Depleted Mantle (depleted + mantle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mantle heterogeneity beneath the Antarctic,Phoenix Ridge off Antarctic Peninsula

ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2008
Sung-Hi Choi
Abstract We determined the Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of basalts recovered from the Antarctic,Phoenix Ridge (APR), a fossil spreading center in the Drake Passage, Antarctic Ocean, in order to understand the nature of the subridge mantle source. There are no known hotspots in close proximity to the site. We observe that small-scale isotopic heterogeneity exists at a shallow level in the subaxial mantle of the APR. Enriched (E-type) mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) coexist with normal (N-type) MORB in this region. The E-type basalts are: (i) relatively young compared to the N-type samples; (ii) were erupted after the extinction of the APR; and (iii) have been generated by low-degree partial melting of an enriched mantle source. Extinction of the APR likely caused the extent of partial melting in this region to decrease. We interpret that the geochemically enriched materials dispersed in the ambient depleted mantle were the first fraction to melt to form the E-type MORB. [source]

Pb, Nd, and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Miocene basaltic rocks from northeast Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for opening of the Kurile back-arc basin

ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2000
Yasuo Ikeda
Abstract Late Miocene (7,9 Ma) basaltic rocks from the Monbetsu-Kamishihoro graben in northeast Hokkaido have chemical affinities to certain back-arc basin basalts (referred to herein as Hokkaido BABB). Pb-, Nd- and Sr-isotopic compositions of the Hokkaido BABB and arc-type volcanic rocks (11,13 Ma and 4,4.5 Ma) from the nearby region indicate mixing between the depleted mantle and an EM II-like enriched component (e.g. subducted pelagic sediment) in the magma generation. At a given 87Sr/86Sr, Hokkaido BABB have slightly lower 143Nd/144Nd and slightly less radiogenic 206Pb/204Pb compared with associated arc-type lavas, but both these suites are difficult to distinguish solely on the basis of isotopic compositions. These isotopic data indicate that while generation of the Hokkaido BABB involves smaller amounts of the EM II-like enriched component than do associated arc lavas, Hokkaido BABB are isotopically distinct from basalts produced at normal back-arc basin spreading centers. Instead, northeast Hokkaido BABB are more similar to basalts erupted during the initial rifting stage of back-arc basins. The Monbetsu-Kamishihoro graben may have developed in association with extension that formed the Kurile Basin, suggesting that opening of the basin continued until late Miocene (7,9 Ma). [source]

Petrochemical constraints for dual origin of garnet peridotites from the Dabie-Sulu UHP terrane, eastern-central China

Garnet peridotites occur as lenses, blocks or layers within granulite,amphibolite facies gneiss in the Dabie-Sulu ultra-high-pressure (UHP) terrane and contain coesite-bearing eclogite. Two distinct types of garnet peridotite were identified based on mode of occurrence and petrochemical characteristics. Type A mantle-derived peridotites originated from either: (1) the mantle wedge above a subduction zone, (2) the footwall mantle of the subducted slab, or (3) were ancient mantle fragments emplaced at crustal depths prior to UHP metamorphism, whereas type B crustal peridotite and pyroxenite are a portion of mafic,ultramafic complexes that were intruded into the continental crust as magmas prior to subduction. Most type A peridotites were derived from a depleted mantle and exhibit petrochemical characteristics of mantle rocks; however, Sr and Nd isotope compositions of some peridotites have been modified by crustal contamination during subduction and/or exhumation. Type B peridotite and pyroxenite show cumulate structure, and some have experienced crustal metasomatism and contamination documented by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.707,0.708), low ,Nd(t) values (,6 to ,9) and low ,18O values of minerals (+2.92 to +4.52). Garnet peridotites of both types experienced multi-stage recrystallization; some of them record prograde histories. High- P,T estimates (760,970 C and 4.0,6.50.2 GPa) of peak metamorphism indicate that both mantle-derived and crustal ultramafic rocks were subducted to profound depths >100 km (the deepest may be ,180,200 km) and experienced UHP metamorphism in a subduction zone with an extremely low geothermal gradient of <5 C km,1. [source]

Geochronology and Geochemistry of Mafic Dikes from Hainan Island and Tectonic Implications

