Density Functional Theory (density + functional_theory)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Chemistry

Kinds of Density Functional Theory

  • hybrid density functional theory
  • sham density functional theory
  • time-dependent density functional theory

  • Terms modified by Density Functional Theory

  • density functional theory calculation
  • density functional theory computation
  • density functional theory method
  • density functional theory methods
  • density functional theory studies
  • density functional theory study

  • Selected Abstracts

    Density Functional Study of the Complexation Reaction of Sn(CH3)3X (X = F, Cl, Br and I) with Halide Anions

    Frank De Proft
    Abstract The Lewis acid-base reaction between Sn(CH3)3X and Y, (with X, Y = F, Cl, Br and I) has been studied using quantum chemical calculations. Complexation energies were calculated at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level and rationalized on the basis of a local application of the hard and soft acids and bases principle. It was observed that smaller differences in the local softness of the interacting sites in the Lewis acid and base correspond to stronger interactions. Moreover, the calculated sequences in complexation energies can be reproduced using equations containing chemical concepts introduced within the framework of conceptual density functional theory and rooted in the hard and soft acids and bases principle and referring only to the reactants. A method of treating the electronegativity and softness of the halide anions is presented based on a Taylor expansion of the electronegativity of the neutral halogens and the softness-polarizability proportionality. Experimental evidence for the calculated sequences was gathered from measured 117Sn chemical shifts and 1J (13C- 119/117Sn) coupling constant changes upon complexation. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]

    Quantitative assessment of the effect of basis set superposition error on the electron density of molecular complexes by means of quantum molecular similarity measures

    Pedro Salvador
    Abstract The Chemical Hamiltonian Approach (CHA) method is applied to obtain Basis Set Superposition Error (BSSE)-free molecular orbitals at the Hartree,Fock (HF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT) levels of theory. To assess qualitatively the effect of the BSSE on the first-order electron density, we had previously applied Bader's analysis of the intermolecular critical points located on the electron density, as well as density difference maps for several hydrogen bonded complexes. In this work, Quantum Molecular Similarity Measures are probed as an alternative avenue to properly quantify the electronic relaxation due to the BSSE removal by means of distance indices between the uncorrected and corrected charge densities. It is shown that BSSE contamination is more important at the DFT level of theory, and in some cases, changes on the topology of the electron density are observed upon BSSE correction. Inclusion of diffuse functions have been found to dramatically decrease the BSSE effect in both geometry and electron density. The CHA method represents a good compromise to obtain accurate results with small basis sets. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2009 [source]

    Periodic models in quantum chemical simulations of F centers in crystalline metal oxides

    Yuri F. Zhukovskii
    Abstract We present a survey of recent first principles simulations of the neutral oxygen vacancies (F centers) existing as native or radiation-induced point defects in various crystalline metal oxides in different forms (bulk, bare substrate surface, and on the interface with metal adsorbates). We mainly consider periodic models in calculations of point defects using the metal oxide supercell or cyclic clusters. We compare different formalisms of first principles calculations, mostly the Density Functional Theory (DFT) as implemented in the framework of either localized basis set of atomic orbitals or delocalized basis sets of plane waves. We analyze in detail the structural and electronic properties of F centers in binary oxides of light metals (MgO and Al2O3), and ternary metal oxides (SrTiO3, BaTiO3, PbTiO3, KNbO3, and PbZrO3 perovskites). When available, we compare results of ab initio periodic defect calculations with experimental data, results of the first principles cluster calculations (both embedded and molecular) as well as with semi-empirical calculations. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2007 [source]

