Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Department

  • academic emergency department
  • adult emergency department
  • audit department
  • australian department
  • australian economics department
  • australian emergency department
  • california department
  • cardiology department
  • care department
  • dermatology department
  • different department
  • economics department
  • education department
  • emergency department
  • engineering department
  • ent department
  • foreign language department
  • government department
  • health department
  • hospital department
  • hospital emergency department
  • internal audit department
  • internal medicine department
  • justice department
  • language department
  • local department
  • local health department
  • management department
  • medical department
  • medicine department
  • new department
  • older emergency department
  • oncology department
  • operating department
  • other department
  • outpatient department
  • paediatric department
  • paediatric emergency department
  • pathology department
  • pediatric department
  • pediatric emergency department
  • physiotherapy department
  • police department
  • psychiatric department
  • public health department
  • r&d department
  • radiology department
  • research department
  • same department
  • science department
  • service department
  • services department
  • setting department
  • social services department
  • social work department
  • state department
  • state health department
  • states department
  • surgery department
  • surgical department
  • teaching hospital emergency department
  • texas department
  • the state department
  • therapy department
  • u.s. department
  • uk department
  • united states department
  • university department
  • urban emergency department
  • urology department
  • us department
  • work department

  • Terms modified by Department

  • department care
  • department of health and human services
  • department patient
  • department presentation
  • department record
  • department services
  • department setting
  • department staff
  • department ultrasound
  • department use
  • department visit

  • Selected Abstracts

    Guidelines Abstracted from the Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Stroke Rehabilitation

    Miriam Rodin MD
    OBJECTIVES: To assist facilities in identifying those evidence-based processes of poststroke care that enhance measurable patient outcomes. The guideline(s) should be used by facilities (hospitals, subacute-care units and providers of long-term care) to implement a structured approach to improve rehabilitative practices and by clinicians to determine best interventions to achieve improved patient outcomes. OPTIONS: The guideline considers five elements of poststroke rehabilitation care: interdisciplinary teams; use of standardized assessments; intensity, timing, and duration of therapy; involvement of patients' families and caregivers in decision-making; and educational interventions for patients, families, and caregivers. Evidence, benefits, harms, and recommendations for each of the five designated elements and specific annotated recommendations for poststroke managements are presented separately. OUTCOMES: The overall guideline considers improvement in functional status measures as the primary outcome. Achieving community-dwelling status and preventing complications, death, and rehospitalization are also important outcomes. Costs are not specifically addressed. PARTICIPANTS: The Department of Veterans Affairs/Department of Defense (VA/DoD) Stroke Rehabilitation Working Group consisted of 28, largely VA and military hospital, representatives of medical and allied professions concerned with stroke diagnosis, management, and rehabilitation. Nine additional members with similar credentials served as the editorial committee. Technical consultation was contracted from ACS Federal Health Care, Inc., and the Center for Evidence-Based Practice, State University of New York,Upstate Medical University, Department of Family Medicine conducted evidence appraisal. Consensus was achieved over several years of facilitated group discussion and iterative evaluation of draft documents and supporting evidence. SPONSOR: The guideline was prepared under the auspices of the VA/DoD. No other source of support was identified in the document, or supporting documents. [source]


