Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Demographic

  • baseline demographic
  • basic demographic
  • changing demographic
  • different demographic
  • included demographic
  • other demographic
  • patient demographic
  • population demographic
  • recipient demographic
  • select demographic
  • several demographic
  • similar demographic
  • student demographic
  • various demographic

  • Terms modified by Demographic

  • demographic aging
  • demographic analysis
  • demographic aspect
  • demographic attribute
  • demographic background
  • demographic bottleneck
  • demographic change
  • demographic characteristic
  • demographic composition
  • demographic condition
  • demographic consequence
  • demographic correlate
  • demographic covariate
  • demographic data
  • demographic decline
  • demographic detail
  • demographic difference
  • demographic effects
  • demographic estimate
  • demographic event
  • demographic expansion
  • demographic factor
  • demographic feature
  • demographic fluctuation
  • demographic group
  • demographic groups
  • demographic history
  • demographic impact
  • demographic inference
  • demographic influence
  • demographic information
  • demographic item
  • demographic mechanism
  • demographic model
  • demographic modelling
  • demographic models
  • demographic outcome
  • demographic parameter
  • demographic pattern
  • demographic performance
  • demographic predictor
  • demographic pressure
  • demographic process
  • demographic profile
  • demographic projection
  • demographic question
  • demographic questionnaire
  • demographic rate
  • demographic response
  • demographic scenario
  • demographic shift
  • demographic stochasticity
  • demographic structure
  • demographic studies
  • demographic study
  • demographic subgroup
  • demographic survey
  • demographic trait
  • demographic transition
  • demographic trend
  • demographic variable
  • demographic variation

  • Selected Abstracts


    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 1 2008
    Sevel Dogan RN
    SUMMARY The relation of various demographic, clinical and biochemical parameters of peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis and other infections was evaluated. The age, gender, peritoneal dialysis (PD) period, educational status, peritonitis, exit site score, serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and triglyceride levels at the beginning and the last visit were recorded. Mean age of 32 patients was 45.1 years; PD period was 13.1 months. Albumin level was inversely proportional to the frequency of peritonitis. Patients with peritonitis had albumin levels that were lower at the last visit, and were independent of the CRP values at the start of PD and during follow-up. Significant correlation was detected between females and exit site scores. There was significant correlation between educational status and peritonitis. Albumin level at first visit was a factor that reduced the likelihood of peritonitis, and low levels obtained during follow-up constituted a risk for peritonitis. It was also shown that peritonitis risk tended to decrease inversely with education level. [source]


    David Wilkinson
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to compare selected characteristics of the Australian general medical practitioner workforce in capital cities and regional areas. Data were derived from the 1996 Census of Population and Housing. Characteristics included age, sex, full- or part-time work, place of birth and change in residential address. Analyses were performed for each state and territory in Australia, the statistical division containing each capital city and all other statistical divisions in each state and territory. Of the 26 359 general medical practitioners identified, 68% were male. More female than male general medical practitioners were aged < 45 years (74 vs 52%, respectively; P < 0.0001). The proportion of general medical practitioners aged < 35 years was higher in capital cities (30%) than regional areas (24%; P < 0.0001). Overall, 32% of the general medical practitioner workforce was female and almost 50% of those aged < 35 years were female. The proportion of female general medical practitioners was higher in capital cities than regional areas, by up to 30%. While 13% of male general medical practitioners reported part-time work, 42% of females also reported part-time work and these figures were similar in capital cities and regional areas. Approximately 40% of the Australian general medical practitioner workforce was born outside Australia and while fewer migrants have entered in recent years they were more likely to be living in regional areas than the capitals. The census provides useful medical workforce data. The regional workforce tends to be made up of more males and is older than in capital cities. Monitoring trends in these characteristics could help to evaluate initiatives aimed at addressing regional workforce issues. [source]

    Demographic and clinical characteristics of motor vehicle accident victims in the community general health outpatient clinic: a comparison of PTSD and non-PTSD subjects

    Marina Kupchik M.D.
    Abstract Motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) are the leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the general population, often with enduring symptomatology. This study details epidemiological and clinical features that characterize PTSD among MVA victims living in a nonhospitalized community setting long after the MVA event, and includes exploration of premorbid and peritraumatic factors. MVA victims (n=60; 23 males, 37 females) identified from the registry of a community general health outpatient clinic during a 7-year period were administered an extensive structured battery of epidemiological, diagnostic and clinical ratings. Results indicated that 30 subjects (50%; 12 males, 18 females) had MVA-related PTSD (MVAR-PTSD). Among those with PTSD, 16 individuals exhibited PTSD in partial remission, and six, in full remission. There were no significant demographic or occupational function differences between PTSD and non-PTSD groups. The most common comorbid conditions with MVAR-PTSD were social phobia (20%), generalized anxiety disorder (7.8%) and obsessive,compulsive disorder (0.5%). Previous MVA's were not predictive of PTSD. Subjects with MVAR-PTSD scored worse on the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Scale, Part 2 (CAPS-2), Impact of Event Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Impulsivity Scale, and Toronto Alexithymia Rating Scale. Study observations indicate a relatively high rate of PTSD following an MVA in a community-based sample. The relatively high rate of partially remitted MVAR-PTSD (N=16) underscores the importance of subsyndromal forms of illness. Alexithymia may be an adaptive method of coping with event stress. The development of PTSD appears not to be associated with the severity of MVA-related physical injury. Depression and Anxiety 24:244,250, 2007. © 2006 Wiley,Liss, Inc. [source]

    From Soviet Modernization to Post,Soviet Transformation: Understanding Marriage and Fertility Dynamics in Uzbekistan

