Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Deficits

  • account deficit
  • attention deficit
  • attentional deficit
  • auditory processing deficit
  • base deficit
  • behavioral deficit
  • behavioural deficit
  • budget deficit
  • caloric deficit
  • clinical deficit
  • cognitive deficit
  • conduction deficit
  • control deficit
  • cranial nerve deficit
  • current account deficit
  • democratic deficit
  • dopaminergic deficit
  • early deficit
  • ef deficit
  • executive deficit
  • executive function deficit
  • fiscal deficit
  • focal deficit
  • focal neurological deficit
  • function deficit
  • functional deficit
  • heterozygote deficit
  • information deficit
  • inhibition deficit
  • inhibitory deficit
  • intellectual deficit
  • iron deficit
  • knowledge deficit
  • language deficit
  • learning deficit
  • long-term deficit
  • memory deficit
  • moisture deficit
  • motor deficit
  • nerve deficit
  • neurocognitive deficit
  • neurologic deficit
  • neurological deficit
  • neuropsychological deficit
  • nutritional deficit
  • olfactory deficit
  • performance deficit
  • perfusion deficit
  • persistent deficit
  • phonological deficit
  • pressure deficit
  • processing deficit
  • rainfall deficit
  • reading deficit
  • relative deficit
  • saturation deficit
  • selective deficit
  • sensorimotor deficit
  • sensory deficit
  • severe deficit
  • significant deficit
  • skill deficit
  • social deficit
  • spatial memory deficit
  • specific cognitive deficit
  • specific deficit
  • structural deficit
  • subtle deficit
  • trade deficit
  • us current account deficit
  • vapor pressure deficit
  • vapour pressure deficit
  • visual deficit
  • volume deficit
  • water deficit

  • Terms modified by Deficits

  • deficit condition
  • deficit disorder
  • deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • deficit irrigation
  • deficit score
  • deficit syndrome

  • Selected Abstracts


    R. Bianchi
    We used cycloleucine (CL) , which prevents methionine conversion to S-adenosyl-methionine (SAMe) by inhibiting ATP-L-methionine-adenosyl-transferase (MAT) , to characterize the lipid and protein changes induced by methyl donors deficit in peripheral nerve and brain myelin in rats during development. We have previously shown that CL (400 mg/kg ip) given to suckling rats at days 7, 8, 12, and 13 after birth reduced brain and sciatic nerve weight gain, brain myelin content, protein, phospholipid (PL), and galactolipid concentration in comparison to control. Among PLs, only sphingomyelin (SPH) significantly increased by 35,50%. SAMe p-toluensulphonate (SAMe-SD4) (100 mg/kg, ip) given daily from day 7, as with exogenous SAMe, partially prevented some lipid alterations induced by CL, particularly galactolipid and SPH. To test the ability of CL to affect PL metabolism we have measured de novo PL biosynthesis, ex vivo in nerve homogenates (in comparison with brain homogenates) from control and CL-treated animals killed at day 18 after birth, starting from labelled substrates ([3H]-choline, specific activity 20 mCi/mmol) in a Tris/HCl buffer, containing 5 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM ATP, and 0.5 mM of the labelled substrates. After 60 min incubation, lipids were extracted, PL separated by TLC, and corresponding silica gel fractions scraped and counted in a liquid scintillator. Phosphatidylcholine enrichment in labelled choline resulted in slight increases in brain and sciatic nerve of CL-treated rats, suggesting an increased synthesis rate via the Kennedy pathway, possibly due to the reduced availability of methyl donors. Interestingly, choline incorporation into SPH in brain and nerve myelin resulted in significant increases of 30,40%. In agreement with the observed decrease of galactolipid content and the relative increase in SPH, these data suggest an alteration in sphingolipid metabolism after CL. Among proteins, in sciatic nerves of CL-treated pups the relative content of a number of polypeptides, namely the 116, 90, 66, 58, and 56 kDa bands, decreased, whereas others increased; the most abundant PNS protein, protein zero, remained unchanged. The analyses of myelin basic protein isoforms revealed a dramatic increase in the 14.0 and 18.5 forms, indicating early active myelination. SAMe-SD4 treatment counteracted, and in some cases normalized, these changes. In summary, methyl donor deficiency induced by MAT inhibition produces myelin lipid and protein alterations, partly counteracted by SAMe-SD4 administration. The financial support of Telethon-Italy (grant No. D 51) is gratefully acknowledged. [source]