    Research Summary The perception and existence of biased policing or racial profiling is one of the most difficult issues facing contemporary American society. Citizens from minority communities have focused their concerns on the improper use of race by law enforcement officers. The current research uses a complex methodological approach to investigate claims that the Miami-Dade, Florida Police Department uses race improperly for the purposes of making traffic stops and conducting post-stop activities. The results are mixed in that the officer's aggregate actions do not show a pattern of discriminatory actions toward minority citizens when making a traffic stop, but results of post-stop activities do show some disparate treatment of minorities. Policy Implications Five specific policy recommendations are made to reduce the perception or reality of racial profiling by the police. First, police departments must have clear policies and directives explaining the proper use of race in decision making. Second, officers must be trained and educated in the overall impact of using race as a factor in deciding how to respond to a citizen. Third, the department must maintain a data-collection and analytic system to monitor the activities of their officers as it pertains to the race of the citizen. The fourth police recommendation involves the use of record checks in the field that can set in motion a process that results in the detention and arrest of citizens. Fifth, the completion of a record of interrogation for later intelligence has implications for the citizen. The use of this intelligence tool must depend on suspicion rather than on the race of the citizen. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    John S. Humphreys
    ABSTRACT Since 1996, University Departments of Rural Health (UDRH) have been established at Broken Hill, Mount Isa, Shepparton, Launceston, Whyalla, Alice Springs and Geraldton. Each UDRH is underpinned by Commonwealth funding for an initial period of 5 years. The role of the UDRHs is to contribute to an increase in the rural and remote health workforce through education and training programs, as well as a reduction in the health differentials between rural and urban people and between indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. A strong population health focus involving partnerships between existing health providers in a targeted region and the university sector underpins their operation. While UDRHs have been established as a means of addressing a national workforce problem, their organisational arrangements with universities and local service providers vary widely, as does the program mix of activities in education, research service development, facilitation and advocacy. This article outlines some of the activities and progress of the UDRHs to date. [source]

    New methodologies in teaching e-structural mechanics using WWW,

    Carmelo Maiorana
    Abstract A recently initiated phase of experimentation and research in the online Distance Learning (DL) is here described. The project has been developed by the Department of Construction and Transportation Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Padua along with the well-established e-learning experience of the SSIS Veneto (Institute for the Formation of Secondary School's Teachers) of Cà Foscari,University of Venice, in collaboration with the webmaster management of TCN-EnginSoft of Padua. The work deals with teaching methodologies supported by the net, computer communication and information technologies, finalized to give both widespread access to useful resources and to create a more flexible exchange due to net communication. The experimentation of using web-based technologies to support traditional teaching for working students is described; in fact, Internet-based innovations offer opportunities for a curriculum improvement to those categories of students who could be considered at a disadvantage, like worker students or students with ear or motion deafness. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 189,210, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae20167 [source]

    A comparative study of student performance in traditional mode and online mode of learning

    Qiping Shen
    Abstract There has been interest for many decades in comparing the effectiveness of technology-delivered instruction with traditional face-to-face teaching and measurable student outcomes have been an important indicator. Having pointed to salient aspects of the current academic environment and to some of the key literature in this area, this article analyses the performance of two groups of students studying in the traditional mode and the online mode in a masters program delivered by a Department of Computing at a university in Hong Kong. Over 2,000 students have participated in the study between 2000 and 2004. This article includes a comparison of the results between different delivery modes of study each year as well as between different classes over the 4-year period. Although traditional mode students have achieved a slightly better performance in examinations in comparison with online mode students, the article concludes that there are no significant differences in overall performance between the students. With the impact of technologies on higher education and the demands of a complex and rapidly changing society in the 21st century, this Hong Kong study contributes to the literature that finds mode of study is not a key determinant of success. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 15: 30,40, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20092 [source]

    Computer-based management environment for an assembly language programming laboratory

    Santiago Rodríguez
    Abstract This article describes the environment used in the Computer Architecture Department of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) for managing small laboratory work projects and a specific application for an Assembly Language Programming Laboratory. The approach is based on a chain of tools that a small team of teachers can use to efficiently manage a course with a large number of students (400 per year). Students use this tool chain to complete their assignments using an MC88110 CPU simulator also developed by the Department. Students use a Delivery Agent tool to send files containing their implementations. These files are stored in one of the Department servers. Every student laboratory assignment is tested by an Automatic Project Evaluator that executes a set of previously designed and configured tests. These tools are used by teachers to manage mass courses thereby avoiding restrictions on students working on the same assignment. This procedure may encourage students to copy others' laboratory work and we have therefore developed a complementary tool to help teachers find "replicated" laboratory assignment implementations. This tool is a plagiarism detection assistant that completes the tool-chain functionality. Jointly, these tools have demonstrated over the last decade that important benefits can be gained from the exploitation of a global laboratory work management system. Some of the benefits may be transferable to an area of growing importance that we have not directly explored, i.e. distance learning environments for technical subjects. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 15: 41,54, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20094 [source]

