the gap

    Donna Champion
    Abstract., This paper offers a new framework to facilitate an interpretive approach to client-led information system development, referred to as CLIC (Client-Led Information System Creation). The challenge of moving seamlessly through a process of information systems (IS) design is still the subject of much research in the IS field. Attempts to address the difficulties of ,bridging the gap' between a client's business needs and an information system definition have hitherto not provided a coherent and practical approach. Rather than attempting to bridge the gap, this paper describes an approach to managing this gap by facilitating the clients' navigating through the information system design process (or inquiry process) in a coherent manner. The framework has been developed through practice, and the paper provides an example of navigating through the design phase taken from an Action Research field study in a major UK bank. [source]

    Design and application of layered composites with the prescribed magnetic permeability

    Jae Seok Choi
    Abstract This research aims to design the microstructure with the prescribed magnetic permeability and proposes a design method to control the magnetic flux flow using layered microstructures. In the optimization problem for the microstructure design, the objective function is set up to minimize the difference between the homogenized magnetic permeability during the design process and the prescribed permeability based on the so-called inverse homogenization method. Based on the microstructure design result, a microstructure composed of layered materials is proposed for the purpose of the efficient magnetic flux control. In addition, its analytical calculation is added to confirm the feasibility of the optimized results. The layered composite of a very thin ferromagnetic material is expected to guide the magnetic flux and the performance of the magnetic system can be improved by turning the microstructures appropriately. Optimal rotation angles of microstructures are determined using the homogenization design method. The proposed design method is applied to an example to confirm its feasibility. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A multicriteria evolutionary algorithm for mechanical design optimization with expert rules

    R. Filomeno Coelho
    Abstract This paper addresses the problem of optimizing mechanical components during the first stage of the design process. While a previous study focused on parameterized designs with fixed configurations,which led to the development of the PAMUC (Preferences Applied to Multiobjectivity and Constraints) method, to tackle constraints and preferences in evolutionary algorithms (EAs),, the models to be considered in this work are enriched by the presence of topological variables. In this context, in order to create optimal but also realistic designs, i.e. fulfilling not only technical requirements but also technological constraints (more naturally expressed in terms of rules), a novel approach is proposed: PAMUC II. It consists in integrating an inference engine within the EA to repair the individuals violating the user-defined rules. PAMUC II is tested on mechanical benchmarks, and provides very satisfactory results in comparison with a weighted sum method with penalization to deal with the constraints. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inverse design of directional solidification processes in the presence of a strong external magnetic field

    Rajiv Sampath
    Abstract A computational method for the design of directional alloy solidification processes is addressed such that a desired growth velocity ,f under stable growth conditions is achieved. An externally imposed magnetic field is introduced to facilitate the design process and to reduce macrosegregation by the damping of melt flow. The design problem is posed as a functional optimization problem. The unknowns of the design problem are the thermal boundary conditions. The cost functional is taken as the square of the L2 norm of an expression representing the deviation of the freezing interface thermal conditions from the conditions corresponding to local thermodynamic equilibrium. The adjoint method for the inverse design of continuum processes is adopted in this work. A continuum adjoint system is derived to calculate the adjoint temperature, concentration, velocity and electric potential fields such that the gradient of the L2 cost functional can be expressed analytically. The cost functional minimization process is realized by the conjugate gradient method via the FE solutions of the continuum direct, sensitivity and adjoint problems. The developed formulation is demonstrated with an example of designing the boundary thermal fluxes for the directional growth of a germanium melt with dopant impurities in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field. The design is shown to achieve a stable interface growth at a prescribed desired growth rate. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Concrete Geometry: Playing with Blocks

    Andreas Luescher
    This article describes a design/build exercise conducted in an Architectural Materials and Methods class to achieve three interrelated objectives: (1) to apply physically the semester's theoretical focus on the constituent process and languages of architecture investigations, (2) to capitalise on the physical and aesthetic properties of concrete masonry to explore fabrication and detailing in the design process, and (3) to examine preconceptions about solo work and team work in architectural education and practice. What makes this project unique among other design/build projects is its emphasis on Concrete Masonry Units (known as CMU in the USA) and their visual, tactile and functional properties. The junior and senior students were allowed three building elements: an 8, cube of space, an unlimited number of concrete blocks, and the visual ecology of a site. The structural vocabulary that Frank Lloyd Wright developed consisted of a three-dimensional field of lines through which the solid elements of the building were located, enabling the voids to be integral to the whole and equally meaningful. Using these elements, students were asked to design/build temporary structures in a field next to the airport hangar on campus. The pedagogical objective was to adopt Wright's creative spirit, as opposed to quoting his architectural language. [source]

    Hyperchaotic signal generation via DSP for efficient perturbations to liquid mixing

    Zhong Zhang
    Abstract This paper presents the design, simulation, hardware implementation and an application in liquid mixing of some hyperchaotic circuits, based on the digital signal processing (DSP) technology. The hyperchaotic Chen's system is used as an example to show the system discretization and variable renormalization in the design process. Numerical simulation is given to verify the hardware signal generator. The implemented hardware of Chen's system generates outputs in good agreement with the numerical simulation. The hyperchaotic signal output from the DSP is applied to generate complex perturbations in liquid mixing experiments. Dye dispersion experiments show that the induced hyperchaotic motion effectively helps enhance the mixing homogeneity in the stirred-tank-based mixer in our laboratory. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The development of 3-D visualization technology: the potential impact on interior design and its consumers

    Seunghae Lee
    Abstract Three-dimensional visualization has developed and improved significantly over the last several decades and resulted in consumers' having multidimensional, multi-sensory experiences with a wide range of products and services. It has affected the built environment and its related businesses. Designers create 3-D images and walk-through animations to communicate with their clients more clearly, starting from the early stage of the design process. The interior,design-related material manufacturers and retailers have enhanced their online stores with 3-D visualization features to improve their interactivity and provide user-friendly interfaces for product information search and purchase planning. Because of the continuing widespread interest in 3-D visualization and the amount of its applications in the interior design field, a review of this area was a necessity to suggest the future research direction for the development of 3-D visualization in interior design. This paper sought to demonstrate the status of the development of 3-D visualization and its impact on the interior design field and its consumers while highlighting an area where future research is a potentially considerable benefit in developing 3-D visualization in interior design. [source]

    Determining the importance weights for the design requirements in the house of quality using the fuzzy analytic network approach

    Gülçin Büyüközkan
    Quality function deployment (QFD) has been used to translate customer needs (CNs) and wants into technical design requirements (DRs) in order to increase customer satisfaction. QFD uses the house of quality (HOQ), which is a matrix providing a conceptual map for the design process, as a construct for understanding CNs and establishing priorities of DRs to satisfy them. This article uses the analytic network process (ANP), the general form of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to prioritize DRs by taking into account the degree of the interdependence between the CNs and DRs and the inner dependence among them. In addition, because human judgment on the importance of requirements is always imprecise and vague, this work concentrates on a fuzzy ANP approach in which triangular fuzzy numbers are used to improve the quality of the responsiveness to CNs and DRs. A numerical example is presented to show the proposed methodology. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Designing the 9th-Century-AD Vessel from Bozburun, Turkey

    Matthew Harpster
    During the study of the 9th-century-AD vessel from Bozburun, Turkey, this author applied Richard Steffy's methodology which emphasizes the comprehensive deconstruction and step-by-step re-assembly of a vessel. This methodology, in turn, illuminated how the Bozburun ship was assembled and designed, and how this design process created particular components of the hull. This article discusses this design process, and how by understanding it we may also understand more about the people who made the Bozburun vessel. © 2009 The Author [source]