    When the marginal utility of money is positive even at very high levels of the asset (Yoshiyasu Ono's, 1994, assumption), the relationship between inflation and the public deficit at full employment may result in a unique perverse equilibrium where higher deficits reduce inflation. If there are two equilibria, the low inflation equilibrium is one where the perverse effect between inflation and the public deficit prevails; while in the high inflation equilibrium higher public deficits increase inflation. These results contrast sharply with traditional results found in the literature. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 10 2006
    Mark Izzard
    Three cases of occult metastatic thyroid carcinoma presenting with neurological deficits are reviewed. In each case the patient's initial presentation was with symptoms of neurological deficiency secondary to a spinal cord compression. All patients received a combination of surgery, external beam radiotherapy and postoperative thyroxine treatment. Two of the three patients are alive and well, able to mobilize with minor neurological dysfunction. The diagnosis and management of the patients, as well as their outcomes are reviewed, with a discussion on further management issues alongside a review of the current published work. [source]


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
    Why do delinquent youths complete less education than do their conventional peers? Theory and research in criminology and in the sociology of education suggest that two aspects of youths' commitment to education, their future goals and their behavioral investments in those goals, may explain the delinquency-education relationship, but only when considered jointly. Using panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study, we find that educational expectations and school effort together explain delinquents' lower rates of college attendance and graduation, but of these two factors, effort provides the more powerful explanation. We also find that transcript grades explain more of the delinquency-education relationship than do self-reported grades, which indicates that delinquent youths may not know exactly how they are performing in school. Our findings suggest that the aspirational and behavioral components of commitment to education are only loosely coupled, and that delinquent youths may not understand how their behavior can jeopardize their goals. [source]


    Rui-Xia Xu
    SUMMARY 1Icariin is a major constituent of flavonoids derived from the Chinese medicinal herb Epimedium revicornum Maxim. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether icariin has protective effects on learning ability and memory in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. 2Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent ligation of the common carotid artery in Wistar rats for 4 months. One month after permanent artery occlusion, rats were adminitered icariin at doses of 0, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg per day, p.o., for 3 months. Neurobehavioural and neurobiochemical parameters were examined to evaluate the effects of icariin on cognitive deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. 3The Morris water maze test revealed that learning ability and memory were severely impaired in untreated rats, but were significantly improved in icariin-treated rats. Icariin treatment also ameliorated chronic cerebral hypoperfusion-induced oxidative stress in the brain, as evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde formation and maintained superoxide dismutase activity. In addition, the decreased hippocampal levels of acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase associated with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion were significantly prevented by icariin treatment. 4In conclusion, icariin protects against cognitive deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. These effects appear to be mediated through its anti-oxidant effects, as well as its effects on the circulatory and cholinergic systems. [source]


    Álvaro Herrero
    This study presents a novel, multidisciplinary research project entitled DIPKIP (data acquisition, intelligent processing, knowledge identification and proposal), which is a Knowledge Management (KM) system that profiles the KM status of a company. Qualitative data is fed into the system that allows it not only to assess the KM situation in the company in a straightforward and intuitive manner, but also to propose corrective actions to improve that situation. DIPKIP is based on four separate steps. An initial "Data Acquisition" step, in which key data is captured, is followed by an "Intelligent Processing" step, using neural projection architectures. Subsequently, the "Knowledge Identification" step catalogues the company into three categories, which define a set of possible theoretical strategic knowledge situations: knowledge deficit, partial knowledge deficit, and no knowledge deficit. Finally, a "Proposal" step is performed, in which the "knowledge processes",creation/acquisition, transference/distribution, and putting into practice/updating,are appraised to arrive at a coherent recommendation. The knowledge updating process (increasing the knowledge held and removing obsolete knowledge) is in itself a novel contribution. DIPKIP may be applied as a decision support system, which, under the supervision of a KM expert, can provide useful and practical proposals to senior management for the improvement of KM, leading to flexibility, cost savings, and greater competitiveness. The research also analyses the future for powerful neural projection models in the emerging field of KM by reviewing a variety of robust unsupervised projection architectures, all of which are used to visualize the intrinsic structure of high-dimensional data sets. The main projection architecture in this research, known as Cooperative Maximum-Likelihood Hebbian Learning (CMLHL), manages to capture a degree of KM topological ordering based on the application of cooperative lateral connections. The results of two real-life case studies in very different industrial sectors corroborated the relevance and viability of the DIPKIP system and the concepts upon which it is founded. [source]