    Animated instructional software for mechanics of materials: Implementation and assessment

    Timothy A. Philpot
    Abstract During the past 3 years, the Basic Engineering Department at the University of Missouri, Rolla has been developing a second-generation suite of instructional software called MecMovies for the Mechanics of Materials course. The MecMovies suite consists of over 110 animated example problems, drill-and-practice games, and interactive exercises. Students generally respond favorably to software of this type; however, much of the data that has been gathered to assess the effectiveness of similar software has been anecdotal. The method by which instructional software is incorporated into the engineering class is partly responsible for this lack of systematic evaluation. Often, software packages have been implemented in the classroom as supplemental material,recommended but not required. In the Fall 2003 semester, MecMovies was integrated thoroughly into the course assignments for one of the six UMR Mechanics of Materials sections. Four professors were involved in the study, and student performance in the experimental MecMovies section was compared to performance in the five control sections through a common final exam. At the end of the semester, students who used the MecMovies software also completed a survey questionnaire consisting of a number of subjective rating items. This paper presents a comparison of student performance in the experimental and control sections along with discussion of student qualitative ratings and comments. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 14: 31,43, 2006; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20065 [source]

    Middleware for real-time distributed simulations

    Thom McLean
    Abstract Distributed simulation applications often rely on middleware to provide services to support their execution over distributed computing environments. Such middleware spans many levels, ranging from low-level support for data transmission through object request brokers to higher level, simulation specific functionality such as time management. We discuss design alternatives for realizing such middleware for hard real-time distributed simulations such as hardware-in-the-loop applications. We present the results from tests of a prototype implementation of real-time Run-Time Infrastructure middleware. Its performance is compared with a non-real-time implementation. The context for this work is the High Level Architecture standard that has been defined by the U.S. Department of Defense. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The ASCI Computational Grid: initial deployment

    Randal Rheinheimer
    Abstract Grid Services, a Department of Energy Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative program, has designed, implemented, and deployed a grid-based solution for customer access to large computing resources at DOE weapons labs and plants. Customers can access and monitor diverse, geographically distributed resources using the common Grid Services interfaces. This paper discusses the architecture, security, and user interfaces of the Grid Services infrastructure. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Indian residential school survivors and state-designed ADR: A strategy for co-optation?

    Neil Funk-Unrau
    The history of the Indian residential school system, which began officially in Canada in 1879, is marked by the persistent neglect and abuse of children and, as a result, of Aboriginal communities in general. The residential schools were an attempt to undermine the existence of Aboriginal communities and families. The federal government wanted Aboriginal people to assimilate into Canadian society. According to Duncan Campbell Scott, the principal architect of Indian residential school policy, "Our objective is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic, and there is no Indian question and no Indian Department. , I want to get rid of the Indian problem" (Titley, 1986, p. 50). In many communities, every child between the age of five and eighteen was taken from his or her family and put in residential schools. [source]

    Conflict resolution in a non-Western context: Conversations with Indonesian scholars and practitioners

    Brett R. Noel
    This paper describes two sets of U.S. Department of State funded workshops conducted in 2003. The purpose of one set of workshops was to introduce Indonesian educators and community leaders to Western-influenced conflict resolution education (CRE) while the other workshops sought to encourage participants to engage in conflict-focused research adapted to the culture and needs of Indonesia. [source]

    The Impact of a Brief Expectation Survey on Parental Satisfaction in the Pediatric Emergency Department

    Christopher D. Spahr MD
    Abstract Objectives To determine the effect of physician knowledge of parental expectations on satisfaction with emergency department (ED) care. Methods This was a prospective, controlled, interventional trial involving parents of children presenting to a children's hospital ED. Parents completed an expectation survey on arrival, which was either immediately placed back in the enrollment envelope (control) or shown to the physician caring for the child (intervention). The physician was instructed to initial the expectation survey to acknowledge receipt of the survey. Parents then completed a satisfaction survey at discharge. The primary outcomes were differences in satisfaction with physician review of the expectation survey, as measured by 1) parental ratings of overall care and 2) their willingness to recommend the ED to others. A third (baseline) group completed only a satisfaction survey at discharge. Results A total of 614 (66%) of the 930 enrolled parents completed the study. Intention-to-treat analysis did not show a significant increase in parental satisfaction ratings for either overall care or recommend the ED; however, only 42% of the intervention group surveys had documented physician review. When these initialed surveys were compared with the control group in a per-protocol analysis, there was a significant improvement in parental satisfaction. There were no differences between the control and baseline groups, indicating no effect of the expectation survey completion on satisfaction. Conclusions Physician knowledge of written parental expectations may improve parental satisfaction during an ED visit. Further work is needed to overcome the barriers to physician review of the expectation survey to maximize parent satisfaction. [source]