    Victor Agadjanian
    In this article we analyse the dynamics of marriage and childbearing in Uzbekistan through the prism of the recent socioeconomic and political history of that country. After becoming an independent nation in 1991, Uzbekistan abandoned the Soviet modernization project and aspired to set out on a radically different course of economic, social, and political development. We argue, however, that not only independence but also the preceding period of perestroika reforms (1985,91) had a dramatic effect on social conditions and practices and, consequently, the demographic behaviour of the country's population. Using data from the 1996 Uzbekistan Demographic and Health Survey we apply event,history analysis to examine changes in the timing of entry into first marriage, first and second births over four periods: two periods of pre,perestroika socialism, the perestroika years, and the period since independence. We investigate the factors that influenced the timing of these events in each of the four periods among Uzbeks, the country's eponymous and largest ethnic group, and among Uzbekistan's urban population. In general, our results point to a dialectic combination of continuity and change in Uzbekistan's recent demographic trends, which reflect the complex and contradictory nature of broader societal transformations in that and other parts of the former Soviet Union. [source]

    Engagement and retention in specialist services for people with personality disorder

    M. J. Crawford
    Objective:, To quantify levels of engagement and retention in specialist services for people with personality disorder (PD). Method:, Demographic and clinical data were collected on referrals to 10 specialist services for people with PD. Follow-up data on retention and drop-out from services were collected over the following 30 months. Results:, Seven hundred and thirteen (60.1%) of 1186 people referred to services were taken by them, of whom 164 (23.0%) subsequently dropped out prior to the completion of an episode of care. Men, younger people and those with higher levels of personality disturbance were less likely to complete a package of care. Conclusion:, Specialist community-based services for adults with PD are able to engage most of those that are referred to them, but further efforts need to be made to find ways to engage younger people and men with PD. [source]

    Socio-economic achievements of individuals born very preterm at the age of 27 to 29 years: a nationwide cohort study

    Aim, To describe the socio economic achievement of individuals born very preterm (VPT) at the age of 27 to 29 years. Method, Demographic and social data were extracted from national registers for all individuals born between 1974 and 1976 in Denmark (n=208 656). Of these, 203 283 individuals were alive in 2006. We compared VPT individuals (gestational age <33wks, n=1422; 51.8% males, n=736) with individuals born at term (>36wks, n=192 223; 51.1% males, n=98 240), of whom 4.08% (n=58) of the VPT and 0.19% (n=373) of the term individuals had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP). Results, Overall results in the two groups were similar, but significant differences appeared. The VPT group had a lower educational level than the term group: 23.9% versus 16.3% had a basic education (corresponding to attendance at basic school for 9y or less; odds ratio [OR] =1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42,1.82). Similarly, 31.9% versus 37.6% had a tertiary education (corresponding to different levels of professional education; OR=0.77, CI 0.69,0.86). Net income was 11% lower in the VPT group and 10.8% versus 5.3% were receiving welfare support (OR=2.14, CI 1.81,2.55). In the VPT group 59% versus 52% did not have children (p<0.001) and there were more individuals living alone without children (28.8% vs 21.8%; OR=1.45, CI 1.29,1.63). Interpretation, VPT birth in the 1970s in Denmark is associated with a highly statistically significant educational and social disadvantage persisting into young adulthood. CP increased the relative risk of social disadvantage in VPT individuals. However, the majority of the survivors are well integrated in society. [source]

    Interaction of the G182C polymorphism in the APOA5 gene and fasting plasma glucose on plasma triglycerides in Type 2 diabetic subjects

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 12 2005
    Y.-D. Jiang
    Abstract Aim Apolipoprotein AV (APOA5) is an important determinant of plasma triglyceride concentration. This study aimed to investigate the relationship of an amino acid substitution at position 182 (G182C) of the apolipoprotein AV (APOA5) gene with triglyceride concentration in a Taiwanese population. Methods This study enrolled two cohorts: non-diabetic subjects (112 males and 89 females) aged 50.3 ± 11.0 years (mean ± sd) and diabetic subjects (106 males and 96 females) aged 62.1 ± 10.3 years. The relationship between the G182C polymorphism (rs 2075291) and plasma triglycerides was examined. Demographic and metabolic parameters including age, sex, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose and total cholesterol were also obtained. Results The G182C polymorphism was a determinant of plasma triglycerides in both non-diabetic (P = 0.022) and diabetic (P = 0.003) groups, independent of age, gender, fasting plasma glucose, body mass index and total cholesterol. In the diabetic group, this genetic polymorphism interacts significantly (P = 0.032) with fasting plasma glucose concentration on plasma triglycerides after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and total cholesterol. Conclusions In conclusion, the G182C polymorphism of the APOA5 gene affects plasma triglycerides in both non-diabetic and diabetic populations. The observed interaction of gene and glycaemic control further indicates a multifactorial nature of clinical phenotypes in subjects with Type 2 diabetes. Diabet. Med. (2005) [source]

    Latitudinal patterns in abundance and life-history traits of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis on South American sandy beaches

    Omar Defeo
    ABSTRACT Demographic and life-history attributes of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis were analysed along 2700 km of the Atlantic coast of South America, including sandy beaches at the southernmost limit (Uruguay) and at the core of its geographical range (Brazil). Population features varied markedly within this range and exhibited systematic geographical patterns of variation. Abundance significantly increased from temperate to subtropical beaches, and the same held true for the asymptotic weight of males. Conversely, length at maturity and asymptotic weight of females increased from subtropical to temperate beaches, being inversely related to sea water temperature. Macroecological patterns in abundance and body weight showed the first large-scale evidence of scaling of population density to body size for a sandy beach population. Mortality rates (both sexes) followed a nonlinear increase from low-density temperate beaches to high-density subtropical beaches. The effect of habitat quality and availability could explain discontinuities in the species distribution within its range, and also differential responses in life-history attributes at a local scale. Asymmetries and converse latitudinal trends between sexes suggest that there is not a single general factor determining large-scale patterns in life-history traits of this species. Our results reinforce the view that density-dependent and environmental factors operating together regulate sandy beach populations. The need to develop macroecological studies in sandy beach ecology is highlighted, as knowledge acquired from local to large spatial scales throws light on population structure and regulation mechanisms. [source]

    Depression and Altered Quality of Life in Women with Epilepsy of Childbearing Age