    Density functional study of the heme moiety of cytochrome c,,

    Anil Kumar
    Abstract A model of cytochrome c (Cyt-c) including the porphyrin ring, a methionine residue (Met), and the imidazole ring of histidine (His), the latter two being situated above and below the iron (Fe) atom of the porphyrin ring, was studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The geometries of the model Cyt-c complex with the Fe atom in two different charge states were fully optimized, i.e., in singlet and triplet states for Fe and in doublet and quartet states for Fe3+. The B3LYP method of DFT along with the 3-21G* basis set for C, H, N, and O atoms and the Lanl2dz basis set for the Fe atom was used. We found that with Fe3+, the doublet spin state is the ground state and the quartet state lies slightly above it. The geometry of the singlet spin state is similar to that of the doublet and quartet states. However, methionine has different conformations when Fe has zero charge (singlet, triplet states) relative to the situation when Fe has +3 charges (doublet, quartet states). The Met chain is folded instead of remaining extended in going from the singlet or triplet spin state to the doublet or quartet state and the folding is stabilized by an intramolecular CH..O hydrogen bond. The optimized geometrical parameters of the model of Cyt-c are usually in satisfactory agreement with those observed experimentally. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2005 [source]

    Density functional theory studies on the dissociation energies of metallic salts: relationship between lattice and dissociation energies

    Chang Kon Kim
    Abstract The formation and physicochemical properties of polymer electrolytes strongly depend on the lattice energy of metal salts. An indirect but efficient way to estimate the lattice energy through the relationship between the heterolytic bond dissociation and lattice energies is proposed in this work. The heterolytic bond dissociation energies for alkali metal compounds were calculated theoretically using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) of B3LYP level with 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311+G(2df,p) basis sets. For transition metal compounds, the same method was employed except for using the effective core potential (ECP) of LANL2DZ and SDD on transition metals for 6-311+G(d,p) and 6-311+G(2df,p) calculations, respectively. The dissociation energies calculated by 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set combined with SDD basis set were better correlated with the experimental values with average error of ca. ±1.0% than those by 6-311+G* combined with the LANL2DZ basis set. The relationship between dissociation and lattice energies was found to be fairly linear (r>0.98). Thus, this method can be used to estimate the lattice energy of an unknown ionic compound with reasonably high accuracy. We also found that the dissociation energies of transition metal salts were relatively larger than those of alkaline metal salts for comparable ionic radii. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Comput Chem 22: 827,834, 2001 [source]

    Simulation of binary mixture adsorption of methane and CO2 at supercritical conditions in carbons

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
    Yohanes Kurniawan
    Abstract Knowledge of the adsorption behavior of coal-bed gases, mainly under supercritical high-pressure conditions, is important for optimum design of production processes to recover coal-bed methane and to sequester CO2 in coal-beds. Here, we compare the two most rigorous adsorption methods based on the statistical mechanics approach, which are Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation, for single and binary mixtures of methane and carbon dioxide in slit-shaped pores ranging from around 0.75 to 7.5 nm in width, for pressure up to 300 bar, and temperature range of 308-348 K, as a preliminary study for the CO2 sequestration problem. For single component adsorption, the isotherms generated by DFT, especially for CO2, do not match well with GCMC calculation, and simulation is subsequently pursued here to investigate the binary mixture adsorption. For binary adsorption, upon increase of pressure, the selectivity of carbon dioxide relative to methane in a binary mixture initially increases to a maximum value, and subsequently drops before attaining a constant value at pressures higher than 300 bar. While the selectivity increases with temperature in the initial pressure-sensitive region, the constant high-pressure value is also temperature independent. Optimum selectivity at any temperature is attained at a pressure of 90-100 bar at low bulk mole fraction of CO2, decreasing to approximately 35 bar at high bulk mole fractions. © 2005 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2006 [source]

    Influence of substituents on the infrared stretching frequencies of carbonyl group in esters of benzoic acid

