Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Depth

  • actual depth
  • anterior chamber depth
  • average depth
  • body depth
  • burial depth
  • chamber depth
  • cm depth
  • cm soil depth
  • column depth
  • constant depth
  • crustal depth
  • crypt depth
  • defect depth
  • different depth
  • different soil depth
  • embedment depth
  • flow depth
  • great depth
  • greater depth
  • groundwater depth
  • increasing depth
  • increasing soil depth
  • insertion depth
  • invasion depth
  • km depth
  • lake depth
  • layer depth
  • lesion depth
  • litter depth
  • lower depth
  • m depth
  • m water depth
  • mantle depth
  • maximum depth
  • mean depth
  • mean probing depth
  • mid-crustal depth
  • modulation depth
  • moho depth
  • muscle depth
  • optical depth
  • peat depth
  • penetration depth
  • periodontal probing depth
  • planting depth
  • pocket depth
  • pocket probing depth
  • probing depth
  • probing pocket depth
  • resorption depth
  • rooting depth
  • sampling depth
  • secchi depth
  • sediment depth
  • shallow burial depth
  • shallow depth
  • shallow soil depth
  • shallower depth
  • similar depth
  • snow depth
  • soil depth
  • table depth
  • thaw depth
  • time depth
  • tissue depth
  • tumor depth
  • uniform depth
  • variable depth
  • various depth
  • varying depth
  • vitreous chamber depth
  • water column depth
  • water depth
  • water table depth

  • Terms modified by Depth

  • depth cue
  • depth data
  • depth decreased
  • depth distribution
  • depth electrode
  • depth estimate
  • depth gradient
  • depth greater
  • depth image
  • depth imaging
  • depth increase
  • depth information
  • depth interval
  • depth interview
  • depth layer
  • depth measurement
  • depth migration
  • depth profile
  • depth profiling
  • depth psychology
  • depth range
  • depth ratio
  • depth selection

  • Selected Abstracts


    Paulette L. Stenzel


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Spalding, H. L. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing, Rd., Moss Landing, CA 95039 USA Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) and enriched air Nitrox SCUBA diving have recently become available to researchers for studying the deep-water environment. Each use a different technique for collecting macroalgal abundance data: ROVs use collections and high-resolution digital video which can be quantified using an integrative laser and computer imagery program (high tech), while divers often count the densities of individuals and use a point contact method for sampling percent (%) cover in situ (low tech). While the types of data collected by both techniques are the same, the effects of the different sampling methods on data resolution are unknown. As part of a larger study on deep-water macroalgae in central California, I compared the abundance of common macroalgae (% cover of macroalgal groups and individuals/m2) collected by divers and the ROV Ventana at a depth of 30m at 3 locations in central California. Generally, there were no significant differences between diver and ROV data in the % cover of coralline Rhodophyta, non-coralline Rhodophyta, and Pleurophycus gardneri/m2. The use of a laser-calibrated computer imagery program and an ROV with user-controlled lighting greatly decreased lab analysis time, and a method for sampling macroalgal layers with the ROV was developed. Thus, ROVs with high-resolution digital video and supplemental macroalgal collections can be used to quantify deep-water algae as accurately as in situ divers, but without the limited dive time, depth limits, and physical demands of the latter. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 6 2006
    María Florencia Colombo-Pallotta
    Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh is a canopy-forming species that occupies the entire water column. The photosynthetic tissue of this alga is exposed to a broad range of environmental factors, particularly related to light quantity and quality. In the present work, photosynthetic performance, light absorption, pigment composition, and thermal dissipation were measured in blades collected from different depths to characterize the photoacclimation and photoprotection responses of M. pyrifera according to the position of its photosynthetic tissue in the water column. The most important response of M. pyrifera was the enhancement of photoprotection in surface and near-surface blades. The size of the xanthophyll cycle pigment pool (XC) was correlated to the nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of chl a fluorescence capacity of the blades. In surface blades, we detected the highest accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds, photoprotective carotenoids, ,XC, and NPQ. These characteristics were important responses that allowed surface blades to present the highest maximum photosynthetic rate and the highest PSII electron transport rate. Therefore, surface blades made the highest contribution to algae production. In contrast, basal blades presented the opposite trend. These blades do not to contribute significantly to photosynthetate production of the whole organism, but they might be important for other functions, like nutrient uptake. [source]

    Adding Depth to Cartoons Using Sparse Depth (In)equalities

    D. Sýkora
    Abstract This paper presents a novel interactive approach for adding depth information into hand-drawn cartoon images and animations. In comparison to previous depth assignment techniques our solution requires minimal user effort and enables creation of consistent pop-ups in a matter of seconds. Inspired by perceptual studies we formulate a custom tailored optimization framework that tries to mimic the way that a human reconstructs depth information from a single image. Its key advantage is that it completely avoids inputs requiring knowledge of absolute depth and instead uses a set of sparse depth (in)equalities that are much easier to specify. Since these constraints lead to a solution based on quadratic programming that is time consuming to evaluate we propose a simple approximative algorithm yielding similar results with much lower computational overhead. We demonstrate its usefulness in the context of a cartoon animation production pipeline including applications such as enhancement, registration, composition, 3D modelling and stereoscopic display. [source]