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2004
    Ettore Beghi
    Summary: Purpose: To calculate the prevalence of depression in a referral population of women of childbearing age, to define the factors associated with depression, and to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the same population. Methods: The 642 consecutive women with epilepsy aged 18,55 years were enrolled by 40 neurologists over an 8-month period and asked to give details on selected demographic and clinical features regarding the disease, any associated clinical condition, and any drug treatment. Depression was diagnosed by using the Hamilton depression scale and HRQOL was measured through the SF-36 form. Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic risk factors for depression were searched for within the study population. Results: Depression (any severity) was present at interview in 242 women, giving a prevalence rate of 37.7%[95% confidence interval (CI), 33.9,41.6]. Mild depression was reported by 18.5% of women, moderate depression by 8.6%, major depression by 10.3%, and severe depression by 0.3%. Factors found to be independently associated with depression (any severity) included treatment of associated conditions [relative risk (RR), 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2,1.8), concurrent disability (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0,1.6), seizures in the preceding 6 months (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1,1.7), and being unemployed or a housewife (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0,1.5). Factors associated with moderate to severe depression included treatment for associated conditions (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4,2.7), seizures in the preceding 6 months (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2,2.5), and being unemployed or a housewife (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1,2.2). Compared with normal women of similar age, patients with epilepsy tended to present lower scores for each HRQOL domain (mostly Role Physical, General Health, Social Functioning, and Role Emotional). However, when the analysis was limited to nondepressed women with epilepsy, any difference disappeared. Conclusions: Women with epilepsy of childbearing age are at high risk of depression. Factors associated with depression include lack of occupation, the presence of an underlying disabling condition (with treatment), and the severity of epilepsy. Compared with the general population, depressed women have greater impairment of HRQOL with epilepsy, which reflects the physical, social, and emotional implications of the disease. [source]

    HCV viremia is associated with drug use in young HIV-1 and HCV coinfected pregnant and non-pregnant women,

    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2005
    Georgia B. Nikolopoulou
    ABSTRACT Aims Vertical transmission of HCV is increased among HIV-1/HCV coinfected women and is related to HCV viral load. In this study we assessed clinical and demographic factors associated with HCV viremia in a cohort of young pregnant and non-pregnant mothers coinfected with HIV-1. Design A cross-sectional clinic-based study nested within a prospective cohort study. Methods From 1988 to 2000, HIV-1 + pregnant and non-pregnant women with children followed in a large maternal, child and adolescent HIV-1 clinic were evaluated for HCV infection using EIA 3.0. HCV RNA levels were determined for HCV antibody + women using polymerase chain reaction. Demographic and clinical characteristics between HCV-RNA(+) and HCV-RNA(,) women and between pregnant and non-pregnant HIV-1/HCV coinfected women were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Findings Among 359 HIV-1(+) women, 84 (23%) were HCV-ab + and 49/84 (58%) had detectable HCV-RNA in plasma. Median age was 31. CD4 counts, HIV-1 RNA levels and demographic characteristics were similar for viremic and non-viremic women and pregnant and non-pregnant women. However, viremic women were more likely to report a history of (88% versus 43%; P < 0.001) or active injection drug use (AIDU) (83% versus 29%; P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that HCV viremia was associated significantly with AIDU (adjusted OR: 15.17; 95% CI: 3.56, 64.56) after adjusting for age, race, number of sexual partners, pregnancy status, CD4 counts and HIV-1 viral load. Conclusion In this cohort of young HIV-1 and HCV coinfected women, HCV viremia was associated strongly with active injection drug use, perhaps due to reinfection or reactivation of HCV. Thus, careful evaluation for HCV infection and counseling related to drug use may be necessary. [source]

    Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors: a population-based study using AUDIT in southern Brazil

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2003
    Raúl A. Mendoza-Sassi
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess the prevalence of potential alcohol use disorders and associated factors using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A town in southern Brazil. Participants A representative sample of 1260 people aged 15 and over. Measurements Demographic, socioeconomic, smoking habit and mental health data were collected. Logistic regression was used in the multivariate analysis, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Findings Overall prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 7.9%, with 14.5% prevalence among men and 2.4% among women. The risk of alcohol misuse increased across social class (P linear trend = 0.03) and compared with the highest classes (A and B), groups C through E had ORs of 1.48, 1.51 and 2.36, respectively. Males had an OR of 6.89 (CI 3.61,13.16) compared with women. A linear trend was found (P = 0.001) between smoking categories, and smokers (OR 3.27; CI 1.91,5.58) and ex-smokers (OR 1.30; CI 0.56,2.98) were at higher risk than non-smokers. Those with minor psychiatric disorders had a 2.48 OR (CI 1.35,4.56) of presenting a positive test. Conclusions The AUDIT detected a high prevalence of potential alcohol use disorders in the population sampled. Those identified are potential targets for preventive measures implemented through health policies. [source]

    Undulating toe movements in brain death,

    G. Saposnik
    For many years, death implied immobility. Nevertheless, there are anecdotal reports of spontaneous or reflex movements (SRMs) in patients with Brain death (BD). The presence of some movements can preclude the diagnosis of BD, and consequently, the possibility of organ donation for transplantation. McNair and Meador [(1992), Mov Dord7: 345,347] described the presence of undulating toe flexion movements (UTF) in BD patients. UTF consists in a sequential brief plantar flexion of the toes. Our aim was to determine the frequency, characteristics and predisposing factors of UTF movements in a prospective multicenter cohort study of patients with BD. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of BD were assessed to evaluate the presence of UTF using a standardized protocol. All patients had a routine laboratory evaluation, CT scan of the head, and EEG. Demographic, clinical, hemodynamic and blood gas concentration factors were analyzed. amongst 107 BD patients who fulfilled the AAN requirements, 47 patients (44%) had abnormal movements. UTF was observed in 25 (23%) being the most common movement (53%). Early evaluation (OR 4.3, CI95% 1.5,11.9) was a predictor of UTF in a multivariate regression model. The somato-sensory evoked potential (SSEPs) as well as brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) did not elicit a cortical response in studied patients with UTF. This spinal reflex is probably integrated in the L5 and S1 segments of the spinal cord. Abnormal movements are common in BD, being present in more than 40% of individuals. UTF was the most common spinal reflex. In our sample, early evaluation was a predictor of UTF. Health care professionals, especially those involved in organ procurement for transplantation, must be aware of this sign. The presence of this motor phenomenon does not preclude the diagnosis of BD. [source]