    Vilve Nummert
    Abstract Infrared spectra of 25 substituted phenyl esters of benzoic acid C6H5CO2C6H4 -X (XH, 3-Cl, 3-F, 3-CN, 3-NO2, 3-CH3, 3-OH, 3-NH2, 4-Cl, 4-F, 4-NO2, 4-CN, 4-OCH3, 4-CH3, 4-NH2, 2-Cl, 2-F, 2-I, 2-NO2, 2-CF3, 2-CN, 2-CH3, 2-OCH3, 2-N(CH3)2, 2-C(CH3)3), 8 alkyl benzoates C6H5CO2R (XCH3, CH2CH3, CH2Cl, CH2CN, CH2CCH, CH2CH2Cl, CH2CH2OCH3, CH2C6H5), and 22 phenyl esters of substituted benzoic acids X-C6H4CO2C6H5 (X3-Cl, 3-NO2, 3-CH3, 3-N(CH3)2, 4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Br, 4-NO2, 4-CH3, 4-C(CH3)3, 4-OCH3, 4-NH2, 2-Cl, 2-F, 2-Br, 2-I, 2-NO2, 2-CN, 2-CF3, 2-CH3, 2-OCH3, 2-NH2) were recorded in tetrachloromethane in the region of 400,4000,cm,1. Carbonyl stretching frequencies ,CO for meta - and para -substituted phenyl esters of benzoic acid and phenyl esters of meta -substituted benzoic acids were shown to correlate with the substituent constants ,o. The influence of the through resonance effect on ,CO was found to be important in the case of +Rpara substituents in the benzoyl part of phenyl benzoates as well. The carbonyl stretching frequencies of ortho derivatives in phenoxy part were shown to correlate with the inductive substituent constant ,I only. In the benzoyl part of the esters the carbonyl stretching frequencies of cis and trans conformers (relative to the carbonyl group) of ortho derivatives were nicely described by dual parameter equations: (,CO)cis,=,(,CO)o,+,c1,I,+,c3,and (,CO)trans,=,(,CO)o,+,c1,p+,+,c3, (R,=,0.99). The trans isomers of phenyl esters of ortho -substituted benzoic acids showed direct resonance similar to that for para derivatives. The positive steric term found for both the cis and trans conformers could be considered as measure of the steric inhibition of resonance between the phenyl ring and the carboxy-group caused by bulky ortho substituents. The existence of cis/trans conformations was supported by frequency calculations with Density Functional Theory (DFT) method at B3LYP/6-311+G** level for the ortho -substituted benzoates. In the case of alkyl benzoates good correlations of ,CO values were obtained when both the Taft ,* and the steric constants were used. For meta - and para -substituted phenyl benzoates s - trans conformation where the plane of the benzene ring in the benzoyl part of the ester is coplanar with the carbonyl bond plane and the plane of the benzene ring in the phenoxy part is twisted nearly perpendicular relative to the carbonyl bond plane was supported. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Theoretical study of carbon atom scrambling in benzenium ions with ethyl or isopropyl groups

    Bjřrnar Arstad
    Abstract Carbon atom scrambling is observed in benzenium ions in the mass spectrometer and in isotopic labeling experiments in the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction over acidic zeolites. We have shown plausible scrambling mechanisms in ethyl- and isopropylbenzenium ions and various intramolecular interconversion reactions that may take place in alkylbenzenium ions. Quantum chemical Density Functional Theory (DFT) modeling at the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory has been carried out to investigate carbon atom scrambling reactions in ethyl- and isopropyl(methyl)benzenium ions. A total of 85 stationary points have been calculated (48 minima and 37 transition states). The carbon atom scrambling reactions start with an initial ring expansion of the benzenium ions to a seven-membered ring. The seven-membered ring may rearrange and at a later stage re-contract to the original benzenium species, albeit with some atoms interchanged, i.e. there has been atom scrambling. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Synthesis and vibrational analysis of N-(2,-Furyl)-Imidazole

    A. E. Ledesma
    Abstract The N-(2,-furyl)-imidazole (1) has been prepared and characterized using infrared, Raman and multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Theoretical calculations have been carried out by employing the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method, in order to optimize the geometry of their two conformers in the gas phase and to support the assignments of the vibrational bands of 1 to their normal modes. For a complete assignment of the compound, DFT calculations were combined with Scaled Quamtum Mecanic Force Field (SQMFF) methodology in order to fit the theoretical wavenumber values to the experimental one. Furthermore, Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and topological properties by Atoms In Molecules (AIM) calculations were performed to analyze the nature and magnitude of the intramolecular interactions. The result reveals that two conformers are expected in liquid phase. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Verification of a distortion in the microstructure of GaN detected by EXAFS using ab initio density functional theory calculations