    Usefulness of Serial Assessment of Natriuretic Peptides in the Emergency Department for Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    Salvatore DiSomma MD
    The value of natriuretic peptides, both B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), for determining diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of emergency department (ED) patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has been well documented. Emerging data support the hypothesis that repeated natriuretic peptide determinations in the acute phase of ADHF may assist in confirming the diagnosis, monitoring drug therapy, and evaluating the adequacy of patient stabilization. Data from the authors' group demonstrate that in patients admitted to the ED for acute dyspnea, serial NTproBNP measurement at admission and 4, 12, and 24 hours later was useful in confirming the diagnosis of ADHF compared with patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moreover, in the same patients receiving intensive intravenous diuretic therapy, there was a progressive reduction of NTproBNP blood levels from hospitalization to discharge (P<.001), accompanied by clinical improvement and stabilization of heart failure. More recently, the authors also demonstrated that in ADHF patients improving with diuretics, a progressive reduction in BNP levels was observed, starting 24 hours after ED admission and continuing until discharge. Comparing BNP and NTproBNP, there was a significant correlation between NTproBNP and BNP levels but not between NTproBNP's and BNP's percent variation compared with baseline. In ADHF, serial ED measurements of BNP are useful for monitoring the effects of treatment. A reduction in BNP from admission to discharge is indicative of clinical improvement. [source]

    Combination of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels and Non-Invasive Hemodynamic Parameters in Diagnosing Congestive Heart Failure in the Emergency Department

    Erin Barcarse BS
    This study aimed to assess whether the combination of a B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level with various noninvasive hemodynamic parameters can help physicians more quickly and accurately diagnose congestive heart failure and determine the type of left ventricular dysfunction present in patients presenting to the emergency department with dyspnea. Subjects were 98 men (aged 64.57±1.23 years) that presented to the VA San Diego Healthcare System. Hemodynamic parameters were measured using impedance cardiography, and BNP levels were quantified using a rapid immunoassay. All patients with a BNP <100 pg/mL (n=37) had no evidence of congestive heart failure 97% of the time. In those with a BNP >100 pg/mL (601 ±55 pg/mL; n=61), a cardiac index of 2.6 L/min/m2 is 65% sensitive and 88% specific in determining systolic dysfunction. In patients with a BNP >100 pg/mL, a multivariate model consisting of noninvasive hemodynamic measurements was able to predict cardiac deaths, readmissions, and emergency department visits within 90 days with 83% accuracy. The authors conclude that, in patients presenting to an emergency department with dyspnea, the addition of impedance cardiography measurements to BNP level measurements will more effectively diagnose congestive heart failure and determine both the type of heart dysfunction and the severity of illness. [source]

    Epidemiologic Analysis of Factors Associated with Local Disappearances of Native Ranid Frogs in Arizona