    A multivariate analysis of the outcome of endodontic treatment

    Dag Ørstavik
    In the present study, multivariate analyses were performed on clinical and treatment variables that may influence the outcome of endodontic treatment. Data collected in a previous clinical-radiographic follow-up study were used. Of 810 treated, 675 roots in 498 teeth were followed for 6 months to 4 yr. Of these, 192 (the CAP group) had pre-existing, chronic apical periodontitis and 483 (the NAP group) had not. Root canal treatment followed a standard procedure with one of three sealers chosen at random. Demographic, clinical and radiographic variables were recorded at the start of, and during treatment. The periapical index (PAI) score was used to record the outcome of treatment, and applied in two different endpoint modes (END1 and END2) as the dependent variable for multivariate statistical analyses using logistic regression and the general model. The modes reflected increasing PAI scores (END1) and conventional success/failure assessment (END2). Dropouts were largely similar to the cases followed up. A total of 10 preoperative and peroperative variables were found to be significantly associated with treatment outcome by the multivariate analyses of either the total material or the NAP or CAP subgroups. Several of these were not significant in univariate analyses (e.g. the effect of sealer). Conventional success/failure analyses (END2) identified fewer of the influential variables and had low explanatory power, whereas PAI scores on an ordinal scale (END1) were most sensitive in identifying variables of influence on the treatment outcome. [source]

    Do Diabetic Patients Have Higher In-hospital Complication Rates When Admitted from the Emergency Department for Possible Myocardial Ischemia?

    Peter B. Richman MD
    Abstract Objective: To compare in-hospital complication rates for diabetic and nondiabetic patients admitted from the emergency department (ED) for possible myocardial ischemia. Methods: This was a prospective, observational study of consecutive consenting patients presenting to a suburban university hospital ED during study hours with typical and atypical symptoms consistent with cardiac ischemia. Demographic, historical, and clinical data were recorded by trained research assistants using a standardized, closed-question, data collection instrument. Inpatient records were reviewed by trained data abstractors to ascertain hospital course and occurrence of complications. Final discharge diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assigned by World Health Organization criteria. Categorical and continuous data were analyzed by chi-square and t-tests, respectively. All tests were two-tailed with alpha set at 0.05. Results: There were 1,543 patients enrolled who did not have complications at initial presentation; 283 were diabetic. The rule-in rate for AMI was 13.8% for nondiabetic patients and 17.7% for diabetic patients (p = 0.09). Times to presentation were similar for nondiabetic vs diabetic patients [248 minutes (95% CI = 231 to 266) vs 235 minutes (95% CI = 202 to 269); p = 0.32]. Nondiabetic patients tended to be younger [56.6 years (95% CI = 55.8 to 57.4) vs 61.6 years (95% CI = 60.2 to 63.1); p = 0.001] and were less likely to be female (34.3% vs 48.1%; p = 0.001). The two groups had similar prevalences for initial electrocardiograms diagnostic for AMI (5.5% vs 7.4%; p = 0.21). There was no significant difference between nondiabetic and diabetic patients for the occurrence of the following complications after admission to the hospital: congestive heart failure (1.3% vs 1.1%, p = 0.77); nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) (1.3% vs 1.2%, p = 0.93); sustained VT (1.2% vs 1.1%, p = 0.85); supraventricular tachycardia (1.7% vs 3.2%, p = 0.12); bradydysrhythmias (1.9% vs 1.1%, p = 0.33); hypotension necessitating the use of pressors (0.9% vs 1.1%, p = 0.76); cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.2% vs 0.7%, p = 0.10); and death (0.3% vs 0.7%, p = 0.34). One or more complications occurred with similar frequencies for patients in the two groups (6.3% vs 5.7%; p = 0.70). Conclusions: No statistically significant difference was found in the post-admission complication rates for initially stable diabetic vs nondiabetic patients admitted for possible myocardial ischemia. Based on these results, the presence or absence of diabetes as a comorbid condition does not indicate a need to alter admitting decisions with respect to risk for inpatient complications. [source]

    Demographic variation and biomass allocation of Agropyron cristatum grown on steppe and dune sites in the Hunshandake Desert, North China

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2005
    R. Z. Wang
    Abstract Demographic and biomass allocation patterns of Agropyron cristatum were measured on steppe and dune sites in the Hunshandake desert of North China in 2001 and 2002. Total plant population, reproductive shoot densities and its differentiation rates were significantly higher in the steppe sites in both years. Plant heights for both vegetative and reproductive shoots were greater in the year with the higher rainfall. The dune sites had a higher biomass allocation to vegetative shoots and roots, while the steppe sites had a higher biomass allocation to reproductive shoots and seed production. It is suggested that the population demography and biomass allocation of the species responded to the differences in the soil variables in the steppe and dune sites. [source]

    Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest in Denver, Colorado: Epidemiology and Outcomes

    Jason S. Haukoos MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) in the United States is approximately 6 per 10,000 population and survival remains low. Relatively little is known about the performance characteristics of a two-tiered emergency medical services (EMS) system split between fire-based basic life support (BLS) dispersed from fixed locations and hospital-based advanced life support (ALS) dispersed from nonfixed locations. The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of OOHCA in Denver, Colorado, and to define the prevalence of survival with good neurologic function in the context of this particular EMS system. Methods:, This was a retrospective cohort study using standardized abstraction methodology. A two-tiered hospital-based EMS system for the County of Denver and 10 receiving hospitals were studied. Consecutive adult patients who experienced nontraumatic OOHCA from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2004, were enrolled. Demographic, prehospital arrest characteristics, treatment data, and survival data using the Utstein template were collected. Good neurologic survival was defined by a Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) score of 1 or 2. Results:, During the study period, 1,985 arrests occurred. Of these, 715 (36%) had attempted resuscitation by paramedics and constitute our study sample. The median age was 65 years (interquartile range = 52,78 years), 69% were male, 41% had witnessed arrest, 25% had bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed, and 30% had ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) as their initial rhythm. Of the 715 patients, 545 (76%) were transported to a hospital, 223 (31%) had return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 175 (25%) survived to hospital admission, 58 (8%) survived to hospital discharge, and 42 (6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4% to 8%) had a good neurologic outcome. Conclusions:, Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival in Denver, Colorado, is similar to that of other United States communities. This finding provides the basis for future epidemiologic and health services research in the out-of-hospital and ED settings in our community. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE,2010; 17:391,398 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Adult Emergency Department Patients with Sickle Cell Pain Crisis: A Learning Collaborative Model to Improve Analgesic Management