    Nicholas Dimakis
    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements on a series of epitaxially grown GaN samples have shown a distortion in the microstructure of GaN. More specifically the central N atom is 4-fold coordinated but the four Ga atoms are not equidistant. It has been shown that 2.9 to 3.5 of them (depending on the growth conditions) are found in the expected from XRD distance of 1.94 Ĺ and the remaining are at a distance longer by approximately 15%. Second derivative calculation of the conformation energy using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) is used to investigate if the symmetric GaN cluster as given by XRD is the most energetically favorable configuration and if not which distorted structure corresponds to the most energetically favorable one. A very good agreement between DFT results and experimental XAFS spectra has been found. Generalization this technique to other dislocated clusters is also discussed. [source]

    Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Substituted Phenols: A Computational Study,

    Lei Zhang
    ABSTRACT Vertical excitation energies for electronic transitions from the ground state to the first two excited states of phenol, mono- and disubstituted methoxyphenols and methyl-substituted phenols have been characterized with the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT), the Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field method (CASSCF) and the Coupled Cluster with Single and Double Excitations Equation-of-Motion approach (CCSD-EOM) to simulate and interpret experimental ultraviolet absorption spectra. While CASSCF excitation energies for the first two transitions either are grossly overestimated or exhibit a weak correlation with experimental data, both TD-DFT and CCSD-EOM perform very well, reproducing the spectral shifts of both the primary band and secondary band observed upon substitution. The conformational dependence of the calculated excitation energies is generally smaller than the shifts caused by substitution. [source]

    First principles calculation of isolated intermediate bands formation in a transition metal-doped chalcopyrite-type semiconductor

    P. Palacios
    Abstract Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the GGA level have been carried out for Ti-substituted chalcopyrite-type CuGaS2, as it might constitute an intermediate band material of the kind that has been proposed to lead to enhanced efficiency photovoltaic cells. According to these calculations an intermediate band appears when Ti substitutes Ga at a 25% level in this structure, resulting in a magnetic half-metallic compound. This intermediate band slightly overlaps the conduction band and, when a higher accuracy calculation approach like the introduction of a Hubbard-type empirical correction is used (GGA + U method), it splits leaving a filled narrow band, well isolated inside the band gap. Considering the nanocrystalline form in which these chalcopyrite-type compounds are used in solar cells, an assessment of the effects of a small crystal size in this system have been carried out with a slab model. In this calculation a decreased bandgap width is observed, which can be as a result of surface termination effects. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    First-principles optical spectra of low dimensional systems

    Letizia Chiodo
    Abstract Low dimensional systems, such as organic molecules, nanotubes, nanowires, have attracted great interest in the last few years, due to their possible application in nanodevices. It is therefore important to describe accurately the electronic excitations, with highly reliable and efficient ab-initio approaches. A standard technique for studying the ground-state properties is the Density Functional Theory; however when electronic excited states are involved, the many-body Green's functions theory is used for obtaining quasi-particle excitation energies and optical spectra. In this paper we will present the current status of this theoretical and computational approach, showing results for a bulk semiconductor and for two different kinds of low dimensional systems. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    First principles simulations of F centers in cubic SrTiO3

    J. Carrasco
    Abstract Atomic and electronic structure of regular and O-deficient SrTiO3 have been studied. Several types of first principles atomistic simulations: Hartree-Fock method, Density Functional Theory, and hybrid HF-DFT functionals, have been applied to periodic models that consider supercells of different sizes (ranging between 40 and 240 atoms). We confirm the ionic character of the Sr-O bonds and the high covalency of the Ti-O2 substructure. For the stoichiometric cubic crystal; the lattice constant and bulk modulus correctly reproduce the experimental data whereas the band gap is only properly obtained by the B3PW functional. The relaxed geometry around the F center shows a large expansion of the two nearest Ti ions. Moreover, the vacancy formation energy is extremely sensitive to the size and the shape of the supercell as well as the calculation method. The electronic density map indicates the redistribution of two electrons of the missing O atom between the vacancy and 3d atomic orbitals of the two nearest Ti ions, in contrast to the F centers in ionic oxides where the charge centroid does not change. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Adsorption of 6-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine-ribosideon silver colloid: A pH-dependent surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study.

    BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 6 2005

    Abstract Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been applied to characterize the interaction of 6-mercaptopurine-ribose (6MPR), an active drug used in chemotherapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with a model biological substrate at therapeutic concentrations and as function of the pH value. Therefore, a detailed vibrational analysis of crystalline and solvated (6MPR) based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations of the thion and thiol tautomers has been performed. 6MPR adopts the thion tautomeric form in the polycrystalline state. The SERS spectra of 6MPR and 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) recorded on silver colloid provided evidence that the ribose derivative shows different adsorption behavior compared with the free base. Under acidic conditions, the adsorption of 6MPR on the metal surface via the N7 and possibly S atoms was proposed to have a perpendicular orientation, while 6MP is probably adsorbed through the N9 and N3 atoms. Under basic conditions both molecules are adsorbed through the N1 and possibly S atoms, but 6MP has a more tilted orientation on the silver colloidal surface while 6MPR adopts a perpendicular orientation. The reorientation of the 6MPR molecule on the surface starts at pH 8 while in the case of 6MP the reorientation starts around pH 6. Under basic conditions, the presence of the anionic molecular species for both molecules is suggested. The deprotonation of 6MP is completed at pH 8 while the deprotonation of the riboside is finished at pH 10. For low drug concentrations under neutral conditions and for pH values 8 and 9, 6MPR interacts with the substrate through both N7 and N1 atoms, possibly forming two differently adsorbed species, while for 6MP only one species adsorbed via N1 was evidenced. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 78: 298,310, 2005 This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at [source]

    Vibrational spectroscopic studies to acquire a quality control method of Eucalyptus essential oils,

    BIOPOLYMERS, Issue 5 2005
    M. Baranska
    Abstract This article presents a novel and original approach to analyze in situ the main components of Eucalyptus oil by means of Raman spectroscopy. The obtained two-dimensional Raman maps demonstrate a unique possibility to study the essential oil distribution in the intact plant tissue. Additionally, Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman and attenuated total reflection (ATR)-IR spectra of essential oils isolated from several Eucalyptus species by hydrodistillation are presented. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed in order to interpret the spectra of the essential oils of the Eucalyptus species. It is shown that the main components of the essential oils can be recognized by both vibrational spectroscopic techniques using the spectral information of the pure terpenoids. Spectroscopic analysis is based on the key bands of the individual volatile substances and therefore allows one to discriminate different essential oil profiles of several Eucalyptus species. It has been found that the presented spectroscopic data correlate very well with those obtained by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. All these investigations are helpful tools to generate a fast and easy method to control the quality of the essential oils with vibrational spectroscopic techniques in combination with DFT calculations. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 78: 237,248, 2005 [source]

    Equilibrium Structure and Ti-Catalyzed H2 Desorption in NaAlH4 Nanoparticles from Density Functional Theory.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 2 2007
    Tejs Vegge
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    Electronic Transitions in [Re6S8X6]4- (X: Cl, Br, I): Results from Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory and Solid-State Calculations.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 50 2006
    Lindsay E. Roy
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract, please click on HTML or PDF. [source]

    A Hybrid Cylindrical Model for Characterization of MCM-41 by Density Functional Theory.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 44 2004
    Bei Liu
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    An Average-of-Configuration Method for Using Kohn,Sham Density Functional Theory in Modeling Ligand-Field Theory.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 40 2003
    Christian Anthon
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Theoretical Simulation of Vibrational Sum-Frequency Generation Spectra from Density Functional Theory: Application to p -Nitrothiophenol and 2,4-Dinitroaniline