    Effect of Normal Saline Infusion on the Diagnostic Utility of Base Deficit in Identifying Major Injury in Trauma Patients

    Richard Sinert DO
    Abstract Background Base deficit (BD) is a reliable marker of metabolic acidosis and is useful in gauging hemorrhage after trauma. Resuscitation with chloride-rich solutions such as normal saline (NS) can cause a dilutional acidosis, possibly confounding the interpretation of BD. Objectives To test the diagnostic utility of BD in distinguishing minor from major injury after administration of NS. Methods This was a prospective observational study at a Level 1 trauma center. The authors enrolled patients with significant mechanism of injury and measured BD at triage (BD-0) and at four hours after triage (BD-4). Major injury was defined by any of the following: injury severity score of ,15, drop in hematocrit of ,10 points, or the patient requiring a blood transfusion. Patients were divided into a low-volume (NS < 2L) and a high-volume (NS , 2L) group. Data were reported as mean (±SD). Student's t- and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves tested the utility of BD-4 in differentiating minor from major injury in the study groups. Results Four hundred eighty-nine trauma patients (mean age, 36 [± 18] yr) were enrolled; 82% were male, and 34% had penetrating injury. Major-(20%) compared with minor-(80%) injury patients were significantly (p = 0.0001) more acidotic (BD-0 mean difference: ,3.3 mmol/L; 95% confidence interval [CI] =,2.5 to ,4.2). The high-volume group (n = 174) received 3,342 (±1,821) mL, and the low-volume group (n = 315) received 621 (±509) mL of NS. Areas under the ROC curves for the high-volume (0.63; 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.74) and low-volume (0.73; 95% CI = 0.60 to 0.86) groups were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions Base deficit was able to distinguish minor from major injury after four hours of resuscitation, irrespective of the volume of NS infused. [source]

    IMF Gold and the World Bank's Unfunded HIPC Deficit

    Jonathan E. Sanford
    The World Bank is to forgive $12.24 billion in IDA debt payments from HIPC borrowers. It has received $1 billion from the HIPC Trust Fund to help offset these losses, but still has a $11.6 billion unfunded liability. The IMF has gold worth $38 billion on hand for which it has no actual use. This article proposes that a small portion of IMF gold be sold annually, just enough to offset IDA's annual HIPC deficit, over the next twenty years. The new money would be additional and predictable, and would eliminate the prospect that IDA would have to cut back its future flow of aid because the HIPC programme had drained its resources. [source]

    Deficit in community species richness as explained by area and isolation of sites

    Hans Henrik Bruun
    Abstract .,The potential community species richness was predicted for 85 patches of seminatural grassland in an agricultural landscape in Denmark. The basis of the prediction was a very large dataset on the vegetation, soil pH and topography in Danish grasslands and related communities. Species were inserted into potential species pools according to their preferences regarding soil acidity and water availability (expressed as potential solar irradiation), and to the ranges in these two factors observed in each grassland patch. The difference between the predicted and the observed patch-level species richness, community richness deficit, varied considerably among patches. Community richness deficit exhibited a negative relationship with patch area, and for small patches a positive relationship with patch isolation. [source]

    Early weaning and alcohol disorders in offspring: biological effect, mediating factors or residual confounding?

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Rosa Alati
    ABSTRACT Aims This study explores associations between early weaning and alcohol use disorders in youth and mechanisms by which these associations may operate. Design We used data from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy and its outcomes, an Australian birth cohort study based in Brisbane. Setting and participants: This study is based on a subsample of 2370 participants for whom complete data were available at age 21 years. Length and method of breastfeeding were assessed at 6 months. Measurements Alcohol use disorders were assessed at age 21 using the life-time version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview,computerized version (CIDI-Auto). We adjusted for maternal age, marital status, education, alcohol, tobacco use, anxiety, depression and maternal attitudes towards the baby. Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) and Intellect Quotient (IQ) were measured with the Child Behaviour Checklist (5 years) and the Ravens SM (14 years), respectively. Findings Those who had been weaned within 2 weeks of being born and breastfed at regular intervals were at increased risk of meeting criteria for alcohol use disorders at age 21 [odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI):1.07, 2.72]. Conclusion This study confirms a small but robust association between early weaning and increased risk of alcohol use disorders. [source]