    Paula Tanabe PhD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objectives were to report the baseline (prior to quality improvement interventions) patient and visit characteristics and analgesic management practices for each site participating in an emergency department (ED) sickle cell learning collaborative. Methods:, A prospective, multisite longitudinal cohort study in the context of a learning-collaborative model was performed in three midwestern EDs. Each site formed a multidisciplinary team charged with improving analgesic management for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Each team developed a nurse-initiated analgesic protocol for SCD patients (implemented after a baseline data collection period of 3.5 months at one site and 10 months at the other two sites). All sites prospectively enrolled adults with an acute pain crisis and SCD. All medical records for patients meeting study criteria were reviewed. Demographic, health services, and analgesic management data were abstracted, including ED visit frequency data, ED disposition, arrival and discharge pain score, and name and route of initial analgesic administered. Ten interviews per quarter per site were conducted with patients within 14 days of their ED discharge, and subjects were queried about the highest level of pain acceptable at discharge. The primary outcome variable was the time to initial analgesic administration. Variable data were described as means and standard deviations (SDs) or medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) for nonnormal data. Results:, A total of 155 patients met study criteria (median age = 32 years, IQR = 24,40 years) with a total of 701 ED visits. Eighty-six interviews were conducted. Most patients (71.6%) had between one and three visits to the ED during the study period. However, after removing Site 3 from the analysis because of the short data enrollment period (3.5 months), which influenced the mean number of visits for the entire cohort, 52% of patients had between one and three ED visits over 10 months, 21% had four to nine visits, and 27% had between 10 and 67 visits. Fifty-nine percent of patients were discharged home. The median time to initial analgesic for the cohort was 74 minutes (IQR = 48,135 minutes). Differences between choice of analgesic agent and route selected were evident between sites. For the cohort, 680 initial analgesic doses were given (morphine sulfate, 42%; hydromorphone, 46%; meperidine, 4%; morphine sulfate and ibuprofen or ketorolac, 7%) using the following routes: oral (2%), intravenous (67%), subcutaneous (3%), and intramuscular (28%). Patients reported a significantly lower targeted discharge pain score (mean ± SD = 4.19 ± 1.18) compared to the actual documented discharge pain score within 45 minutes of discharge (mean ± SD = 5.77 ± 2.45; mean difference = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = .723 to 2.44, n = 43). Conclusions:, While half of the patients had one to three ED visits during the study period, many patients had more frequent visits. Delays to receiving an initial analgesic were common, and post-ED interviews reveal that sickle cell pain patients are discharged from the ED with higher pain scores than what they perceive as desirable. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:399,407 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Predictors of response to therapy with terlipressin and albumin in patients with cirrhosis and type 1 hepatorenal syndrome,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    André Nazar
    Terlipressin plus albumin is an effective treatment for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), but approximately only half of the patients respond to this therapy. The aim of this study was to assess predictive factors of response to treatment with terlipressin and albumin in patients with type 1 HRS. Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis and type 1 HRS were treated prospectively with terlipressin and albumin. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables obtained before the initiation of treatment as well as changes in arterial pressure during treatment were analyzed for their predictive value. Response to therapy (reduction in serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL at the end of treatment) was observed in 18 patients (46%) and was associated with an improvement in circulatory function. Independent predictive factors of response to therapy were baseline serum bilirubin and an increase in mean arterial pressure of ,5 mm Hg at day 3 of treatment. The cutoff level of serum bilirubin that best predicted response to treatment was 10 mg/dL (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.77; P < 0.0001; sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 61%). Response rates in patients with serum bilirubin <10 mg/dL or ,10 mg/dL were 67% and 13%, respectively (P = 0.001). Corresponding values in patients with an increase in mean arterial pressure ,5 mm Hg or <5 mm Hg at day 3 were 73% and 36%, respectively (P = 0.037). Conclusion: Serum bilirubin and an early increase in arterial pressure predict response to treatment with terlipressin and albumin in type 1 HRS. Alternative treatment strategies to terlipressin and albumin should be investigated for patients with type 1 HRS and low likelihood of response to vasoconstrictor therapy. (HEPATOLOGY 2009.) [source]

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection in a North American adult hemodialysis patient population

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    Gerald Y. Minuk
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections continue to occur in adult hemodialysis units. A possible contributing factor is the presence of occult HBV (serum hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] negative but HBV DNA positive). Two hundred forty-one adult hemodialysis patients were screened for occult HBV. HBV DNA testing was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 2 independent primer sets (core promoter and surface). Two (0.8%) of the 241 patients were HBsAg positive. Of the remaining 239 HBsAg-negative patients, 9 (3.8%) were HBV DNA positive. Viral loads in these individuals were low (102 -104 viral copies/mL). Seven of the 9 (78%) were nt 587 mutation (sG145R mutant) positive. Demographic, biochemical, and HBV serological testing did not help to identify those with occult HBV. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult HBV in adult hemodialysis patients in this North American urban center is approximately 4 to 5 times higher than standard HBsAg testing would suggest. The majority of these infections are associated with low viral loads and a high prevalence of the sG145R mutant. Finally, the demographic, biochemical, and/or serological features of HBV DNA,positive subjects do not distinguish these individuals from the remainder of the dialysis patient population. (HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40:1072,1077.) [source]

    Prevalence of hepatitis C in an ethnically diverse HIV-1-infected cohort in south London