    The Animated Muse: An Interpretive Program for Creative Viewing

    Austin Clarkson
    ABSTRACT Explore a Painting in Depth, an experiment presented in the Canadian Collection of the Art Gallery of Ontario, consisted of a booth that offered seating for two visitors and, opposite them, The Beaver Dam, a 1919 landscape painting by the Canadian artist J. E. H. MacDonald. In a 12-minute audio-guided Exercise for Exploring, visitors were invited to engage in a creative process with the imagery of the painting. This paper sketches how the experiment evolved, presents the background of the Exercise for Exploring, and surveys the effects of the exhibit on a wide range of visitors. The question is raised: How can facilitating visitors' creative responses to artworks be part of the museum's educational mandate and its arsenal of interpretive resources? More broadly: Do strategies that foster and privilege visitor creativity, as well as honor the creativity of artists, affect the accessibility and relevance of the museum for the general public? [source]

    Global statistical analysis of MISR aerosol data: a massive data product from NASA's Terra satellite

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 7 2007
    Tao Shi
    Abstract In climate models, aerosol forcing is the major source of uncertainty in climate forcing, over the industrial period. To reduce this uncertainty, instruments on satellites have been put in place to collect global data. However, missing and noisy observations impose considerable difficulties for scientists researching the global distribution of aerosols, aerosol transportation, and comparisons between satellite observations and global-climate-model outputs. In this paper, we fit a Spatial Mixed Effects (SME) statistical model to predict the missing values, denoise the observed values, and quantify the spatial-prediction uncertainties. The computations associated with the SME model are linear scalable to the number of data points, which makes it feasible to process massive global satellite data. We apply the methodology, which is called Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK), to the level-3 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) dataset collected by NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument flying on the Terra satellite. Overall, our results were superior to those from non-statistical methods and, importantly, FRK has an uncertainty measure associated with it that can be used for comparisons over different regions or at different time points. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Bilayer localization of membrane-active peptides studied in biomimetic vesicles by visible and fluorescence spectroscopies

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 22 2003
    Tanya Sheynis
    Depth of bilayer penetration and effects on lipid mobility conferred by the membrane-active peptides magainin, melittin, and a hydrophobic helical sequence KKA(LA)7KK (denoted KAL), were investigated by colorimetric and time-resolved fluorescence techniques in biomimetic phospholipid/poly(diacetylene) vesicles. The experiments demonstrated that the extent of bilayer permeation and peptide localization within the membrane was dependent upon the bilayer composition, and that distinct dynamic modifications were induced by each peptide within the head-group environment of the phospholipids. Solvent relaxation, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence quenching analyses, employing probes at different locations within the bilayer, showed that magainin and melittin inserted close to the glycerol residues in bilayers incorporating negatively charged phospholipids, but predominant association at the lipid,water interface occurred in bilayers containing zwitterionic phospholipids. The fluorescence and colorimetric analyses also exposed the different permeation properties and distinct dynamic influence of the peptides: magainin exhibited the most pronounced interfacial attachment onto the vesicles, melittin penetrated more into the bilayers, while the KAL peptide inserted deepest into the hydrophobic core of the lipid assemblies. The solvent relaxation results suggest that decreasing the lipid fluidity might be an important initial factor contributing to the membrane activity of antimicrobial peptides. [source]

    Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) vertical movements in the Azores Islands determined with pop-up satellite archival tags

    Abstract Movement patterns of 17 bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) near the Azores Islands were analyzed between April and May 2001 and 2002 using pop-up satellite archival tags. Despite short attachment durations (1 to 21 days, 8.2 days on average), their vertical movements revealed much shallower distribution of bigeye tuna in comparison with previous studies in the tropical Pacific and tropical Atlantic. Depth and temperature histograms were unimodal, although overall depth distribution during the day was deeper than during the night due to daily incursions in deeper waters. Although generalized additive models showed significant non-linear relationships with weight of the fish and sea level anomaly (as a proxy for variability of thermocline depth), the effect of these variables on bigeye depth appeared minor, suggesting that vertical movements of bigeye in the Azores during the spring migration may be influenced by food availability in upper water layers. [source]

    Estimating the Variability of Active-Layer Thaw Depth in Two Physiographic Regions of Northern Alaska

    Claire E. Gomersall
    The active layer is the zone above permafrost that experiences seasonal freeze and thaw. Active-layer thickness varies annually in response to air and surface temperature, and generally decreases poleward. Substantially less is known about thaw variability across small lateral distances in response to topography, parent material, vegetation, and subsurface hydrology. A graduated steel rod was used to measure the 1998 end-of-season thaw depth across several transects. A balanced hierarchical sampling design was used to estimate the contribution to total variance in active-layer depth at separating distances of 1, 3, 9, 27, and 100 meters. A second sampling scheme was used to examine variation at shorter distances of 0.3 and 0.1 meter. This seven-stage sample design was applied to two sites in the Arctic Foothills physiographic province, and four sites on the Arctic Coastal Plain province in northern Alaska. The spatial variability for each site was determined using ANOVA and variogram methods to compare intersite and inter-province variation. Spatial variation in thaw depth was different in the Foothills and Coastal Plain sites. A greater percentage of the total variance occurs at short lag distances (0,3 meters) at the Foothills sites, presumably reflecting the influence of frost boils and tussock vegetation on ground heat flow. In contrast, thaw variation at the Coastal Plain sites occurs at distances exceeding 10 meters, and is attributed to the influence of well-developed networks of ice-wedge polygons and the presence of drained thaw-lake basins. This information was used to determine an ongoing sampling scheme for each site and to assess the suitability of each method of analysis. [source]