    Still in Deficit: Rights, Regulation, and Democracy in the EU1

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 6 2006
    Richard Bellamy
    Recently two groups of theorists have argued neither deficit need prove problematic. The first group adopts a rights-based view of democracy and claims that a European consensus on rights, as represented by the Charter of Fundamental European Rights, can offer the basis of citizen allegiance to EU wide democracy, thereby overcoming the demos deficit. The second group adopts a public-interest view of democracy and argues that so long as delegated authorities enact policies that are ,for' the people, then the absence of institutional forms that facilitate democracy ,by' the people are likewise unnecessary,indeed, in certain areas they may be positively harmful. This article argues that both views are normatively and empirically flawed. This is because there is no consensus on rights or the public interest apart from the majority view of a demos secured through parliamentary institutions. To the extent that these remain absent at the EU level, a democratic deficit continues to exist. [source]

    Infant Symbolic Play as an Early Indicator of Fetal Alcohol-Related Deficit

    INFANCY, Issue 6 2010
    Christopher D. Molteno
    Infant symbolic play was examined in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure and socioenvironmental background and to predict which infants met criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) at 5 years. A total of 107 Cape-Colored, South African infants born to heavy drinking mothers and abstainers/light drinkers were recruited prenatally. Complexity of play, sociodemographic and psychological correlates of maternal alcohol use, and quality of parenting were assessed at 13 months, and intelligence quotient and FAS diagnosis at 5 years. The effect of drinking on spontaneous play was not significant after control for social environment. In contrast, prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting related independently to elicited play. Elicited play predicted 5-year Digit Span and was poorer in infants subsequently diagnosed with FAS/partial FAS and in nonsyndromal heavily exposed infants, compared with abstainers/light drinkers. Thus, symbolic play may provide an early indicator of risk for alcohol-related deficits. The independent effects of prenatal alcohol and quality of parenting suggest that infants whose symbolic play is adversely affected by alcohol exposure may benefit from stimulation from a responsive caregiver. [source]

    Expansionary Fiscal Shocks and the US Trade Deficit,

    Christopher J. Erceg
    In this paper, we use a dynamic general equilibrium model of an open economy to assess the quantitative effects of fiscal shocks on the trade balance in the United States. We examine the effects of two alternative fiscal shocks: a rise in government consumption, and a reduction in the labour income tax rate. Our salient finding is that a fiscal deficit has a relatively small effect on the US trade balance, irrespective of whether the source is a spending increase or tax cut. In our benchmark calibration, we find that a rise in the fiscal deficit of 1 percentage point of gross domestic product (GDP) induces the trade balance to deteriorate by 0.2 percentage point of GDP or less. Noticeably larger effects are only likely to be elicited under implausibly high values of the short-run trade price elasticity, or of the share of liquidity-constrained households in the economy. From a policy perspective, our analysis suggests that even reducing the current US fiscal deficit (of 3% of GDP) to zero would be unlikely to narrow the burgeoning US trade deficit significantly. [source]

    The US Dollar and the Trade Deficit: What Accounts for the Late 1990s?,

    Benjamin Hunt
    Based on a version of the IMF's global economy model set up to analyse macroeconomic interdependence between the United States and the rest of the world, this paper asks to what extent accelerating productivity growth in the United States may have contributed to the US real exchange rate appreciation and the trade balance deterioration witnessed in the second half of the 1990s. The paper concludes that productivity is only part of this story. A portfolio preference shift in favour of US assets, possibly triggered by faster productivity growth, and some uncertainty and learning about the persistence of both shocks are needed to match the data more satisfactorily. [source]

    Water Deficit Reduced Fertility of Young Microspores Resulting in a Decline of Viable Mature Pollen and Grain Set in Rice

    G. N. Nguyen
    Abstract Pollen formation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is highly vulnerable to environmental stresses such as heat, chilling and drought. In rice plants exposed to drought during male reproductive development, the most obvious damage often observed is a decline in the number of engorged pollen and grain set. This has been well characterized in rice under chilling and to a lesser extent under drought stress. Moreover, detailed literature on the immediate effects of drought on developing young microspores in rice is still limited. Here, we report findings from experiments on rice plants exposed to water deficit for three consecutive days during early stages of anther development. When the osmotic potential of the growing medium was equal to or less than ,0.5 MPa, as induced by polyethylene glycol, the leaf water potential was significantly lowered and grain set was reduced. A strong correlation between grain set and viable young microspores (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.8223) indicates that water deficit immediately reduced fertility of rice plants at the time of exposure. This result suggests a new underlying mechanism of water deficit-induced pollen abortion in rice. [source]

