Deletion Studies (deletion + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An interferon-sensitive response element is involved in constitutive caspase-8 gene expression in neuroblastoma cells

Alessandro De Ambrosis
Abstract We previously identified a 1.2 Kb DNA element (P-1161/+16), 5, to caspase-8 exon-1, that acts as promoter in caspase-8-positive, but not in caspase-8-negative neuroblastoma (NB) cells. The P-1161/+16 DNA element regulates both constitutive and interferon IFN-,-inducible caspase-8 expression. Two GAS (IFN-activated sequence, STAT-1 binding site) and two ISRE (interferon sensitive response element, IRF binding site) were present in P-1161/+16. Deletion studies indicated that elements essential for promoter activity in NB cells were present in a 167 bp region 5, flanking exon-1 (P-151/+16), which contains an ISRE at position ,32. The transcription initiation site was mapped by 5, rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) at position ,20 from caspase-8 cDNA reference sequence. Disruption of the ISRE-32 indicated that it is required for both constitutive and IFN-,-inducible caspase-8 expression. IRF-1 and IRF-2 transcription factors bind to the (,151/+16) DNA fragment in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that IRF-1 and IRF-2 bind to the DNA region at the 5, of caspase-8 gene in NB cells, which show constitutive expression but not in caspase-8 negative cells. In these last cells, up-regulation of caspase-8 by IFN-, was associated to induction of IRF-1 and IRF-2 binding to caspase-8 promoter and increased histone acetylation. Moreover, RNA interference experiments also supported the involvement of IRF-1 and IRF-2 in constitutive caspase-8 expression in NB cells. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Hypoxia and glucocorticoid signaling converge to regulate macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene expression

Laura M. Elsby
Objective Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory mediator involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was undertaken to identify the MIF promoter elements responsible for regulating gene expression. Methods Luciferase reporter gene assays were used to identify the MIF promoter sequence responsible for basal activity. Bioinformatic analysis was used to predict transcription factor binding sites, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to demonstrate transcription factor binding. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to demonstrate transcription factor loading on the MIF promoter. Results We identified the minimal promoter sequence required for basal MIF promoter activity that was also capable of conferring glucocorticoid-dependent inhibition in a T lymphocyte model cell line. Deletion studies and EMSA revealed 2 elements in the MIF promoter that were responsible for basal promoter activity. The 5, element binds CREB/activating transcription factor 1, and the 3, element is a functional hypoxia-responsive element binding hypoxia-inducible factor 1,. Further studies demonstrated that the cis elements are both required for glucocorticoid-dependent inhibition. ChIP demonstrated glucocorticoid-dependent recruitment of glucocorticoid receptor , to the MIF promoter in lymphocytes within 1 hour of treatment and a concomitant decrease in acetylated histone H3. Conclusion Our findings indicate that hypoxia and glucocorticoid signaling converge on a single element regulating MIF; this regulatory unit is a potential interacting node for microenvironment sensing of oxygen tension and glucocorticoid action in foci of inflammation. [source]

New multiplex PCR method for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) and the binary toxin (cdtA/cdtB) genes applied to a Danish strain collection

S. Persson
Abstract Isolates of Clostridium difficile from 159 hospitalized Danish patients (2005) were analysed by a new 5-plex PCR method targeting the toxin genes tcdA, tcdB, cdtA and cdtB, and 16S rDNA as an internal positive control. Additionally, the toxin-regulating gene tcdC was partially sequenced by a new sequencing-based method that revealed genetic changes that may render the gene product inactive. Finally tcdA was analysed using a previously published method for the detection of internal deletions. The 5-plex PCR revealed four different toxin gene profiles: 36 tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtA+/cdtB+; one tcdA+, tcdB,, cdtA+/cdtB+; 98 tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtA,/cdtB,; and 24 non-toxigenic tcdA,, tcdB,, cdtA,/cdtB,. Deletion studies revealed that 26 strains contained a c. 700-bp deletion in tcdA, and 39 strains contained at least one possible inactivation feature in tcdC. The prevalence of the binary toxin genes was 23%. All strains with the tcdA+, tcdB+, cdtA+/cdtB+ profile were investigated by PCR ribotyping, and this revealed eight different ribotypes, none of which were 027. The 5-plex PCR method offers a one-step, rapid and specific screening method for C. difficile toxin genes. This toxin gene profiling, together with deletion studies in tcdA and tcdC, may allow an evaluation of the pathogenic potential of C. difficile. [source]