    Depth of detection of highly conducting and volume polarizable targets using induced polarization

    A. Apparao
    We define the apparent frequency effect in induced polarization (IP) as the relative difference between apparent resistivities measured using DC excitation on the one hand and high-frequency excitation (when the IP effect vanishes) on the other. Assuming a given threshold for the minimum detectable anomaly in the apparent frequency effect, the depth of detection of a target by IP can be defined as that depth below which the target response is lower than the threshold for a given electrode array. Physical modelling shows that for the various arrays, the depth of detection of a highly conducting and volume polarizable target agrees closely with the depth of detection of an infinitely conducting and non-polarized body of the same shape and size. The greatest depth of detection is obtained with a two-electrode array, followed by a three-electrode array, while the smallest depth of detection is obtained with a Wenner array when the array spread is in-line (i.e. perpendicular to the strike direction). The depth of detection with a Wenner array improves considerably and is almost equal to that of a two-electrode array when the array spread is broadside (i.e. along the strike direction). [source]

    Development of a New Comprehensive Ocean Atlas for Indian Ocean utilizing ARGO Data

    B. Prasad Kumar
    Abstract The World Ocean Atlas (WOA), also termed ,Levitus Climatology', is a global ocean climatology containing monthly, seasonal and annual means of temperature (T) and salinity (S) fields at standard ocean depths. The monthly climatology for T and S is available for standard depths up to 1000 m. The database used in the preparation of this climatology (WOA) are historical records of Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) casts and other available marine observations collected in the past. The methodology used in preparation of this WOA is objective analysis which is essentially non-synoptic and widely scattered in the space domain. We understand that ARGO data has so far not been blended with WOA, nor has its impact for improving WOA climatology been attempted. Presently, with the wealth of marine data from ARGO profilers in the Indian Ocean, we propose a new approach to reconstruct T and S fields optimally utilizing the ARGO data. Here we develop a new model using Delaunay Tessellation with QHull algorithm delivering three-dimensional T and S fields from a non-uniform scattered database up to a depth of 1000 m. For gaps in a data-sparse region, we use all available quality-checked Ocean Station Data (OSD) and Profiling Float Data (PFL) information on T and S, in addition to the existing ARGO data. The initiative here was to replace WOA data points with realistic information from ARGO and in situ data, thereby producing a new climatology atlas. We demonstrate the robustness of our approach, and the final climatology on T and S is better compared with the existing state-of-the-art WOA. The advantage of the proposed methodology is the scope of improving the ocean atlas with the addition of more ARGO data in the near future. The clustered approach in modelling enables ocean parameter retrieval in geometrically disconnected regions with an option for hot restart. We believe that the new climatology will benefit the research community immensely. Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Freezing of lakes on the Swiss plateau in the period 1901,2006

    H. J. Hendricks Franssen
    Abstract Data of ice cover for deep Alpine lakes contain relevant climatological information since ice cover and winter temperature are closely related. For the first time, ice cover data from 11 lakes on the Swiss plateau have been collected and analysed for the period 1901,2006. The ice cover data used stem from systematic registration by individuals or groups (fishermen, an ice club and lake security service) and from several national, regional and local newspapers. It is found that in the past 40 years, and especially during the last two decades, ice cover on Swiss lakes was significantly reduced. This is in good agreement with the observed increase in the winter temperature in this period. The trend of reduced ice cover is more pronounced for lakes that freeze rarely than for the lakes that freeze more frequently. This agrees well with the stronger relative decrease in the probability to exceed the sum of negative degree days (NDD) needed for freezing the lakes that rarely freeze. The ice cover data are related with the temperature measurements such as the sum of NDD of nearby official meteorological stations by means of binomial logistic regression. The derived relationships estimate the probability of a complete ice cover on a lake as function of the sum of NDD. The sums of NDD needed are well related to the average depth of the lake (rNDD,Depth = 0.85). Diagnosing lake ice cover on the basis of the sum of NDD is much better than a prediction on the basis of a climatological freezing frequency. The variance of lake ice cover that cannot be explained by the sum of NDD is important for judging the uncertainty associated with climate reconstruction on the basis of data on lake ice cover. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

    Habitat Characteristics of Eurytemora lacustris(Poppe, 1887) (Copepoda, Calanoida): The Role of Lake Depth, Temperature,Oxygen Concentration and Light Intensity

    Peter Kasprzak
    Abstract Field observations, laboratory experiments and a literature survey were conducted to evaluate the habitat characteristics of Eurytemoralacustris (Poppe 1887), a freshwater calanoid copepod species. Combined effects of temperature and oxygen concentration in the deep water of thermally stratifying lakes seem to be the ultimate factors governing the occurrence of the species throughout its home-territory. E. lacustris is largely restricted to relatively deep lakes (>30 m) providing a hypolimnetic refuge characterised by low temperatures (<,10 °C) and oxygenated water during summer. Therefore, although the species is spread over much of Europe it was only found in a small number of lakes. Long-term records in different lakes revealed E. lacustris to be perennial with relatively high biomasses occurring from May to September. During thermal stratification on average 87% of the nauplii and 72% of the copepodite biomass was found in hypolimnetic waters colder than 10 °C. Diurnal vertical migration was observed for the copepodid stages, but the migration amplitude clearly decreased from May to September. The migration amplitude was significantly related to light intensity. According to its special habitat requirements, E. lacustris might be considered a glacial relict sensitive to temperature increase and oxygen depletion. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Depth of anaesthesia and post-operative cognitive dysfunction