    SOUTH AFRICA: Growing Deficit

    Article first published online: 30 JUL 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Glucocorticoid Excess During Adolescence Leads to a Major Persistent Deficit in Bone Mass and an Increase in Central Body Fat

    Veronica Abad
    Abstract Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) in children causes growth retardation, decreased bone mass, and increased total body fat. No prospective controlled studies have been performed in children to determine the long-term sequelae of CS on peak bone mass and body composition. A 15-year-old girl with Cushing disease (CD), and her healthy identical co-twin, were followed for 6 years after the CD was cured. At the 6-year follow-up both twins had areal bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (3DQCT). Z scores for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were ,2.3, ,0.8 and 0.2, and 1.2, 0.2, and ,0.6, in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. In the twin with CD, areal BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at different sites varied from 0.7 to 3 SD below her co-twin. Volumetric lumbar spine bone density Z score was ,0.75 and 1.0, and total body, abdominal visceral, and subcutaneous fat (%) was 42, 10, and 41 versus 26, 4, and 17 in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. The relationship between total body fat and L2-L4 BMAD was inverse in the twin with CD (p < 0.05), which by contrast in her co-twin was opposite and direct (p < 0.001). In the twin with CD, despite cure, there was a persistent deficit in bone mass and increase in total and visceral body fat. These observations suggest that hypercortisolism (exogenous or endogenous) during adolescence may have persistent adverse effects on bone and fat mass. [source]

    MRI Assessment Followed by Successful Mechanical Recanalization of a Complete Tandem (Internal Carotid/Middle Cerebral Artery) Occlusion and Reversal of a 10-Hour Fixed Deficit

    Catalina C. Ionita MD
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Mechanical clot extraction up to 8 hours after stroke onset is an alternative strategy for opening large vessels, especially for patients ineligible for intravenous thrombolysis. Safety beyond this therapeutic window is untested. METHODS An 81-year-old woman presented 8 hours after she developed left-sided weakness and dysarthria with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score fluctuating between 6 and 13. Neuroimaging revealed a large perfusion deficit with no diffusion abnormalities. An emergent cerebral angiogram revealed a complete internal carotid artery terminus occlusion. RESULTS Successful mechanical thrombectomy was performed without complication and resulted in almost complete reversal of the patient's deficit to an NIHSS score of 1, 10 hours after stroke onset. CONCLUSION Patients with large hypoperfused areas and minimal diffusion abnormalities on the MRI may benefit from mechanical thrombectomy beyond an 8-hour window. [source]

    Harmonic Imaging in Acute Stroke: Detection of a Cerebral Perfusion Deficit With Ultrasound and Perfusion MRI

    Karsten Meyer MD
    ABSTRACT Perfusion harmonic imaging of the brain is a new ultrasound technique for assessing cerebral perfusion. In a patient with acute middle cerebral artery infarction, this method detected a cerebral perfusion deficit corresponding to the area of delayed perfusion as displayed by perfusion magnetic resonance imaging. [source]

    Defensive Copers Show a Deficit in Passive Avoidance Learning on Newman's Go/No-Go Task: Implications for Self-Deception and Socialization

    Matthew S. Shane
    High-anxious individuals, low-anxious individuals, and defensive copers completed a computerized go/no-go task, in which they learned when to press or not to press a button, in response to contingent positive and negative feedback. The duration that feedback remained onscreen was self-regulated. Defensive copers showed preferential reflection away from negative feedback, committed more passive-avoidance errors, and were characterized by impaired learning, overall. Further, the ratio of reflection on negative feedback to reflection on positive feedback directly mediated both passive-avoidance errors and overall learning. Defensive coping strategies, therefore, appear to interfere with passive avoidance learning, thereby fostering perseverative, dysfunctional action patterns by reducing knowledge gained from previous mistakes. Implications for the learning of effective socialization strategies, and for psychopathy,which is commonly characterized by similar passive-avoidance deficits,are subsequently considered. [source]

    Temporary Neurologic Deficit After Cervical Transforaminal Injection of Local Anesthetic