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 3 2005
    AH Mohsen
    Objectives There is limited information on the prevalence of and risk factors for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-1-infected patients in the UK. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of HCV infection among an ethnically diverse cohort of HIV-infected patients in south London, and to extrapolate from these data the number of co-infected patients in the UK. Methods A total of 1017 HIV-1-infected patients who had attended King's College Hospital HIV clinic between September 2000 and August 2002 were screened for HCV antibody using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive results were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or recombinant immunoblot assay. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were obtained from the local computerized database and medical records. We applied our HCV prevalence rates in the different HIV transmission groups to the estimated number of HIV-infected persons in these groups in the UK, to obtain a national estimate of the level of HIV-HCV co-infection. Results Of the 1017 HIV-1-infected patients, 407 (40%) were white men, 158 (15.5%) were black African men, 268 (26.3%) were black African women, and 61 (6%) and 26 (2.6%) were black Caribbean men and women, respectively. Heterosexual exposure was the most common route of HIV acquisition (53.5%), followed by men having sex with men (36.9%), and current or previous injecting drug use (IDU) (7.2%). The overall prevalence of HCV co-infection was 90/1017 (8.9%), but this varied substantially according to route of transmission, from 82.2% among those with a history of IDU (which accounted for 67% of all HCV infections), to 31.8% in those who had received blood products, to 3.5% and 1.8% in those with homosexually and heterosexually acquired infection, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified several independent risk factors for HCV infection: a history of IDU [odds ratio (OR)=107.2; 95% confidence interval (CI)=38.5,298.4], having received blood products (OR=16.5; 95% CI=5.1,53.7), and either being from a white ethnic group (OR=4.3; 95% CI=1.5,12.0) or being born in Southern Europe (OR=6.7; 95% CI=1.5,30.7). Based on the 35 473 known HIV-1-infected persons in the UK and the 10 997 estimated to be unaware of their status, we projected that there are at least 4136 HIV-HCV co-infected individuals in the UK and 979 who are unaware of their status. Conclusions Overall, 9% of our cohort was HIV-HCV co-infected. The prevalence was highest among intravenous drug users (82%), who accounted for most of our HCV cases, and lowest among heterosexual men and women from sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean [< 2%]. Our estimate that a significant number of co-infected persons may be unaware of their HIV and HCV status, highlights an urgent need to increase the uptake of HCV and HIV testing, particularly among injecting drug users, to reduce the risk of onward transmission. [source]

    Clinical features and predictors of survival of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in a population-based case series in Sydney, Australia

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 5 2004
    MC Robotin
    Objectives To analyse clinical features and predictors of survival for AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared to earlier in the HIV epidemic. Methods All AIDS-NHL cases diagnosed at three inner Sydney hospitals caring for people with AIDS during 1985,2001 were identified through medical record searches. Demographic, clinical, immunological and histopathological information was recorded. Year of NHL diagnosis was grouped into three periods, corresponding to whether monotherapy (1985,1991), dual therapy (1992,1995) or HAART (1996,2001) was the main treatment for HIV infection. Statistical comparisons were made between the pre-HAART and post-HAART eras. Results Three hundred cases of AIDS-NHL were identified. Divergent trends were identified for systemic and primary central nervous system (CNS) NHL. For systemic NHL, the CD4 count at NHL diagnosis increased markedly to 208 cells/,L in the post-HAART era (P=0.014) and there was a trend towards presentation as the first AIDS-defining illness (69%, P=0.053), and as earlier stage NHL disease (42%, P=0.048). Median survival time increased from 4.2 months in 1985,1991 to 19 months in the post-HAART era (P<0.001). In a multivariate model, predictors of poor survival from systemic NHL included: NHL diagnosis after another AIDS-defining illness (P<0.001), stage 4 NHL (P<0.001), presentation at extra lymphatic sites (P=0.001), and nonreceipt of chemotherapy (P=0.002). After adjusting for the factors, those diagnosed in the era of HAART had a significant 56% reduction in rate of death (P<0.001). In contrast, for CNS NHL, clinical features were little changed and survival did not improve in the era of HAART. Conclusions Systemic NHL is presenting earlier in the course of HIV disease, and at a less advanced NHL stage. There has been a marked improvement in survival in the era of HAART even after adjustment for other prognostic variables. In contrast, primary CNS NHL remains a disease which presents late in the course of HIV infection and is associated with a very poor prognosis. [source]

    Nodal sampling in pancreaticoduodenectomy: does it change our management?

    HPB, Issue 6 2007
    Abstract Background. Lymph node involvement in periampullary malignancy is the single most important factor in predicting survival in pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). The role of nodal sampling in PD has not been well evaluated. This study evaluates the utility of nodal sampling of nodal stations 8 and 12, which are easily dissected early in PD, in overall final nodal status. Patients and methods. Fifty patients underwent PD at a single institution by a one surgeon over a 15 month period. Nodal stations 8 and 12 were sent separately for pathologic evaluation. Twenty-eight patients had a final diagnosis of periampullary malignancy. Demographic and pathologic data were collected retrospectively from patient charts. Positive and negative predictive values of nodes 8 and 12 were evaluated. Results. Eighteen of 28 patients with a diagnosis of periampullary malignancy had pathologically negative nodes 8 and 12, and a final nodal status (all peripancreatic lymph nodes) negative for nodal involvement. Nine of 28 patients had a negative nodal sampling result, but a positive final nodal status for metastatic tumor. The remaining four patients had both positive nodal sampling and final nodal status for metastatic tumor. The negative predictive value of negative nodes 8 and 12 was 0.625. Conclusion. The negative predictive of a negative node 8 and 12 of 0.625 suggests that the decision to proceed with or abort PD should not be based on intraoperative evaluation of these nodes. Performance of PD should be undertaken if technically feasible, and not based on intraoperative nodal assessment. [source]

    The Association Between Hypothermia, Prehospital Cooling, and Mortality in Burn Victims