    Background: A deep level of anaesthesia measured by the bispectral index has been found to improve processing speed as one aspect of cognitive function after surgery. The purpose of the present study was to assess the possible effect of the level of anaesthesia on post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) 1 week after surgery, as assessed by a neuropsychological test battery. Methods: We included 70 patients >60 years of age scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery with general anaesthesia. The depth of anaesthesia was monitored using the cerebral state monitor, which provided a cerebral state index (CSI) value. Cognitive function was assessed by the ISPOCD neuropsychological test battery before and at 1 week (or hospital discharge) after surgery and POCD was defined as a Z score above 1.96. Results: Five patients were not assessed after surgery. The mean CSI was 40 and 43 in patients with (N=9) and without POCD (N=56), respectively (P=0.41). The cumulated time of both deep anaesthesia (CSI<40) and light anaesthesia (CSI>60) did not differ significantly, and no significant correlation was found between the mean CSI and the Z score. Conclusion: We were unable to detect a significant association between the depth of anaesthesia and the presence of POCD 1 week after the surgery. [source]

    Effect of Sodium Chloride Salinity on Seedling Emergence in Chickpea

    H. A. Esechie
    Although laboratory (Petri dish) germination as an estimate of seed viability is a standard practice, it may not give an accurate prediction of seedling emergence in the field, especially when saline irrigation water is used. Experiments were conducted to investigate seedling emergence in two chickpea cultivars (ILC 482 and Barka local) in response to varied salinity levels and sowing depths. Seeds were sown in potted soil at a depth of 2, 4 or 6 cm. The salinity treatments were 4.6, 8.4 and 12.2 dS m,1. Tap water (0.8 dS m,1) served as the control. Depth of sowing had a significant effect on seedling emergence. Seeds sown 6 cm deep showed the lowest seedling emergence. Similarly, salinity had an adverse effect on seedling emergence. The lowest seedling emergence percentages were obtained at the highest salinity treatment (12.2 dS m,1). The interaction between salinity treatment and seeding depth was significant. Hypocotyl injury was implicated as a possible cause of poor seedling emergence in chickpea under saline water irrigation and was less severe when pre-germinated seeds were used. ILC 482 appeared to be more tolerant to salinity than Barka local, suggesting that breeding programmes involving regional exchange of germplasm may be helpful. Einfluss einer Natriumchloridversalzung auf den Sämlingsaufgang von Kichererbse Obwohl im Laboratorium (Petrischale) die Keimung an Hand einer Abschätzung der Samenkeimkraft als Standard beurteilt wird, kann dies eine nicht zuverlässige Voraussage des Sämlingsaufganges im Feld sein, insbesondere wenn versalztes Bewässerungswasser verwendet wird. Die Experimente wurden durchgeführt, um das Sämlingsauflaufen von zwei Kichererbsenkultivaren (ILC 482 und Barka local) in der Reaktion gegenüber variierten Versalzungskonzentrationen und Aussaattiefen zu untersuchen. Die Samen wurden in Gefäßkulturen mit einer Tiefe von 2, 4 oder 6 cm angesät. Die Versalzungsbehandlungen betrugen 4.6, 8.4 und 12.2 dS m,1. Unversalztes Wasser (0.8 dS m,1) diente als Kontrolle. Die Aussaattiefe hatte einen signifikanten Einfluss auf das Auflaufen der Sämlinge. Samen mit einer 6 cm Tiefe Ansaat hatten den schlechtesten Auflauf. Entsprechend zeigte auch die Versalzung einen ungünstigen Einfluss auf den Sämlingsaufgang. Die schlechteste Keimlingsaufgangsrate wurde bei der höchsten Versalzungsbehandlung (12.2 dS m,1) gefunden. Die Interaktion zwischen Versalzungsbehandlungen und Saattiefe war signifikant. Die Hypokotytbeschädigung wird als eine mögliche Ursache der schwachen Auflaufraten bei Kichererbse unter dem Einfluss versalzten Bewässerungswassers erklärt; die Wirkung war weniger schwer, wenn vorgekeimte Samen verwendet wurden. ILC 482 scheint toleranter gegenüber Versalzung zu sein als Barka local; es erscheint zweckmäßig, Zuchtprogramme unter Verwendung regionaler Genotypen durchzuführen. [source]

    Comparison of the size selectivity of diamond (PA) and square (PE) mesh codends for deepwater crustacean species in the Antalya Bay, eastern Mediterranean