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 12 2009
    Julien Guthmuller Dr.
    Abstract The molecular orientation of adsorbed molecules forming self-assembled monolayers can be determined by combining vibrational sum-frequency generation (SFG) measurements with quantum chemical calculations. Herein, we present a theoretical methodology used to simulate the SFG spectra for different combinations of polarizations. These simulations are based on calculations of the IR vectors and Raman tensors, which are obtained from density functional theory computations. The dependency of the SFG vibrational signature with respect to the molecular orientation is presented for the molecules p -nitrothiophenol and 2,4-dinitroaniline. It is found that a suitable choice of basis set as well as of exchange-correlation (XC) functional is mandatory to correctly simulate the SFG intensities and consequently provide an accurate estimation of the adsorbed molecule orientation. Comparison with experimental data shows that calculations performed at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of approximation provide good agreement with experimental frequencies, and with IR and Raman intensities. In particular, it is demonstrated that polarization and diffuse functions are compulsory for reproducing the IR and Raman spectra, and consequently vibrational SFG spectra, of systems such as p -nitrothiophenol. Moreover, the investigated XC functionals reveal their influence on the relative intensities, which show rather systematic variations with the amount of Hartree,Fock exchange. Finally, further aspects of the modeling are revealed by considering the frequency dependence of the Raman tensors. [source]

    Charge-Transfer Excitations and Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Problems and Some Proposed Solutions

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 11 2009
    Jochen Autschbach Prof.
    Innovative solutions: Approaches to overcome the difficulties in using time-dependent density functional theory to treat charge-transfer excitations are discussed. A brief description of the charge-transfer problem is provided to illustrate its origins. The graph shows one way to decompose the inter-electronic distance in range-separated functionals. [source]

    Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer of New Diphenyl- ethylene Derivatives Bearing Imino Group: A Combination of Experimental and Theoretical Investigation

    Fang Gao
    Abstract In this paper, we described the synthesis and characterization of new diphenylethylene bearing imino group. We concentrated particularly on the investigation of the possibility of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer (ESIPT) of the new dyes experimentally and theoretically. The absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of the dyes were determined in various solvents. The results showed that the maximal absorption wavelength of 2-[(4,- N,N -dimethylamino-diphenylethylene-4-ylimino)methyl]phenol (C1) and 4-[(4,- N,N -dimethylamino-diphenylethylene-4-ylimino)methyl]phenol (C2) exhibited almost independence on the solvent polarity. While as contrast, the maximal fluorescence wavelength of the dyes showed somewhat dependence on the solvent polarity. In particular, C1 displayed well-separated dual fluorescence spectroscopy. The second fluorescence peak was characterized with an "abnormal" fluorescence emission wavelength in aprotic solvents with large Stokes shift (ca. 140 nm in THF), which was much more than normal Stokes shift (ca. 30 nm in THF). This emission spectroscopy could be assigned to ESIPT emission. On the other hand, the ESIPT fluorescence of C1 was much reduced or lost in the protic solvents. While, only normal fluorescence emission was detected in various solvents. Although the absorption maxima of C1 exhibited about 10 nm red-shift with respect to those of C2, the normal fluorescence maxima of C1 and C2 were almost identical in various solvents. These results suggested that C1 could undergo ESIPT, but C2 was not able to proceed ESIPT. The molecular geometry optimization of phototautomers in the ground electronic state (S0) was carried out with HF method (Hartree-Fock) and at DFT level (Density Functional Theory) using B3LYP both, while the CIS was employed to optimize the geometries of the first singlet excited state (S1) of the phototautomers of C1 and C2 respectively. The properties of the ground state and the excited state of the phototautomers of C1 and C2, including the geometrical parameter, the energy, the frontier orbits, the Mulliken charge and the dipole moment change were performed and compared completely. The data were analyzed further based on our experimental results. Furthermore, the absorption and fluorescence spectra were calculated in theory and compared with the measured ones. The rate constant of internal proton transfer (9.831×1011 s,1) of C1 was much lower than that of salicylidene methylamine (C3, 2.045×1015 s,1), which was a typical Schiff base compound and was well demonstrated to undergo ESIPT easily under photoexcitation. [source]

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies on the ground state of NO3(2A,2) radical and the first triplet state of NO3+cation