    Adam J. Singer MD
    Abstract Objectives:, Hypothermia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma victims. The prognostic value of hypothermia on emergency department (ED) presentation in burn victims is not well known. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of hypothermia in burn victims and its association with mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS). The study also examined the potential causative role of prehospital cooling in hypothermic burn patients. Methods:, This was a retrospective review of a county trauma registry. The county was both suburban and rural, with a population of 1.5 million and with one burn center. Burn patients between 1994 and 2007 who met trauma registry criteria were included. Demographic and clinical data including prehospital cooling, burn size and depth, and presence of inhalation injury were collected. Hypothermia was defined as a core body temperature of less than or equal to 35°C. Data analysis consisted of univariate associations between patient characteristics and hypothermia. Results:, There were 1,215 burn patients from 1994 to 2007. Mean age (±standard deviation [±SD]) was 29 (±24) years, 67% were male, 248 (26.7%) had full-thickness burns, and 24 (2.6%) had inhalation injury. Only 17 (1.8%) had a burn larger than 70% total body surface area (TBSA). A total of 929 (76%) patients had an initial ED temperature recorded. Only 15/929 (1.6%) burn patients had hypothermia on arrival, and all were mild (lowest temperature was 32.6°C). There was no association between sex, year, and presence of inhalation injury with hypothermia. Hypothermic patients were older (44 years vs. 29 years, p = 0.01), and median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was higher (25 vs. 4, p = 0.002) than for nonhypothermic patients. Hypothermia was present in 6/17 (35%) patients with a TBSA of 70% or greater and in 8/869 (0.9%) patients with a TBSA of <70% (p < 0.001). Mortality was higher in hypothermic patients (60% vs. 3%, p < 0.001). None of the hypothermic patients received prehospital cooling. Conclusions:, Hypothermia on presentation to the ED was noted in 1.6% of all burn victims in this trauma registry. Hypothermia was more common in very large burns and was associated with high mortality. In this series, prehospital cooling did not appear to contribute to hypothermia. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:456,459 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Family history of Crohn's disease is associated with an increased risk for Crohn's disease of the pouch

    Bo Shen MD
    Abstract Background: Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch can occur in patients with restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch,anal anastomosis originally performed for a preoperative diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC). CD of the pouch was often observed in patients with a family history of CD. The purpose was to determine whether the family history of CD increased the risk for CD of the pouch in patients who underwent restorative proctocolectomy. Methods: A total of 558 eligible patients seen in the Pouchitis Clinic were enrolled, including 116 patients with CD of the pouch and 442 patients with a normal pouch or other pouch disorders. Demographic and clinical variables were included in the study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: The adjusted multivariate logistic analyses revealed that the risk for CD of the pouch was increased in patients with a family history of CD, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.56,6.67), or with a first-degree relative with CD (OR = 4.18, 95% CI, 1.48,11.8), or with a greater number of family members with CD (OR = 2.00 per family member, 95% CI, 1.19,3.37), adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, duration of IBD, duration of having a pouch, and a preoperation diagnosis of indeterminate colitis or CD. In addition, patients of younger age and longer duration of having a pouch had a higher risk for CD of the pouch. A diagnosis of CD of the pouch was associated with a poor outcome, with a greater than 5-fold estimated increased odds of pouch failure (OR = 5.58, 95% CI, 2.74,11.4). Conclusions The presence of a family history of CD is associated with an increased risk for CD of the pouch, which in turn has a high risk for pouch failure. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma: A retrospective clinical review

    Atif J. Khan M.D.
    Abstract Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) are uncommon tumors, representing about 10% to 15% of head and neck tumors. We compare the survival and control rates at our institution with those reported in the literature, and examine putative predictors of outcome. All patients registered with the tumor registry as having had ACC were identified. Demographic and survival variables were retrieved from the database. Additionally, a chart review of all patients was done to obtain specific information. Minor gland tumors were staged using the American Joint Committee on Cancer's criteria for squamous cell carcinomas in identical sites. Histopathologic variables retrieved included grade of the tumor, margins, and perineural invasion. Treatment modalities, field sizes, and radiation doses were recorded in applicable cases. An effort to retrieve archival tumor specimens for immunohistochemical analysis was undertaken. A total of 69 patients were treated for ACC from 1955 to 1999. One patient, who presented with fatal brain metastasis, was excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 68 patients, 30 were men and 38 were women. The average age at diagnosis was 52 years, and mean follow-up was 13.2 years. Mean survival was 7.7 years. Overall survival (OS) rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 72%, 44%, and 34%, and cause-specific survival was 83%, 71%, and 55%, respectively. Recurrence-free survival rates were 65%, 52%, and 30% at 5, 10, and 15 years, with a total of 29 of 68 (43%) eventually suffering a recurrence. Overall survival was adversely affected by advancing T and AJCC stage. Higher tumor grades were also associated with decreased OS, although the numbers compared were small. Primaries of the nasosinal region fared poorly when compared with other locations. Total recurrence-free survival, local and distant recurrence rates were distinctly better in primaries of the oral cavity/oropharynx when compared with those in other locations. Reduced distant recurrence-free survival was significantly associated with increasing stage. No other variables were predictive for recurrence. Additionally, we found that nasosinal tumors were more likely to display higher stage at presentation, and were more often associated with perineural invasion. Also of interest was the association of perineural invasion with margin status, with 15 of 20 patients with positive margins displaying perineural invasion, while only 5 of 17 with negative margins showed nerve invasion (P = 0.02). On immunohistochemistry, 2 cases of the 29 (7%) tumor specimens found displayed HER-2/neu positivity. No correlation between clinical behavior and positive staining could be demonstrated. Our data concur with previous reports on ACC in terms of survival and recurrence statistics. Stage and site of primary were important determinants of outcome. Grade may still serve a role in decision making. We could not demonstrate any differences attributable to primary modality of therapy, perhaps due to the nonrandomization of patients into the various treatment tracks and the inclusion of palliative cases. Similarly, perineural invasion, radiation dose and field size, and HER-2/neu positivity did not prove to be important factors in our experience. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Impact of COPD severity on physical disability and daily living activities: EDIP-EPOC I and EDIP-EPOC II studies