    M. C. Deval
    Summary The aim of this study was to compare selectivity results of currently used 44 mm nominal polyamide (PA) diamond mesh- and alternatively suggested 40 mm nominal polyethylene (PE) square mesh- codends in the deepwater crustacean trawl fishery in the Antalya Bay, eastern Mediterranean. Selectivity experiments were carried out during targeted trawling of four commonly harvested crustacean species: giant red shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, ,blue and red' shrimp Aristeus antennatus, rose shrimp Parapenaeus longirostris, and pandalid shrimp Plesionika martia. A conventional bottom trawl of 600 meshes around the fishing circle was operated onboard a commercial stern trawler between 6 and 18 June 2007. Depth of the fishing area varied between 441 and 630 m. Data were collected using the covered codend technique, and analyzed using a logistic equation with maximum likelihood for individual and pooled hauls. The commercially used trawl codend was unable to release immature crustaceans. Selectivity parameters of the three species of crustaceans were distinctly lower when collected with the polyamide diamond mesh than with the polyethylene square mesh, except in the case of giant red shrimp for which values were similar. However, the present and previous results show that in square mesh codends, mesh sizes must be more than 40 mm in order to keep catches clear of specimens below minimum landing sizes or 50% sexual maturity sizes of crustaceans in the Mediterranean. This study suggests that regulating mesh size by requiring square mesh openings during deep water crustacean trawling of the eastern Mediterranean is essential for the release of immature individuals. [source]

    Direct analysis of sulfate reducing bacterial communities in gas hydrate-impacted marine sediments by PCR,DGGE

    Christopher E. Bagwell
    Abstract Molecular investigations of the sulfate reducing bacteria that target the dissimilatory sulfite-reductase subunit A gene (dsr A) are plagued by the nonspecific performance of conventional PCR primers. Here we describe the incorporation of the FailSafeÔ PCR System to optimize environmental analysis of dsr A by PCR amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. PCR,DGGE analysis of dsr A composition revealed that SRB diversity was greater and more variable throughout the vertical profile of a marine sediment core obtained from a gas hydrate site (GC234) in the Gulf of Mexico than in a sediment core collected from a nearby site devoid of gas hydrates (NBP). Depth profiled dsr B abundance corresponded with sulfate reduction rates at both sites, though measurements were higher at GC234. This study exemplifies the numerical and functional importance of sulfate reducing bacteria in deep-sea sedimentary environments, and incremental methodological advancements, as described herein, will continue to streamline the analysis of sulfate reducer communities in situ. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Effect of a controlled-release chlorhexidine chip on clinical and microbiological parameters of periodontal syndrome

    Daniela C. Grisi
    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a controlled-released chlorhexidine chip (CHX) as adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Material and methods: Twenty patients with at least four sites with probing depth ,,5 mm and bleeding on probing were selected. This randomized single-blind study was carried out in parallel design. The control group received SRP alone, while the test group received SRP plus CHX chip. The clinical parameters, Plaque Index (PlI), Papillary Bleeding Score (PBS), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), Gingival Recession (GR), Probing Depth (PD) and Relative Attachment Level (RAL), and the microbiological parameter BANA test were recorded at baseline and after 3, 6 and 9 months. Results: Both groups presented significant improvements in all parameters analyzed over the study period. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups for any parameter analyzed after 9 months, except for BOP, which was significantly reduced in the control group. The mean reductions on PD and RAL were 2.4 mm and 1.0 mm for the control group and 2.2 mm and 0.6 mm for the test group, respectively. Conclusion: The CHX chip did not provide any clinical or microbiological benefit beyond that achieved with conventional scaling and root planning, after a 9-month period. Zusammenfassung Wirkung eines Chlorhexidin-Chips mit kontrollierter Wirkstoff-Freisetzung auf klinische und mikrobiologische Parameter parodontaler Erkrankungen Zielsetzung: Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Evaluierung der Wirksamkeit eines Chlorhexidin-Chips mit kontrollierter Wirkstoff-Freisetzung (CHX) als Adjunktivtherapie zu Zahnsteinentfernung (Scaling) und Wurzelglätten (Root planing) bei der Behandlung einer chronischen Parodontitis. Material und Methodik: Zur Teilnahme an der Studie wurden zwanzig Patienten mit mindestens vier Stellen mit einer Sondiertiefe von ,5 mm und Blutung bei der Sondierung ausgewählt. Diese randomisierte einfach-blinde Studie wurde mit Parallelgruppenaufbau durchgeführt. Die Kontrollgruppe erhielt ausschliesslich SRP, die Testgruppe dagegen erhielt SRP plus den CHX-Chip. Zu Baseline und nach 3, 6 und 9 Monaten wurden die klinischen Parameter Plaque-Index (PlI), Papillarblutungs-Score (PBS), Blutung bei Sondierung (BOP), Gingivaretraktion (GR), Sondiertiefe (PD), Relatives Attachmentniveau (RAL) und die mikrobiologischen Parameter (BANA-Test) verzeichnet. Ergebnisse: Beide Gruppen zeigten signifikante Verbesserungen aller analysierten Parameter über den Studienzeitraum. Nach 9 Monaten konnten mit Ausnahme von BOP, was in der Kontrollgruppe eine signifikante Reduktion zeigte, keine statistisch signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen den beiden Gruppen für die untersuchten Parameter festgestellt werden. Die durchschnittlichen Reduktionen bei PD und RAL waren 2,4 mm und 1,0 mm in der Kontrollgruppe und 2,2 mm bzw. 0,6 mm in der Testgruppe. Schlussfolgerung: Nach einer 9-monatigen Behandlungszeit konnten mit dem CHX-Chip zusätzlich zu dem durch konventionelles Scaling und Wurzelglätten erzielten klinischen und mikrobiologischen Nutzen keine weiteren Vorteile erzielt werden. Résumé Influence d'une capsule de chlorhexidine à libération contrôlée sur les paramètres cliniques et microbiologiques de la maladie parodontale But: Le but de cette étude était d'évaluer l'efficacité d'une capsule de chlorhexidine (CHX) à libération contrôlée comme thérapie complémentaire au détartrage et au surfaçage radiculaire (scaling and root planing, SRP) dans le traitement de la parodontite chronique. Matériaux et méthodes: Vingt patients avec au moins quatre sites présentant une profondeur au sondage ,5 mm et un saignement au sondage ont été sélectionnés. Cette étude randomisée en simple aveugle a été conduite en parallèle. Le groupe contrôle a uniquement bénéficié de SRP, tandis que le groupe test a reçu SRP plus une capsule CHX. Les paramètres cliniques, l'indice de plaque (plaque index, PlI), l'indice de saignement papillaire (papillary bleeding score, PBS), la saignement au sondage (bleeding on probing, BOP), la récession gingivale (gingival recession, GR), la profondeur au sondage (probing depth, PD), le niveau d'attache relatif (relative attachment level, RAL) et les paramètres microbiologiques (test BANA) ont été enregistrés à la base puis après 3, 6 et 9 mois. ésultats: Les deux groupes présentaient une amélioration significative de tous les paramètres analysés au cours de la période d'étude. Entre les deux groupes, il n'y avait de différence statistiquement significative pour aucun des paramètres analysés au bout de 9 mois, sauf pour le BOP qui était considérablement réduit dans le groupe contrôle. Les baisses moyennes de PD et RAL valaient respectivement 2,4 mm et 1,0 mm pour le groupe contrôle, et 2,2 mm et 0,6 mm pour le groupe test. Conclusion: A l'issue d'une période de 9 mois, la capsule CHX n'a apporté aucun bénéfice clinique ou microbiologique supérieur à celui obtenu par détartrage et surfaçage radiculaire conventionnels. [source]

