Dementia Scale (dementia + scale)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Dementia Scale

  • hasegawa dementia scale

  • Selected Abstracts

    Clinical features and assessment of severe dementia.

    A review
    Sound understanding of the dementia syndrome requires adequate acquaintance with its entire spectrum, from the lightest to the most advanced stages. Most studies of dementia deal with light to moderate stages of the condition, while relatively little attention has been paid to its most severe stages. This review presents a clinical description of patients with severe dementia and of the tests currently available to evaluate their cognitive, behavioural, and functional status. Available instruments such as the Hierarchic Dementia Scale or the Severe Impairment Battery now allow quantification of the cognitive and behavioural status of patients with severe dementia. Experience with severe dementia shows that, far from being in a `vegetative state', as is commonly thought, late-stage patients are in fact quite different from one another and in most cases continue to have an interaction with their environment. This ability to better define the characteristics of patients with severe dementia provides the basis for correlations between clinical data and data derived from neuroimaging, neurochemistry, or neuropathology. It also sets the stage for possible therapeutic trials involving these patients. [source]

    Brief screening tool for mild cognitive impairment in older Japanese: Validation of the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment

    Yoshinori Fujiwara
    Aim: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), developed by Dr Nasreddine (Nasreddine et al. 2005), is a brief cognitive screening tool for detecting older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We examined the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the MoCA (MoCA-J) in older Japanese subjects. Methods: Subjects were recruited from the outpatient memory clinic of Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital or community-based medical health check-ups in 2008. The MoCA-J, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, and routine neuropsychological batteries were conducted on 96 older subjects. Mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) was found in 30 subjects and MCI in 30, with 36 normal controls. Results: The Cronbach's alpha of MoCA-J as an index of internal consistency was 0.74. The test,retest reliability of MoCA, using intraclass correlation coefficient between the scores at baseline survey and follow-up survey 8 weeks later was 0.88 (P < 0.001). MoCA-J score was highly correlated with MMSE (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), HDS-R (r = 0.79, P < 0.001) and CDR (r = ,0.79, P < 0.001) scores. The areas under receiver,operator curves (AUC) for predicting MCI and AD groups by the MoCA-J were 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90,1.00) and 0.99 (95% CI = 0.00,1.00), respectively. The corresponding values for MMSE and HDS-R were 0.85 (95% CI = 0.75,0.95) and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.00,1.00), and 0.86 (95% CI = 0.76,0.95) and 0.97 (95% CI = 0.00,1.00), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 25/26, the MoCA-J demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.0% and a specificity of 87.0% in screening MCI. Conclusion: The MoCA-J could be a useful cognitive test for screening MCI, and could be recommended in a primary clinical setting and for geriatric health screening in the community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2010; 10: 225,232. [source]

    Association between cognition and daily life functioning in dementia subtypes

    Sharon F. M. Bouwens
    Abstract Objective To investigate the association between cognition and daily life functioning in dementia subtypes. Methods Cross-sectional data were used from 615 patients with dementia who were referred to the Maastricht Memory Clinic of the Maastricht University Medical Centre. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE; to measure cognitive status) and the Blessed Dementia Scale (BDS; to measure daily life functioning) for the following types of dementia: Alzheimer's Disease (AD, n,=,442); Vascular dementia (VaD, n,=,113); frontotemporal dementia (FTD, n,=,18); Parkinson's dementia (PD, n,=,21); and primary progressive aphasia (PPA, n,=,21). One-way ANOVA was used to test differences in age, MMSE scores and BDS scores across dementia subtypes. Results Scores on the MMSE showed strong correlation with BDS scores in cases of FTD (r,=,,0.80); moderate correlation in cases of AD, VaD, and PD (range r,=,,0.50,0.60); while no correlation was found in PPA cases. Conclusions The association between cognition and daily life functioning varied among dementia subtypes for AD, VaD, FTD and PD. Furthermore, the overall scores on both domains differ between dementia subtypes, indicating that different types of dementia are characterized by a specific pattern of cognitive status and daily life functioning. These findings underline the need for multidomain assessment in patients with dementia. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Executive Interview as a Screening Test for Executive Dysfunction in Patients with Mild Dementia

    Jette Stokholm MA
    Objectives: To validate the Executive Interview (EXIT25) as a screening instrument for executive cognitive dysfunction in patients with mild dementia. Design: Validation using group comparison and correlation studies. Setting: The Copenhagen University Hospital Memory Clinic, a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic based in a neurological setting. Participants: Thirty-three patients with mild dementia (MMSE score ,20) and 30 healthy controls. Measurements: The EXIT25, a 25-item screening instrument for executive dysfunction, was administered to all participants. Global cognitive function was measured using the MMSE. Patients were evaluated using traditional neuropsychological tests for executive dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Trail Making Part B, Stroop Test, verbal fluency, design fluency, and verbal abstraction). Changes in behavior and functional impairment in activities of daily living were assessed using the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale. Results: EXIT25 scores were significantly higher in patients than in the healthy controls; MMSE scores could not account for the differences. Thirteen of the 25 items separated the two groups. EXIT25 was found to correlate significantly with the Stroop Test, the verbal fluency tests, and the FBI. Conclusion: The EXIT25 is able to capture executive cognitive deficits not primarily related to the general level of intellectual reduction in patients with mild dementia. In clinical practice, the EXIT25 might be a valuable supplement to the MMSE. [source]

    Characteristics of exploratory eye movements in elderly people: possibility of early diagnosis of dementia