    PAIN MEDICINE, Issue 2 2004
    Michael Karasek MD
    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the effects of spinal cord block after injection of local anesthetic into a cervical radicular artery. Design Case report. Setting Neurology practice specializing in spinal pain. Interventions A patient underwent a C6,7 transforaminal injection. Contrast medium indicated correct and safe placement of the needle. Results After the injection of local anesthetic, the patient developed quadriplegia. The injection was terminated. The neurologic impairment resolved after 20 minutes observation. Conclusion Despite correct placement of the needle for a cervical transforaminal injection, injectate may nevertheless enter a cervical radicular artery. Whereas local anesthetic, so injected, appears to have only a temporary effect on spinal cord function, particulate steroids may act as an embolus and cause permanent impairment. [source]

    School-based prevention and intervention programs for children with emotional disturbance: A review of treatment components and methodology

    Linda A. Reddy
    School practitioners and educators are frequently challenged by the diverse and pervasive academic, social, and behavioral needs of children at risk for and with emotional disturbance. The present article examines the outcome literature on school-based prevention and intervention programs by systematically reviewing the key treatment interventions and methodology used. A total of 29 investigations including 1,405 children and adolescents were reviewed and coded on 41 variables across three dimensions (i.e., sample characteristics, treatment components, and methodology). Single subject and group design studies were included. Behavioral and/or cognitive behavioral treatment approaches were primary used. Deficit-based assessment and treatment approaches (i.e., problem behaviors) were predominately used in the outcome literature with few investigations incorporating strength-based outcome approaches. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Wisconsin's Budget Deficit: Size, Causes, Remedies, and Consequences

    James K. Conant
    Wisconsin's lawmakers increased spending and cut taxes during the 1990s. Then, in January of 2001, they faced an estimated $2.4 billion budget gap or deficit for the FY 2001,2003 biennium. They cut spending and generated additional revenue by borrowing against future tobacco settlement income. Still, by January of 2002, the estimated deficit had grown by an additional $1.3 billion, and more cutting and borrowing took place. Despite these actions, a $3.5 billion deficit was projected for FY 2003,2005. In this study, the causes of the deficit, the "remedies" selected, and their effects are examined. "Lessons" highlighted by Wisconsin's experience include the risks associated with nonincremental policy making, the high costs of excessive political partisanship, and the corrosive effects of "fiscal brinksmanship." [source]

    Utility of Base Deficit for Identifying Major Injury in Elder Trauma Patients

    Shahriar Zehtabchi MD
    Background: Early identification of serious injuries is especially important in elders. Base deficit (BD) is an indicator of serious injury in trauma patients. There are limited data to support the utility of BD in elders who have sustained trauma. Objectives: To assess the diagnostic performance of BD in identifying major injury in elders. Methods: This was a prospective, observational, preliminary study. Elder (age 65 years and older) patients with significant injury mechanisms had BD analyzed during initial emergency department resuscitation. Major injury was defined by an Injury Severity Score ,15, a decrease in hematocrit of more than ten points, or blood transfusion. Patients were stratified into two groups of minor and major injuries. Data were reported as means (±SD). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves tested the diagnostic ability of BD to identify major injury. Results: Seventy-four patients were enrolled; the mean (±SD) age was 75 (±7) years, and 57% were male. Twenty-four patients (32%) had major injury. The mean (±SD) for BD in the major injury group (,2.9 [±6] mmol/L) was significantly different from that in the minor injury group (0.8 [±3] mmol/L), with a mean difference of 3.7 (95% confidence interval = 1.4 to 5.9). ROC curves revealed that BD was able to identify major injury in elder patients (area under the ROC curve, 0.72; 95% confidence interval = 0.60 to 0.85; p = 0.0003). Conclusions: The preliminary data from this study indicate that in trauma patients aged 65 years and older, increased BD at emergency department arrival can predict life-threatening injury. [source]

    Memory Binding in Early Childhood: Evidence for a Retrieval Deficit

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2009
    Marianne E. Lloyd
    Previous research has suggested that performance for items requiring memory-binding processes improves between ages 4 and 6 (J. Sluzenski, N. Newcombe, & S. L. Kovacs, 2006). The present study suggests that much of this improvement is due to retrieval, as opposed to encoding, deficits for 4-year-olds. Four- and 6-year-old children (N = 48 per age) were given objects, backgrounds, and object + background combinations to remember. Younger children performed equivalently to 6-year-olds during a working memory task for all types of memory questions but were impaired during a long-term memory task for the object + background combinations. Furthermore, this deficit was completely due to differences in false alarm rates, suggesting that separate analyses of hits and false alarms may be preferable to corrected recognition scores when studying memory development. [source]