    Sonographic guidance for electron boost planning after breast-conserving surgery

    Antje Warszawski MD
    Abstract Purpose This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of using sonography for electron boost planning in breast cancer treatment and to define the factors that influence the accuracy and reproducibility of this technique. Patients and Methods Seventy-seven patients underwent 102 sonographic examinations after breast-conserving surgery and before and after radiotherapy. The size of the electron boost field was defined by measuring the postoperative cavity. Reproducibility of the sonographic findings was investigated in 25 of the patients who were examined before and after radiotherapy (at a total dose of 46,50.4 Gy). Depth (distance from the skin surface to the posterior aspect of the postoperative cavity) was measured, and sonographic appearance of the postoperative cavity was evaluated. Type of surgical procedure, time elapsed since surgery, use of systemic therapy, menopausal status, breast size, and radiation dose were investigated for their influence on sonographic appearance and visualization of the postoperative cavity. Results The postoperative cavity was well visualized in 78% of patients and visualized with some difficulty in 22%. In all but 5 patients, it was hypoechoic and inhomogeneous. The mean depth of the postoperative cavity after radiotherapy was 27 ± 4 mm. Smaller breast (p < 0.001) and younger age (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased visibility of the postoperative cavity. Sonographic appearance was the same before and after radiotherapy, but the mean difference in postoperative cavity depth between the 2 measurements was 2 mm (range, 0,4 mm). In 43/77 (56%) of the patients, changes in electron energy or in field size were required after sonographic measurement. Conclusion Sonography is a useful and reproducible means of electron boost planning, helping to avoid underdosage of the postoperative cavity and overdosage of normal tissue. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 32:333,337, 2004 [source]

    Hardness of Three Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Restorative Materials as a Function of Depth and Time

    ABSTRACT Statement of the Problem:, The polymerization of bulk-placed resin-modified glass-ionomer (RMGI) restoratives is compromised when penetration of the curing light is limited because of the materials' thickness. It is unknown if additional post light-curing resin polymerization and/or glass-ionomer setting occurs over time to ensure adequate polymerization. Purpose:, The primary objective was to evaluate the depth of cure of various thicknesses of RMGI restorative products over 1 year using Knoop hardness (KH) testing. Materials and Methods:, The materials were placed in Delrin molds having an internal diameter of 5.0 mm and heights of 2, 3, 4, and 5 mm and were photopolymerized with a halogen light-curing unit. Five specimens of each depth were prepared for each time period evaluated. Specimens were stored in darkness at 37 ± 2°C and 98 ± 2% humidity until being tested at 24 hours, 1 week, and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after fabrication. Mean KH values were calculated for the bottom and top surfaces of each thickness group and used to determine bottom/top hardness ratios. Data were compared using two-way analysis of variance (factors of time, thickness) at a 0.05 significance level with Scheffé's post hoc analysis, where required. Results:, The materials had relatively stable top surface KH, which permitted valid assessment of changes in bottom surface KH over time. The bottom surface KH of some RMGIs changed significantly over time (p < 0.001), but degrees of change were material dependent. Certain RMGIs demonstrated a potential for statistically significant post light-activation hardening; however, that too was material dependent. As compared with top surface KH, deeper layers of the thicker RMGI specimens consistently failed to achieve an adequate degree of polymerization. Conclusion:, Although certain RMGI materials demonstrate a potential for post light-activation chemically initiated resin polymerization and/or polyalkenoate acid/base reaction, these reactions may not be sufficient to ensure that the material is adequately polymerized for long-term success. This is particularly true when RMGI materials are placed in thicker layers where curing light penetration may be compromised. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE RMGI materials should not be placed in bulk but photopolymerized in layers to ensure adequate light activation. The results of this study suggest that Photac-Fil Quick be placed in layers no thicker than 2 mm while Fuji II LC and Vitremer may be placed in layers up to 3 mm in thickness. [source]

    Balancing the Needs to Assess Depth and Breadth of Knowledge: Does Essay Choice Provide a Solution?