    análisis de factores de riesgo; declinación de anfibios; declinación de ranas; epidemiología de vida silvestre; métodos de control de casos Abstract:,We examined factors that may independently or synergistically contribute to amphibian population declines. We used epidemiologic case,control methodology to sample and analyze a large database developed and maintained by the Arizona Game and Fish Department that describes historical and currently known ranid frog localities in Arizona, U.S.A. Sites with historical documentation of target ranid species (n= 324) were evaluated to identify locations where frogs had disappeared during the study period (case sites) and locations where frog populations persisted (control sites). Between 1986 and 2003, 117 (36%) of the 324 sites became case sites, of which 105 were used in the analyses. An equal number of control sites were sampled to control for the effects of time. Risk factors, or predictor variables, were defined from environmental data summarized during site surveys and geographic information system data layers. We evaluated risk factors with univariate and multifactorial logistic-regression analyses to derive odds ratios (OR). Odds for local population disappearance were significantly related to 4 factors in the multifactorial model. Disappearance of frog populations increased with increasing elevation (OR = 2.7 for every 500 m, p < 0.01). Sites where disappearances occurred were 4.3 times more likely to have other nearby sites that also experienced disappearances (OR = 4.3, p < 0.01), whereas the odds of disappearance were 6.7 times less (OR = 0.15, p < 0.01) when there was a source population nearby. Sites with disappearances were 2.6 times more likely to have introduced crayfish than were control sites (OR = 2.6, p= 0.04). The identification of factors associated with frog disappearances increases understanding of declines occurring in natural populations and aids in conservation efforts to reestablish and protect native ranids by identifying and prioritizing implicated threats. Resumen:,Examinamos los factores que pueden contribuir independiente o sinérgicamente a la declinación de poblaciones de anfibios. Utilizamos una metodología epidemiológica de control de casos para muestrear y analizar una base de datos desarrollada y mantenida por el Departamento de Caza y Pesca de Arizona que describe las localidades históricas y actuales de ranas en Arizona, E. U. A. Los sitios con documentación histórica de las especies de ránidos (n= 324) fueron evaluados para identificar localidades donde las ranas desaparecieron durante el período de estudio (sitios caso) y localidades donde las poblaciones de ranas persistieron (sitios control). Entre 1986 y 2003, 36% (117) de los 324 sitios se volvieron sitios caso, de los cuales 105 fueron utilizados en los análisis. El mismo número de sitios control fueron muestreados para controlar los efectos del tiempo. Los factores de riesgo, o variables predictivas, fueron definidos a partir de datos ambientales obtenidos de los muestreos en los sitios y de capas de datos de un sistema información geográfica. Evaluamos los factores de riesgo con análisis de regresión logística univariada y multivariada para derivar proporciones de probabilidades (PP). Las probabilidad para la desaparición de una población local estuvo relacionada significativamente con 4 factores en el modelo multifactorial. La desaparición de poblaciones de ranas incrementó con la elevación (PP = 2.7 por cada 500 m, p < 0.01). Los sitios donde ocurrieron las desapariciones fueron 4.3 veces más propensos a estar cerca de otros sitios donde ocurrieron desapariciones (PP = 4.3, p < 0.01), mientras que la probabilidad de desaparición fue 6.7 veces menos (PP = 0.15, p < 0.01) cuando había una población fuente cercana. Los sitios con desapariciones fueron 2.6 veces más propensos a tener langostinos introducidos que los sitios control (PP = 2.6, p= 0.04). La identificación de factores asociados con la desaparición de ranas incrementa el conocimiento de las declinaciones de poblaciones naturales y ayuda a los esfuerzos de conservación para el reestablecimiento y la protección de ránidos nativos mediante la identificación y priorización de las amenazas implicadas. [source]

    Categorizing Urgency of Infant Emergency Department Visits: Agreement between Criteria

    Rakesh D. Mistry MD
    Abstract Background The lack of valid classification methods for emergency department (ED) visit urgency has resulted in large variation in reported rates of nonurgent ED utilization. Objectives To compare four methods of defining ED visit urgency with the criterion standard, implicit criteria, for infant ED visits. Methods This was a secondary data analysis of a prospective birth cohort of Medicaid-enrolled infants who made at least one ED visit in the first six months of life. Complete ED visit data were reviewed to assess urgency via implicit criteria. The explicit criteria (adherence to prespecified criteria via complete ED charts), ED triage, diagnosis, and resources methods were also used to categorize visit urgency. Concordance and agreement (,) between the implicit criteria and alternative methods were measured. Results A total of 1,213 ED visits were assessed. Mean age was 2.8 (SD ± 1.78) months, and the most common diagnosis was upper respiratory infection (21.0%). Using implicit criteria, 52.3% of ED visits were deemed urgent. Urgent visits using other methods were as follows: explicit criteria, 51.8%; ED triage, 60.6%; diagnosis, 70.3%; and resources, 52.7%. Explicit criteria had the highest concordance (78.3%) and agreement (,= 0.57) with implicit criteria. Of limited data methods, resources demonstrated the best concordance (78.1%) and agreement (,= 0.56), while ED triage (67.9%) and diagnosis (71.6%) exhibited lower concordance and agreement (,= 0.35 and ,= 0.42, respectively). Explicit criteria and resources equally misclassified urgency for 11.1% of visits; ED triage and diagnosis tended to overclassify visits as urgent. Conclusions The explicit criteria and resources methods best approximate implicit criteria in classifying ED visit urgency in infants younger than six months of age. If confirmed in further studies, resources utilized has the potential to be an inexpensive, easily applicable method for urgency classification of infant ED visits when limited data are available. [source]