    State of the Art: Addressing the INGO ,Legitimacy Deficit'

    Vivien Collingwood
    While the numbers and competencies of international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) have increased dramatically in the past few decades, questions have been raised about the legitimacy of their new activities. A number of scholars have identified significant tensions between INGOs' legitimacy claims and the realities of their working practices. We examine the current state of the debate on INGO legitimacy in two contrasting literatures: normative work on global governance and its implications for the role of INGOs, and policy-oriented work on INGOs' legitimacy. The first shows how INGO involvement in global governance opens the door to a range of alternative conceptions of world order, rooted in notions of universal human rights, democracy, and theories of redistributive justice. The latter set of voices is concerned less with locating INGOs' roles as agents in global normative structures than with analysing concrete problems arising from increased INGO participation in the development process. Future research might take into account key questions concerning the sources and the scope and nature of INGO legitimacy. [source]

    SLI and Deficits in the Computational Syntactic System: A Comment on W. Frawley's "Control and Cross-Domain Mental Computation: Evidence from Language Breakdown"

    Heather K. J. Van Der Lely

    Aid and Fiscal Deficits: Lessons from Uganda on the Implications for Macroeconomic Management and Fiscal Sustainability

    Martin Brownbridge
    This article contributes to the ongoing debate on the macroeconomic management of large aid inflows to low-income countries by analysing lessons drawn from Uganda, where the fiscal deficit before grants, which was largely aid-funded, doubled to over 12% of GDP in the early 2000s. It focuses on the implications of the widening fiscal deficit for monetary policy, the real exchange rate, debt sustainability and the vulnerability of the budget to fiscal shocks, and argues that large fiscal deficits, even when funded predominantly by aid, risk undermining macroeconomic objectives and long-run fiscal sustainability. [source]

    Social functioning as an outcome measure in schizophrenia studies

    T. Burns
    Objective:, Deficits in social functioning are a core feature of schizophrenia. Method:, A literature search of English language articles published between January 1990 and December 2006 was undertaken to identify: i) scales used most frequently to assess social functioning in schizophrenia; and ii) the most frequently used social functioning scales in randomized, controlled trials of antipsychotics. A further search (without time limits) examined their psychometric properties. Results:, A total of 301 articles employed social functioning scales in the assessment of schizophrenia. These contained 87 potentially relevant measures. Only 14 randomized, controlled studies of antipsychotic agents were identified that examined social functioning. Scales varied greatly in terms of measurement approach, number and types of domains covered and scoring systems. A striking lack of data on psychometric properties was observed. Conclusion:, Limited consensus on the definition and measurement of social functioning exists. The Personal and Social Performance Scale is proposed as a useful tool in future research. [source]

    Time reproduction in finger tapping tasks by children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2004
    Margaret C. Tiffin-Richards
    Abstract Aim: Deficits in timing and sequencing behaviour in children with dyslexia and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have already been identified. However many studies have not controlled for comorbidity between dyslexia and ADHD. This study investigated timing performance of children with either dyslexia or ADHD, or ADHD + dyslexia or unaffected children using a finger-tapping paradigm. Method: Four groups of children (ADHD × Dyslexia) with a total of 68 children were compared using a four factorial design with two between-subject factors (ADHD (yes/no), dyslexia (yes/no)) and two within-subject factors, inter-stimulus interval (263, 500, 625, 750, 875 and 1000 ms) and tapping condition (free tapping, synchronous tapping, and unpaced tapping). In addition the complexity of rhythm reproduction pattern (unpaced tapping) was varied (simple/complex). Results: No significant differences were found either in the ability of the ADHD or the dyslexia groups to sustain a self-chosen free tapping rate or to generate a stable inter-response interval either by synchronising to a signal or in reproducing a given interval without the previous pacing signal. Response averages showed the expected asynchrony and variability. In rhythm pattern reproduction the groups did not differ significantly in their ability to reproduce rhythms. However, a significant two way interaction effect between dyslexia and complexity was apparent indicating that the difference in levels of performance for simple versus complex rhythms was more pronounced for dyslexia than for the two other groups. Conclusion: The results indicate that motor timing ability in the millisecond range below 1000 ms in children with ADHD and/or dyslexia is intact. The performance of the comorbid group was revealed to be similar to the performance of the single disorder groups, but both the dyslexic groups were relatively worse than either the ADHD-only or the unimpaired group at reproducing complex versus simple rhythms. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]