    Linda B. Samuels

    Depth of anaesthesia monitoring in obese patients: a randomized study of propofol,remifentanil

    Background: In obese patients, depth of anaesthesia monitoring could be useful in titrating intravenous anaesthetics. We hypothesized that depth of anaesthesia monitoring would reduce recovery time and use of anaesthetics in obese patients receiving propofol and remifentanil. Methods: We investigated 38 patients with a body mass index ,30 kg/m2 scheduled for an abdominal hysterectomy. Patients were randomized to either titration of propofol and remifentanil according to a cerebral state monitor (CSM group) or according to usual clinical criteria (control group). The primary end point was time to eye opening and this was assessed by a blinded observer. Results: Time to eye opening was 11.8 min in the CSM group vs. 13.4 min in the control group (P=0.58). The average infusion rate for propofol was a median of 516 vs. 617 mg/h (P=0.24) and for remifentanil 2393 vs. 2708 ,g/h (P=0.04). During surgery, when the cerebral state index was continuously between 40 and 60, the corresponding optimal propofol infusion rate was 10 mg/kg/h based on ideal body weight. Conclusion: No significant reduction in time to eye opening could be demonstrated when a CSM was used to titrate propofol and remifentanil in obese patients undergoing a hysterectomy. A significant reduction in remifentanil consumption was found. [source]

    Depth of anesthesia with desflurane does not influence the endocrine-metabolic response to pelvic surgery

    Background: It has been reported that, with deep levels of anesthesia achieved with general anesthetic agents and opioids, post-operative consumption of morphine and pain intensity can be reduced. It is not clear whether the depth of anesthesia modifies pain intensity by influencing the endocrine-metabolic stress response. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a high concentration of desflurane on peri-operative plasma cortisol. Methods: The study was prospective and observer blinded, and included 20 women scheduled for elective total abdominal hysterectomy. They were randomly divided in to two groups: a deep group (D) (n=10) and a light group (L) (n=10). Anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl and rocuronium: desflurane was administered at two different concentrations according to Bispectral Index monitoring (deep, 25 and light, 50). Post-operative pain relief was achieved with patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Blood samples were taken before, during and after surgery for the measurement of plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Post-operative pain visual analog scale (VAS) and morphine consumption were recorded at regular intervals for the first 24 h. Results: The Concentrations of plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate increased with surgery in both groups, and remained elevated, with no difference between the two groups. VAS and morphine consumptions were similar in both groups. Conclusion: The results show that there is no relationship between the intra-operative level of anesthesia depth achieved with desflurane and the extent of endocrine-metabolic stress response. [source]

    Sensitivity of Stream flow and Water Table Depth to Potential Climatic Variability in a Coastal Forested Watershed,

    Zhaohua Dai
    Dai, Zhaohua, Carl C. Trettin, Changsheng Li, Devendra M. Amatya, Ge Sun, and Harbin Li, 2010. Sensitivity of Streamflow and Water Table Depth to Potential Climatic Variability in a Coastal Forested Watershed. Journal of the American Water Resources Association (JAWRA) 1,13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-1688.2010.00474.x Abstract:, A physically based distributed hydrological model, MIKE SHE, was used to evaluate the effects of altered temperature and precipitation regimes on the streamflow and water table in a forested watershed on the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain. The model calibration and validation against both streamflow and water table depth showed that the MIKE SHE was applicable for predicting the streamflow and water table dynamics for this watershed with an acceptable model efficiency (E > 0.5 for daily streamflow and >0.75 for monthly streamflow). The simulation results from changing temperature and precipitation scenarios indicate that climate change influences both streamflow and water table in the forested watershed. Compared to current climate conditions, the annual average streamflow increased or decreased by 2.4% with one percentage increase or decrease in precipitation; a quadratic polynomial relationship between changes in water table depth (cm) and precipitation (%) was found. The annual average water table depth and annual average streamflow linearly decreased with an increase in temperature within the range of temperature change scenarios (0-6°C). The simulation results from the potential climate change scenarios indicate that future climate change will substantially impact the hydrological regime of upland and wetland forests on the coastal plain with corresponding implications to altered ecosystem functions that are dependent on water. [source]

    Quantification of glycerol diffusion in human normal and cancer breast tissues in vitro with optical coherence tomography

    H.Q. Zhong
    Abstract Optical coherence tomography (OCT) holds great promise as a routine research tool for analysis of identifying the boundaries between normal and diseased breast tissue in vitro and in vivo. However, despite the depth penetration afforded by this imaging modality, light attenuation in tissues imposes limitations. Here we studied the optical clearing effect of glycerol in human cancer and normal breast tissues with OCT for functional imaging to monitor. Depth- and time-resolved profiles for OCT signal enhancement were presented. The results show that the OCT imaging depth and imaging contrast of breast tissues have been improved after application of 60% glycerol in the 2-D OCT images. The OCT slope signals of breast tissues decreased as glycerol diffusion into tissues, therefore, the water and intercellular fluids were drawn out from tissues. Then the reverse process due to water was drawn back into the cells as a result of its affinity for water. The permeability coefficient of 60% glycerol was (3.14 ± 0.07) × 10,5 cm/s in breast cancer tissues, and (0.89 ± 0.02) × 10,5 cm/s in normal breast tissues, respectively. The permeability coefficient of glycerol in cancer tissues was 3.54-fold than that in normal tissues. These results demonstrate that the optical clearing of normal and cancer breast tissues are improved after application of glycerol. (© 2010 by Astro Ltd., Published exclusively by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA) [source]