    Ethics Seminars: Withdrawal of Treatment in the Emergency Department,When and How?

    Kelly Bookman MD
    Abstract Although increasing discussion has occurred within emergency medicine about indications for withholding cardiac life support and other resuscitative interventions, emergency physicians (EPs) may be less familiar with the ethical, legal, and practical issues surrounding withdrawal of life support that has already been initiated. Both physicians and out-of-hospital personnel must act rapidly in critical situations and must assume that the patient has the desire to be resuscitated, unless clear evidence exists to the contrary. Often, only after initial life-saving actions have stabilized the patient is there time to reflect and determine a patient's desires regarding such interventions. When the EP can clearly discern a patient's previously stated wishes during the emergency department (ED) stay, these wishes should be honored in the ED. Respecting a patient's request to avoid unwanted, invasive treatments near death may involve withdrawing interventions that could not be withheld during the first few minutes of care. In this article, the authors use a case of out-of-hospital stabilization of a patient as a springboard to review the ethical and legal framework for withdrawal of life-sustaining care, as well as the practical issues involved with withdrawal of such care in the ED. [source]

    Resident Portfolio: Sandstorm in the Emergency Department

    Mateen A. Khan MD (EM-III)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    How can SMEs effectively implement the CSR agenda?

    A UK case study perspective
    This paper focuses on implementation of the CSR agenda in small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs) and reports on research findings from an action research case study that has been conducted in a UK based SME. The case study research demonstrates how the CSR agenda has been implemented using ISO 9001:2000 as a platform and what benefits the case study organization has gained from this approach. These results are compared with a UK survey on feasibility of CSR for SMEs conducted by the UK's Department of Trade and Industry and parallels are drawn. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Are psychiatrists affecting the legal process by answering legal questions?

    Timothy Hardie
    Background,Psychiatrists are often asked to answer legal questions. The extent to which they answer strictly legal rather than medical matters is not known. Aim,To investigate how strongly psychiatrists in England and Wales express opinions on one legal question , that of diminished responsibility in respect of a murder charge, and how this is related to outcome in court. Method,Our data were extracted from psychiatric reports and case files supplied by the then Department of Constitutional Affairs (now the Ministry of Justice) on cases heard in the Crown Courts between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2001 in which the defence of diminished responsibility had been raised. The cases had been selected by the Law Commission in their earlier review of partial defences to murder. We devised a reliable system of rating the presence/absence and strength of expression of a legal opinion in the medical reports. We tested the data for relationship between nature and strength of opinion and progression to trial and verdict. Results,Psychiatric reports were available on 143 of 156 cases in which diminished responsibility was considered. They yielded 338 opinions on at least one aspect of diminished responsibility. In 110 (93%) of the 118 cases in which there was a diminished verdict, this was made without trial and, therefore, without reference to a jury. In only eight (27%) out of the 30 cases that went to trial, was a diminished responsibility verdict made. Half of the reports (169) gave a clear opinion on diminished responsibility, a third (121) invited the court to draw a particular conclusion and only 11% (36) provided relevant evidence without answering the legal questions. When there was an opinion or an invitation to make a finding on the legal question, a trial was less likely. A trial was also less likely if reports agreed on what the verdict should be. Conclusions,Psychiatrists frequently answer the legal question of diminished responsibility. The judiciary and medical experts should join in research to examine the consequences of different styles or approaches in presentation of essentially similar evidence in court. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An exploration of research into substance misuse and psychiatric disorder in the UK: what can we learn from history?