    J. M. Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro
    Summary Aims:, The severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated to patients' health-related quality of life (HRQL). Physical impairment increasingly affects daily activities creating economic, social and personal burden for patients and their families. This burden should be considered in the management of COPD patients; therefore, we intended to assess the impact of the disease severity on physical disability and daily activities. Methods:, Two epidemiological observational cross-sectional descriptive studies were carried out in 1596 patients with moderate COPD and 2012 patients with severe or very severe COPD in the routine clinical practice. Demographic and basic clinical-epidemiological data were collected and patients completed questionnaires to assess their physical disability because of COPD [Medical Research Council (MRC)], COPD repercussion on daily activities [London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL)], job, economy and family habits and their health status [EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS)]. Results:, In all, 37% of severe/very severe COPD patients and 10% of moderate (p < 0.0001) had MRC grades 4 and 5. Mean global LCADL was significantly higher in severe/very severe than in moderate patients [29.6 (CI 95%: 28.91,30.25) vs. 21.4 (CI 95%: 20.8,21.9); p < 0.0001]. COPD job impact and economic and family habits repercussions were significantly higher and health status significantly worse in severe/very severe cases than in patients with moderate COPD. Conclusions:, COPD severity is highly associated with physical disability by MRC grading, with functionality on daily activities and with impairment of other social and clinical activities. Moderate COPD patients show already a significant degree of impairment in all these parameters. [source]

    Beliefs and perceptions of Arab vitiligo patients regarding their condition

    Khalid M. AlGhamdi MD
    Background, Patients' beliefs about their illness can result in positive and/or negative implications for the management of their disease. To examine the beliefs held by vitiligo patients about their condition and to explore the potential factors that might influence such beliefs. Methods, The illness perception questionnaire (IPQ) was translated into the particular regional language (Arabic) and administered to adult vitiligo patients visiting our Dermatology Department, from 2006 to 2008. Demographic and illness details were obtained. Results, We recruited 164 vitiligo patients (91 male subjects). The mean age was 27 years (SD = 13, range 15,57 years). It was believed that stress, altered immunity, and heredity were the cause of vitiligo by 33%, 26%, and 24% of the respondents respectively. Eighty-four percent and 28% believed in fate and evil eye as a cause of their illness respectively. Forty-two percent believed that their illness had a major effect on their lives and 44% believed that vitiligo had strongly affected the way others see them. For both beliefs, this was independent of the gender. Thirty-seven percent reported that they do not understand their illness. Six percent believed that their disease was contagious while 12% were not sure. Fifty-four and 57% reported feeling depressed and anxious respectively, because of their disease. This was more common in female patients (P = 0.019 and 0.031 respectively). Conclusion, Misconceptions and negative attitudes are widespread among vitiligo patients. The lack of disease-related understanding and the existence of anxiety and depression require targeted health education and psychosocial support. [source]

    Benzodiazepine use in the elderly: an indicator for inappropriately treated geriatric depression?

    Eva Assem-Hilger
    Abstract Objective To measure the prevalence of benzodiazepine (BZD) use and to explore associated demographic and clinical variables of BZD use within a cohort of 75-year- old inhabitants of an urban district of Vienna. Methods This is a prospective, interdisciplinary cohort study on aging. Our investigation is based on the first consecutive 500 subjects that completed the study protocol. Demographic and clinical characteristics, benzodiazepine and antidepressant use were documented using a standardized questionnaire. Affective status was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and the Spielberger State-and Trait Anxiety Inventory subscales (STAI). Results Prevalence of BZD use was 13.8%. Compared to non-users, BZD users had significantly higher mean scores at the HAMD (p,=,0.001), the GDS (p,=,0.026), and the Spielberger State-and Trait Anxiety Inventory subscales (p,=,0.003; p,=,0.001). Depression was found in 12.0% (HAMD) and 17.8% when using a self-rating instrument (GDS). Less than one-third of depressed subjects were receiving antidepressants. Statistically equal numbers were using benzodiazepines. Conclusions Inappropriate prescription of BZD is frequent in old age, probably indicating untreated depression in many cases. The implications of maltreated geriatric depression and the risks associated with benzodiazepine use highlight the medical and socioeconomic consequences of inappropriate BZD prescription. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Importance of Perceived Personnel Selection System Fairness Determinants: Relations with Demographic, Personality, and Job Characteristics

    Chockalingam Viswesvaran
    This study explored the relative importance attached to various perceived personnel selection fairness determinants (e.g., selection system content-based variables, features of selection system administration). We investigated how demographic variables (ethnicity and gender), individual differences characteristics (the Big Five and cognitive ability) and job characteristics (job complexity and domestic/expatriate assignment status) relate to the importance of ratings of perceived personnel selection system determinants. The results, especially for race/ethnicity analyses indicated that there might be differences across demographic groups in importance placed on different aspects of selection system characteristics. The magnitudes of the relationships were small to moderate for Asian,White and Hispanic,White comparisons. Asian,Hispanic and gender differences in importance assessments were small. Few individual differences variables (i.e., personality and cognitive ability) were associated with importance placed on various aspects of selection system characteristics. Notable exceptions were moderate positive relationships between general mental ability and importance of content-based selection system characteristics, and moderate negative relationships between emotional stability, conscientiousness and cognitive ability, and importance of selection system context variables. The complexity levels of the jobs held by respondents did not appreciably affect the importance placed on the different selection system characteristics. There were few notable differences between importance assessments for domestic versus expatriate positions. Implications for practice, especially managing cultural diversity in organizations, and for theory development are discussed. [source]

    Regional Inequalities and Civil Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa,

    Gudrun ØStby
    The case study literature is ripe with examples of a positive association between inequality and civil war, but systematic country-level studies have largely failed to find a significant relationship. One reason for this discrepancy may be that large-N studies tend to ignore spatial variations in group welfare within countries, although civil wars often take place within limited areas. We address this gap in the literature by applying GIS operations to Demographic and Health Surveys to construct new disaggregated data on welfare and socioeconomic inequalities between and within subnational regions in 22 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. These measures are coupled with geographical data on the location of conflict zones for the period 1986,2004. We find that conflict onsets are more likely in regions with (1) low levels of education; (2) strong relative deprivation regarding household assets; (3) strong intraregional inequalities; and (4) combined presence of natural resources and relative deprivation. [source]