    Cao Xiao-Yan
    Abstract Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies on the ground states (2A,2) of NO3 radical and on die ground state (1A,;1) and the first triplet state (3E,) of NO3+ cation provide an unambiguous prediction about their geometrical structure: the ground states of both NO3 radical and NO3+ cation have D3h symmetry and the geometrical configuration of me first triplet state 3E, of NO3+ cation has C2v symmetry. It is shown that as for as the ionization energy calculations on NO3 radical are concerned, the results are only slightly different, no mater that gradient corrections of the exchange-correlation energy are included during self-consistent iterations or they are included as perturbations after the self-consistent iterations. [source]

    A VCD robust mode analysis of induced chirality: The case of pulegone in chloroform,

    CHIRALITY, Issue 1E 2009
    Valentin Paul Nicu
    Abstract Vibrational modes in an achiral molecule may acquire rotational strength by complexation to a chiral molecule, as happens for achiral solvent molecules complexed to a chiral solute. We investigate this transfer of chirality in vibrational circular dichroism for the pulegone molecule in CDCl3 solvent from the point of view of the robustness concept introduced recently. It turns out that the transfer of chirality yields nonrobust modes, which means that, although they are observed in vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments, the sign of these modes cannot be predicted reliably with standard (Density Functional Theory) VCD calculations. This limits the usefulness of the induced chirality phenomenon for obtaining information on the intermolecular interactions that give rise to it. Chirality 21:E287,E297, 2009. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Ab initio prediction of optical rotation: Comparison of density functional theory and Hartree-Fock methods for three 2,7,8-trioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes

    CHIRALITY, Issue 4 2002
    P.J. Stephens
    Abstract We report ab initio calculations of the frequency-dependent electric dipole-magnetic dipole polarizabilities, ,(,), at the sodium D line frequency and, thence, of the specific rotations, [,]D, of 2,7,8-trioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane, 1, and its 1-methyl derivative, 2, using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock/Self-Consistent Field (HF/SCF) methodologies. Gauge-invariant (including) atomic orbitals (GIAOs) are used to ensure origin-independent [,]D values. Using large basis sets which include diffuse functions DFT [,]D values are in good agreement with experimental values (175.8° and 139.2° for (1S,5R)- 1 and - 2, respectively); errors are in the range 25,35°. HF/SCF [,]D values, in contrast, are much less accurate; errors are in the range 75,95°. The use of small basis sets which do not include diffuse functions substantially lowers the accuracy of predicted [,]D values, as does the use of the static limit approximation: ,(,) , ,(o). The use of magnetic-field-independent atomic orbitals, FIAOs, instead of GIAOs, leads to origin-dependent, and therefore nonphysical, [,]D values. We also report DFT calculations of [,]D for the 1-phenyl derivative of 1, 3. DFT calculations find two stable conformations, differing in the orientation of the phenyl group, of very similar energy, and separated by low barriers. Values of [,]D predicted using two different algorithms for averaging over phenyl group orientations are in good agreement with experiment. In principle, the absolute configuration (AC) of a chiral molecule can be assigned by comparison of the optical rotation predicted ab initio to the experimental value. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of the choice of ab initio methodology in obtaining reliable optical rotations and, hence, ACs, and show that, at the present time, DFT constitutes the method of choice. Chirality 14:288,296, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mercury binding on activated carbon

    Bihter Padak
    Abstract Density functional theory has been employed for the modeling of activated carbon (AC) using a fused-benzene ring cluster approach. Oxygen functional groups have been investigated for their promotion of effective elemental mercury binding on AC surface sites. Lactone and carbonyl functional groups yield the highest mercury binding energies. Further, the addition of halogen atoms has been considered to the modeled surface, and has been found to increase the AC's mercury adsorption capacity. The mercury binding energies increase with the addition of the following halogen atoms, F > Cl > Br > I, with the fluorine addition being the most promising halogen for increasing mercury adsorption. © 2006 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 2006 [source]

    Beyond the Icosahedron: A Density Functional Theory Study of 14-Atom Germanium Clusters