    Ilana B. Crome
    Background and aim,This review explores UK-based research developments in substance misuse and mental illness over the last 25 years. The main body of work comprises policy-orientated projects funded by the Department of Health from the late 1990s. Early research tended to focus on alcohol, especially alcoholic hallucinosis: the relationship of the latter with schizophrenia-like illness was examined, with the finding that very few cases did develop into schizophrenia. Method and implications,Parallels are drawn with the current debate around the link between cannabis and psychosis, urging caution in too rapid an assertion that cannabis is necessarily ,causal'. The clinical and policy implications of the misinterpretation of evidence are discussed. A proposal is put forward that the genesis of psychotic illness in alcohol misuse be revisited using more sophisticated research methodologies. Given the changing landscape of substance use in the UK, particularly the fashion of polysubstance use and the recognition that this is associated with psychotic illness, other drugs that are associated with psychotic illness should be similarly investigated to determine whether there is a common mechanism that might throw light on understanding the relationship between substance use and psychotic illness or schizophrenia. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Research Summary: Interviews and surveys were used to measure the extent of problem-oriented policing (POP) by individual police officers in the San Diego Police Department. Officers tended to engage in small-scale problem solving with little formal analysis or assessment. Responses generally included enforcement plus one or two more collaborative or nontraditional initiatives. Policy Implications: Despite 15 years of national promotion and a concerted effort at implementation within the San Diego Police Department, POP as practiced by ordinary police officers fell far short of the ideal model. It may be unreasonable to expect every police officer to continuously engage in full-fledged POP. [source]


    Research Summary: This research examines how funding from the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS), has affected violent and property crime rates in the United States from 1995 to 1999. Drawing on six years of panel data, we examine the effects of three types of awards made by COPS to 6,100 law enforcement agencies serving more than 145 million citizens. We estimate their impact on crime reduction over time in jurisdictions receiving funding and controlling for baseline levels of crime, socioeconomic characteristics, city size, and population diversity and mobility. Our analyses suggest that COPS hiring and innovative grant programs have resulted in significant reductions in local crime rates in cities with populations greater than 10,000 for both violent and nonviolent offenses. Multivariate analysis shows that in cities with populations greater than 10,000, an increase in one dollar of hiring grant funding per resident contributed to a corresponding decline of 5.26 violent crimes and 21.63 property crimes per 100,000 residents. Similarly, an increase in one dollar of innovative grant funding per resident has contributed to a decline of 12.93 violent crimes and 45.53 property crimes per 100,000 persons. In addition, the findings suggest that COPS grants have had no significant negative effect on violent and property crime rates in cities with less than 10,000 population. Policy Implications: The findings of this study imply that COPS program funding to medium- and large-size cities has been an effective force in reducing both violent and property crime. Federal government grants made directly to law enforcement agencies to hire additional officers and promote innovations may be an effective way to reduce crime on a national scale. [source]

    Politics and Film: A letter to the Secretary of State, Department for Culture, Media and Sport

    CRITICAL QUARTERLY, Issue 1-2 2008
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Head and neck cancer in the UK: what is expected of cytopathology?

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2009
    G. Kocjan
    Objective:, This review highlights the role of cytopathology in cancer management within UK Head and Neck Cancer Networks and informs on the issues raised by recent UK Department of Health documents and other UK professional guidance. UK guidance requires the formal involvement of cytopathologists within multidisciplinary cancer teams, with medical and non-medical cytopathology staff setting up and running rapid access lump clinics, and support for image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) services. UK guidance also makes recommendations for training, resources and quality control. This review also highlights the resource gap between best practice evidence-based guidance for head and neck (HN) cancer services and existing UK provision for cytopathology, as evidenced by lack of availability of experienced staff and adequacy of training and quality control (QC). Finally, it stresses the importance in the UK of the Royal College of Pathologists' guidance, which defines the need for training, the experience needed for new consultants, the requirements for audit and QC. The implications for the additional resources required for HN cancer cytopathology services are discussed. Recent professional guidance specifying the provision of HN cancer services in the UK includes a cytopathology service for cancer networks, such as rapid access FNAC clinics. Although these clinics already operate in some institutions, there are many institutions where they do not and where the provision of cytopathology services would have to be restructured. This would need the support of local cancer networks and their acceptance of the detailed requirements for cytopathology, including resources, training and QC. The standards are not defined locally, as Strategic Health Authorities and Primary Care Trusts have been instructed by the Department of Health to support, invest and implement them. [source]

    Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    C. E. McGAHAN
    Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme In order to investigate reasons for variation in coverage of cervical screening, data from standard Department of Health returns were obtained for all Health Authorities for 1998/1999. Approximately 80% of the variation between health authorities is explained by differences in age distribution and area classification. Considerable differences between Health Authority and Office of National Statistics (ONS) population figures in City and Urban (London) areas for the age group 25,29 years and for City (London) for age group 30,34 years, suggest an effect of list inflation in these groups. Coverage as a performance indicator may be more accurately represented using the age range 35,64 years. Using this narrower age range, the percentage of health authorities meeting the 80% 5-year coverage target increases from 87% to 90%. [source]

    IRSS Psychology Theory: Telling Experiences Among Underrepresented IS Doctorates

    Fay Cobb Payton
    ABSTRACT With the changing demographics of the American workforce, the National Science Foundation, along with the U.S. Department of Commerce, has highlighted the shortage of minorities in information technology (IT) careers ( Using data from a 6-year period and the psychology Involvement-Regimen-Self Management-Social (IRSS) network theory as defined by Boice (1992), we discuss lessons learned from mentoring a group of Information Systems doctoral students who are members of a pipeline that can potentially increase the number of underrepresented faculty in business schools and who made conscious decisions to renounce the IT corporate domain. While our lessons speak to the need for more diversity awareness, we conclude that effective mentoring for underrepresented groups can and should include faculty of color (though limited in numbers) as well as majority faculty who are receptive to the needs and cultural differences of these student groups. Lastly, we draw on the work of Ethnic America to provide additional insight into our findings that are not offered by IRSS network theory. [source]

    Retrospective clinical study of 90 avulsed permanent teeth in 58 children

    Vasileios Tzigkounakis
    We analyzed the documentations of a sample of patients containing 57 children who had a total of 90 avulsed teeth and were treated in Dentistry Department of Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Czech Republic, in the years between 1995 and 2005. We discovered that most frequently the children experience dental avulsion in the age between 8 and 11 years old, the most affected teeth are the upper central incisors and the most frequent causes are sports and games which are very common in these ages, in various environments, like schools, sport fields and home. The majority of the children were transferred to the Dentistry Department either quite long after the avulsion incident and without the avulsed teeth, or with the avulsed teeth which were carried in an inappropriate transport medium, indicating that there is insufficient knowledge of adult people, especially the ones who are in daily contact with children, on how to provide first aid in cases of dental avulsion. [source]

    The prevalence of traumatic injuries treated in the pedodontic clinic of Ankara University, Turkey, during 18 months


    Abstract , , ,The purpose of this study was to evaluate the type and prevalence of dental injuries referred to Ankara University, School of Dentistry, Department of Pedodontics, Turkey. One hundred and forty-seven patients with 234 traumatized teeth presented during 18-month interval. Of the 147 patients, 85 were boys and 62 were girls. The most frequent trauma occurred in the age of 11 years. The maxillary central incisors were found to be the most affected tooth in both primary and permanent dentition injuries. The maxillary arch is involved in a higher percentage of trauma cases (95.72%). The most common cause of injuries are falls (67.34%). In the primary dentition, the most common type of injury is extrusive luxation (38.23%) and in the permanent dentition, it is fracture of enamel,dentin without pulpal involvement (50.5%). From 147 patients, only 82 presented to our clinic within 1 h and 10 days after the injury time. It reveals that there is a need to inform the public of what they should do in cases of dental trauma, and how important it is to contact a dentist immediately. [source]