    Excitation of the Intrinsic Conduction System Through His and Interventricular Septal Pacing

    Background: Direct His bundle pacing results in rapid synchronous ventricular activation. However, clinical experiences with such pacing have been associated with long procedure times and compromised pacing and sensing performance. Methods: We evaluated myocardial activation sequences (AS) for pacing of the His bundle and peri-His region and assessed acute pacing performance using custom-designed plunge electrodes. Unipolar pacing was performed in isolated swine hearts (n = 10) using four quadripolar stimulation/sensing electrodes implanted into the interventricular septum and equally spaced between the membranous septum and the coronary sinus ostium (zones 1,4, respectively; electrode depth (ED) 1 = most distal, ED 4 = most proximal). Optimal pacing sites were defined as: pacing thresholds ,1.5 V, a P-R ratio of ,0.5, and ,50% occurrence of an intrinsic midseptal left ventricular (LV) endocardial electrical breakout (BO) and activation pattern. Results: Pacing thresholds improved with greater depth of electrode location within the septum (ED 1: 1.51 ± 0.8 V vs ED 4: 5.2 ± 3.8 V, P < 0.001), as did the P-R ratio (0.34 ± 0.6 vs 0.78 ± 1.0, P < 0.05). His potentials were only observed in zone 1 and 2 electrodes (0.12 and 0.02 mV, respectively). Only electrodes in zones 1 and 2 produced LV endocardial electrical BOs in the midseptal region that demonstrated an intrinsic-like endocardial AS. Depth 1 and 2 electrodes (11.75 and 8.75 mm, respectively) in zone 1 satisfied all three optimal pacing site requirements. Conclusions: This study has shown that LV activation patterns similar to sinus rhythm may be achieved without direct activation of the His bundle, while maintaining acceptable pacing and sensing performance. These data indicate that pacing systems designed to stimulate the tissues below the point at which the His bundle penetrates the central fibrous body may provide improved system efficiency and LV performance in comparison to both direct His bundle pacing and traditional pacing sites. [source]

    Sedation and neuromuscular blockade in paediatric intensive care: a review of current practice in the UK

    MBBS, Stephen D. Playfor DM
    SummaryBackground: Our aim was to investigate the current practice of sedation and neuromuscular blockade in critically ill children in paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the UK. Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all PICUs in the UK. Results: The most commonly used sedative agents were midazolam in combination with morphine. Written clinical guidelines for the sedation of critically ill children were available in 45% of units. Sedation is formally assessed in 40% of units. Vecuronium is the most commonly used neuromuscular blocking agent. In the UK, 31% of critically ill children are likely to receive neuromuscular blocking agents. Depth of neuromuscular blockade is routinely assessed in 16% of patients. Conclusions: Relatively few units possess clinical guidelines for the sedation of critically ill children, and only a minority formally assess sedation levels. Where neuromuscular blocking agents are administered, sedation is frequently inadequately assessed and the depth of neuromuscular blockade is rarely estimated. [source]

    The Need for Comparative Studies in Historical Depth

    Demetrios Argyriades
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Effect of Oxytocin Treatment on Artificial Insemination with Frozen,Thawed Semen in Murciano,Granadina Goats

    MP Viudes-de-Castro
    Contents The site where the semen is deposited appears to be one of the most important factors affecting pregnancy of inseminated goats. In Murciano,Granadina (MG) goats, post-cervical insemination is achieved in a limited number of females. An effective way to increase fertility rate could be by increasing post-cervical inseminations. Effect of exogenous oxytocin application to facilitate the cervical penetration and its effect on kidding rate and prolificacy in MG goats were investigated. Oestrus was synchronized using progesterone-impregnated sponges for 11 days. Females were randomly divided into three groups (n = 190) and received either an i.v. injection of 100 or 200 IU of oxytocin or saline solution 15 min before being inseminated. Data on semen deposition depth were recorded for each animal using a catheter scaled in centimetres (up to 4 cm). Depth of semen deposition was affected by the oxytocin treatment (p < 0.05). Oxytocin enhanced cervical passage only with the dose of 200 IU compared with the control group, increasing the deposition depth (2.9 cm vs 1.9 cm). No significant effect of oxytocin treatment on kidding rate and prolificacy was detected. Depth of semen deposition affected kidding rate (p < 0.01). In conclusion, oxytocin treatment improved the depth of semen deposition in AI of MG goats, but kidding rate and prolificacy was not affected. More studies must be conducted to assess the minimal effective dose required for sufficient cervical dilation, and to determine the effects of such doses of oxytocin on uterine motility, sperm transport and fertility in goats. [source]

    Best Article Award 2007, Society of Resource Geology, presented to Etsuo Uchida, Sho Endo and Mitsutoshi Makino: Relationship Between Solidification Depth of Granitic Rocks and Formation of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits.

    RESOURCE GEOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Resource Geology
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]