CAO Jianjin
Abstract: In the present study, the major and trace element compositions, as well as Sr, Nd isotopic compositions and K-Ar age data in mafic dikes from Hainan Island, China, have been analyzed. Whole-rock K-Ar dating yielded a magmatic duration of 61,98 Ma for mafic dikes. Mafic dikes have a very high concentration of incompatible elements, for example, Ba, Rb, Sr, K, rare earth elements, and especially light rare earth elements (LREE), and negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, and Ti in the normalized trace element patterns. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and ,Sr(t) of the mafic dikes are 0.70634,0.71193 and +27.7 to +112.2, respectively. In the 87Sr/86Sr versus ,Nd(t) diagram, the Hainan Island mafic dikes plot between fields for depleted mantle and enriched mantle type 2. All these characteristics show that the mantle (source region) of mafic dikes in this area experienced metasomatism by fluids relatively enriched in LREE and large ion lithophile elements. The genesis of Hainan Island mafic dikes is explained as a result of the mixing of asthenospheric mantle with lithospheric mantle that experienced metasomatism by the subduction of the Pacific Plate. This is different from the Hainan Island Cenozoic basalts mainly derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, and possibly, minor metasomatised lithospheric mantle. This study suggests that the Mesozoic and Cenozoic lithospheric revolutions in Hainan Island can be divided into three stages: (1) the compression orogenesis stage before 98 Ma. The dominant factor during this stage is the subduction of the ancient Pacific Plate beneath this area. The lithospheric mantle changed into enriched mantle type 2 by metasomatism; (2) the thinning and extension stage during 61,98 Ma. The dominant factor during this stage is that the asthenospheric mantle invaded and corroded the lithospheric mantle; and (3) the large-scale thinning and extension stage after 61 Ma. The large-scale asthenospheric upwelling results in the strong erupting of Cenozoic basalts, large-scale thinning of the lithosphere, the southward translating and counterclockwise rotating of Hainan Island, and the opening of the South China Sea. [source]

Geochemistry, Nd Isotopic Characteristics of Metamorphic Complexes in Northern Hebei: Implications for Crustal Accretion

LIU Shuwen
Abstract: The middle segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC) consists mainly of metamorphosed Archean Dantazi Complex, Paleoproterozoic Hongqiyingzi Complex and unmetamorphosed gabbro-anorthosite-meta-alkaline granite, as well as metamorphosed Late Paleozoic mafic to granitoid rocks in the Damiao-Changshaoying area. The ,2.49 Ga Dantazi Complex comprises dioritic-trondhjemitic-granodoritic-monzogranitic gneisses metamorphosed in amphibolite to granulite facies. Petrochemical characteristics reveal that most of the rocks belong to a medium- to high-potassium calc-alkaline series, and display Mg#less than 40, right-declined REE patterns with no to obviously positive Eu anomalies, evidently negative Th, Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies in primitive mantle-normalized spider diagrams, ,Nd(t)=+0.65 to ,0.03, and depleted mantle model ages TDM=2.78-2.71 Ga. Study in petrogenesis indicates that the rocks were formed from magmatic mixing between mafic magma from the depleted mantle and granitoid magma from partial melting of recycled crustal mafic rocks in a continental margin setting. The 2.44-2.41 Ga Hongqiyingzi Complex is dominated by metamorphic mafic-granodioritic-monzogranitic gneisses, displaying similar petrochemical features to the Dantazi Complex, namely medium to high potassium calc-alkaline series, and the mafic rocks show evident change in LILEs, negative Th, Nb, Ta, Zr anomalies and positive P anomalies. And the other granitiod samples also exhibit negative Th, Nb, Ta, P and Ti anomalies. All rocks in the Hongqiyingzi Complex show right-declined REE patterns without Eu anomaly. The metamorphic mafic rocks with ,Nd(t)= ,1.64 may not be an identical magmatic evolution series with granitoids that have ,Nd(t) values of +3.19 to +1.94 and TDM ages of 2.55-2.52 Ga. These granitic rocks originated from hybrid between mafic magma from the depleted mantle and magma from partial melting of juvenile crustal mafic rocks in an island arc setting. All the ,311 Ma Late Paleozoic metamorphic mafic rocks and related granitic rocks show a medium-potassium calc-alkaline magmatic evolution series, characterized by high Mg#, obviously negative Th, Nb, Ta anomalies and positive Sr anomalies, from no to strongly negative Ti anomalies and flat REE patterns with ,Nd(t)= +8.42, implying that the mafic magma was derived from the depleted mantle. However the other granitic rocks are characterized by right-declined REE patterns with no to evidently positive Eu anomalies, significantly low ,Nd(t)= ,13.37 to ,14.04, and TDM=1.97-1.96 Ga, revealing that the granitoid magma was derived from hybrid between mafic magma that came from ,311 Ma depleted mantle and granitoid magma from Archean to Early Paleoproterozoic ancient crustal recycling. The geochemistry and Nd isotopic characteristics as well as the above geological and geochronological results indicate that the middle segment of the northern margin of the NCC mainly experienced four crustal growth episodes from Archean to Late Paleozoic, which were dominated by three continental marginal arc accretions (,2.49, ,2.44 and 311 Ma), except the 1.76-1.68 Ga episode related to post-collisional extension, revealing that the crustal accretion of this segment was chiefly generated from arc accretion and amalgamation to the NCC continental block. [source]