    PSYCHOGERIATRICS, Issue 3 2010
    Abstract Background:, Visual cognitive dysfunction is one of the most important signs indicating the early stage of dementia. Thus, visual testing could be used as an aid to the clinical diagnosis of dementia. In the present study, exploratory eye movement was measured to evaluate visual cognitive function in elderly subjects, including those with dementia. Methods:, We analyzed responsive search scores (RSS) from exploratory eye movements of 300 subjects who were examined with an eye mark recorder while viewing S shaped figures. Subjects were divided into three groups (dementia, intermediate, healthy) from the values of the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clinical Dementia Rating. We further divided the intermediate groups into two subgroups, the high score and low score groups, based on RSS. In 202 subjects, Z-scores of voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease (VSRAD) were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results:, RSS of the dementia group were significantly lower than those in the intermediate and healthy groups, in order: dementia < intermediate < healthy groups. RSS of the low score intermediate group was significantly lower than that of the high score intermediate group. There was no significant difference between the low score intermediate and dementia groups, or between the high score intermediate and healthy groups. No significant differences of either HSD-R or MMSE were observed between the low score and the high score intermediate groups. The Z-score of VSRAD using MRI in the low score intermediate group was significantly higher than that in the high score intermediate group. Conclusions:, These findings suggest that RSS using an eye mark recorder is a useful psychophysiological marker to evaluate the early stage of dementia as well as at-risk elderly people. [source]

    Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer's disease

    PSYCHOGERIATRICS, Issue 4 2009
    Daiki JIMBO
    Abstract Objective:, Recently, the importance of non-pharmacological therapies for dementia has come to the fore. In the present study, we examined the curative effects of aromatherpay in dementia in 28 elderly people, 17 of whom had Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods:, After a control period of 28 days, aromatherapy was performed over the following 28 days, with a wash out period of another 28 days. Aromatherapy consisted of the use of rosemary and lemon essential oils in the morning, and lavender and orange in the evening. To determine the effects of aromatherpay, patients were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Gottfries, Brane, Steen scale (GBSS-J), Functional Assessment Staging of Alzheimer's disease (FAST), a revised version of Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R), and the Touch Panel-type Dementia Assessment Scale (TDAS) four times: before the control period, after the control period, after aromatherpay, and after the washout period. Results:, All patients showed significant improvement in personal orientation related to cognitive function on both the GBSS-J and TDAS after therapy. In particular, patients with AD showed significant improvement in total TDAS scores. Result of routine laboratory tests showed no significant changes, suggesting that there were no side-effects associated with the use of aromatherapy. Results from Zarit's score showed no significant changes, suggesting that caregivers had no effect on the improved patient scores seen in the other tests. Conclusions:, In conclusion, we found aromatherapy an efficacious non-pharmacological therapy for dementia. Aromatherapy may have some potential for improving cognitive function, especially in AD patients. [source]

    Clinical effects of high oral dose of donepezil for patients with Alzheimer's disease in Japan

    PSYCHOGERIATRICS, Issue 2 2009
    Motohiro NOZAWA
    Abstract Background:, Donepezil 10 mg/day gained approval in Japan in August 2007 for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in advanced Alzheimer's disease. Methods:, We evaluated the efficacy and adverse effects of donepezil when the dose was increased to 10 mg/day in 61 Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale and mini-mental state examination at the day before starting, and at 4, 8 and 24 weeks after starting donepezil 10 mg/day. The relationship with apolipoprotein E4 was also investigated. Results:, The Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale and mini-mental state examination scores were not statistically significantly different at any time after starting donepezil 10 mg/day. It can be anticipated that donepezil 10 mg/day will especially inhibit deterioration of cognitive function in advanced Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of adverse events was 11.5%, lower than the rate of 40% or higher recorded during previous clinical trials. Conclusions:, The progression of cognitive dysfunction could be inhibited by increasing the dose of donepezil to 10 mg/day. It was suggested that longer-term treatment with 5 mg/day might lead to fewer adverse events when the dose is increased to 10 mg/day. [source]

    Behavioral profile of Alzheimer's disease in Chinese elderly , a validation study of the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's disease behavioral pathology rating scale

    Linda C. W. Lam
    Abstract Objectives This study aims to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Alzheimer's disease behavioral pathology rating scale (CBehave-AD) and the behavioral profile of Chinese patients with AD. Methods Seventy-one subjects with NINCDS-ADRDA diagnosis of probable and possible AD were assessed for validation of the CBehave-AD. A behavioral symptom frequency checklist, the Chinese version of the Blessed Roth dementia scale (CDS) and the Cantonese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (CMMSE) were used for comparison. An extended sample of 120 AD patients was then evaluated with the CBehave-AD. Results High correlations between the CBehave-AD and checklist scores were found (paranoid and delusional ideation, hallucinations, activity disturbances, aggressiveness and diurnal rhythm disturbances). The scale also demonstrated satisfactory inter-rater and test-retest reliabilities. The mean (SD) CMMSE score of the 120 patients was 9.4 (7.1). Among them, 32% have delusions, 15% had hallucinations, 54% had activity disturbances, 61% had aggressive behavior, 44% had sleep disturbance, 24% had affective disturbances, 19% had anxiety and phobias. Delusional ideation was significantly associated with hallucinations, aggressiveness, and affective disturbances. Diurnal rhythm disturbances were associated with activity disturbances and aggressiveness. CBehave-AD total scores were not significantly correlated with severity of AD, but individual symptom categories showed different pattern of correlation. Delusions, hallucinations, anxiety and phobias were significantly correlated with dementia staging. Conclusion The findings suggest that the CBehave-AD is a valid assessment tool for behavioral disturbances in patients with AD. Variable associations between different symptom categories and dementia staging suggest a need for further exploration of the complex interactions between behavioral and cognitive disturbances in dementia. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]