    R. Bruce King
    Abstract Density functional theory (DFT) at the hybrid B3LYP level has been applied to the germanium clusters Ge14z (z = ,8, ,6, ,4, ,2, 0, +2, +4) starting from seven different initial configurations. An Oh omnicapped cube structure is the most stable for Ge142, followed by a hexagonal antiprism structure with a relative energy of 42.7 kcal/mol. The lowest-energy structure for neutral Ge14 is a triplet omnicapped cube with full Oh symmetry followed by a singlet omnicapped cube compressed to D4h symmetry through Jahn,Teller distortion. The lowest energy Ge142+ structure is also an Oh structure derived from the omnicapped cube through elongation of the 12 edges of the underlying cube to give a rhomboidal dodecahedron with 12 rhombus faces. The lowest-energy Ge124+ structure is a bicapped icosahedron. Some D6h hexagonal wheel structures at higher energies are also found for the hypoelectronic systems Ge14, Ge142+, and Ge144+. The lowest-energy structures for the hyperelectronic Ge144,, Ge146,, and Ge148, are relatively unsymmetrical not readily recognizable open structures typically with some pentagonal or hexagonal faces. The D6d bicapped hexagonal antiprism found in 14-vertex C2B12 carborane and M2C2B10 dimetallacarborane structures is not the lowest-energy structure for any of the Ge14z clusters.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Electronic Structure of Linearly Coordinated EQ Complexes of the Type [(N3N)W(EQ)] [N3N = N(CH2CH2NSiMe3)3; E = P, As, Sb, Bi; Q = O, S, Se, Te]: A DFT Study

    Gábor Balázs
    Abstract Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out on the terminal EQ complexes [(N3N)W(EQ)] {N3N = N(CH2CH2NSiMe3)3; E = P, As, Sb, Bi; Q = O, S, Se Te} to clarify the bonding situation within the linear Nax,W,E,Q core. This unusual structural motif gives rise to a bonding arrangement in which the ,-electron density is delocalised over the three atoms of the W,E,Q unit. Fragment calculations and natural bond order (NBO) data indicated that the ,-bonding component of the Nax,W,E,Q unit comprises two occupied , orbitals, while the , component of bonding comprises two sets of degenerate , orbitals. In general, the , orbitals of the Nax,W,E,Q core are higher in energy compared to the , orbitals. The phosphorus monoxide (EQ = PO) complexes provide an exception to this rule, with the 1, orbitals of the W,P,O core lower in energy than the , orbitals. Generally, as the atomic number of either the pnicogen (E) or chalcogen (Q) atom increases the extent of ,-orbital delocalisation decreases, whereas the ,-orbital delocalisation increases. Fractional bond orders and Wiberg bond indices were used to establish whether localisation of the ,-electron density gives rise to a W,E or an E,Q double or triple bond. Both methods indicate a W,E as well as an E,Q double bond. The ionic nature of the complexes were analysed by inspection of the Hirschfeld charge distribution which shows only a moderate ionic character. Exceptions are the pnicogen monoxide complexes, which are more ionic. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    Syntheses, Structures, and Magnetic Properties of Copper(II) Complexes with 1,3-[Bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]benzene (1,3-tpbd) as Ligand

    Simon P. Foxon
    Abstract The dinuclear copper(II) complexes {[Cu2(1,3-tpbd)(H2O)(OAc)2](ClO4)2}0.23{[Cu2(1,3-tpbd)(H2O)2(OAc)](ClO4)3}0.77·0.77H2O (1), [Cu2(1,3-tpbd)(H2O)2(OAc)2](ClO4)2·2H2O (2), and the tetranuclear copper(II) complex [Cu4(1,3-tpbd)2(H2O)2(SO4)4]·8H2O (3) {1,3-tpbd = 1,3-bis[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]benzene} were synthesised and structurally characterised by X-ray diffraction. Variable-temperature (2.0,290 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements on these complexes as well as on the dinuclear copper(II) complex [Cu2(1,3-tpbd)(H2O)2(ClO4)3]ClO4 (4) (whose structure was published earlier) were performed. In contrast to 2 and 3, significant ferromagnetic coupling with J = +9.3 cm,1 was observed for 4 (the Hamiltonian being defined as H, = ,J S,1·S,2). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used successfully for the interpretation of the ferromagnetic coupling observed in 4. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2004) [source]