Defence Force (defence + force)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Peter Skrbk
The accounting literature has given much attention to the New Public Management and attempts at making the government's performances auditable while influencing the core working of the public sector. This paper contributes to this debate by demonstrating how particular accounting devices participate in the definition of the identities of the officers in the Danish Defence. It shows how the definition of the officers' identities is complex and dynamic and does not necessarily have outcomes of stability and closure. Applying Actor-Network Theory we demonstrate how their identities are caught up in processes of continual or never ending reconfigurations. The major implication is that the occupational identity of the Danish officers is subject to attempts of being defined as ,a manager' in the period 1989-2006. The paper demonstrates how accounting devices participated in defining a hybrid identity of the officers as ,warrior' and ,manager' and that officers in different spaces and times experienced problems with the hybrid identity. [source]

Importation of Dengue by Soldiers Returning from East Timor to North Queensland, Australia

Scott Kitchener
Background: Soldiers based in Townsville, Australia, returned from East Timor following peacekeeping operations during the wet season of 1999 to 2000. This represented the potential to import dengue virus into north Queensland, a dengue receptive area of Australia. This article seeks to outline the measures taken by the Australian Defence Force (ADF) to prevent local transmission and to present the outcomes. Methods: Soldiers returning to north Queensland were provided with education on dengue fever and in the fortnight before return, their living areas were subjected to intensive vector control measures, in order to reduce the risk of acquisition of dengue. They were further encouraged to present early with any febrile illness following their return to Townsville. Provisionally diagnosed dengue cases were notified to the state public health authorities immediately and cases were isolated until suitable vector control programs were implemented or the potentially viremic period exceeded. Serologic and virologic investigations were undertaken to identify the passage and probable serotype or confirm the presence and serotype of dengue virus. Results: Nine serologically confirmed cases of dengue were identified as viremic in north Queensland. Six cases were identified as arising from dengue serotype 2, two were from serotype 3, and one case was ill defined. No dengue cases have been reported in the local population 4 months following these ADF cases. Conclusions: Local outbreaks of dengue fever have occurred in north Queensland following the importation of dengue virus in returned travelers. The successful prevention of local transmission in these circumstances was contributed to by early notification of cases and prevention of transmission through isolation of cases and collaboration between ADF and state and local public health authorities in vector control. The management of potentially viremic returning service personnel represents a future challenge for the ADF. [source]

Lifetime fluoridation exposure and dental caries experience in a military population

Gregory Mahoney
Abstract,,, While there is good evidence of caries-preventive benefits of fluoride in drinking water among children and adolescents, there is little information about effectiveness of water fluoridation among adults. Objectives:, To determine whether exposure to fluoride in drinking water is associated with caries experience in Australian Defence Force (ADF) personnel. Methods:, Cross-sectional study of 876 deployable ADF personnel aged 17,56 years. At each person's mandatory annual dental examination, military dentists recorded the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) using visual, tactile and radiographic criteria. Participants also completed a questionnaire, listing residential locations in each year from 1964 to 2003. People were classified into four categories according to the percentage of their lifetime living in places with fluoridated water: <10%, 10% to <50%, 50% to <90% and ,90%. Mean DMFT was compared among those categories of fluoridation exposure and the association was evaluated statistically using analysis of variance to adjust for age, sex, years of service and rank. Results:, Without adjustment for confounders, the mean DMFT (95% confidence interval) was 6.3 0.8 for <10% fluoridation exposure, 7.8 0.8 for 10% to <50% exposure, 7.5 0.7 for 50% to <90% exposure and 4.6 0.6 for ,90% exposure (P < 0.01). However, age was inversely associated with mean DMFT and in the <10% exposure group, 91% of people were aged <35 years. Service rank was also significantly associated with both fluoridation exposure and DMFT. After adjustment for all covariates, mean DMFT was 24% lower among people in the two groups with ,50% exposure compared with the <10% exposure group. Conclusions:, Degree of lifetime exposure to fluoridated drinking water was inversely associated with DMFT in a dose,response manner among this adult military population. [source]

Alveolar bone loss associated with glucose tolerance in Japanese men

T. Marugame
Abstract Aims Type 2 diabetes is known to affect alveolar bone loss (ABL). The purpose of this study was to examine whether impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with ABL, as is diabetes. Methods A case,control study was performed with 664 Japanese men aged 46,57 years. Panoramic radiographs revealed 513 severe ABL cases, 22 moderate ABL cases, and 129 controls with good alveolar bone. Diabetes status was classified into normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IGT, and newly diagnosed diabetes according to the fasting plasma glucose and 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Diabetes under treatment was excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained from ordinal logistic regression analysis. Statistical adjustment was made for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, rank in the Self Defence Forces (SDF), cigarette-years, alcohol use, body mass index, previous 10 years' brushing habits and instrument use other than toothbrush, and history of periodontal treatment. Results A significant, approximately three-fold increase in the crude OR (crude OR = 3.28; 95% CI = 1.16,9.27) and non-significant 2.6-fold increase in the adjusted OR (adjusted OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 0.86, 7.54) of ABL was observed among men with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes compared with the reference group (NGT combined with IFG). However, there was no association between IGT and ABL (adjusted OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.59,1.64). Conclusions Type 2 diabetes, but not IGT, was positively associated with ABL. Preventive maintenance against periodontitis is important in middle-aged men with diabetes. [source]

Influence of antigenic drift on the intensity of influenza outbreaks: Upper respiratory tract infections of military conscripts in Finland

Reijo Pyhl
Abstract A total of 102,600 upper respiratory infections (URI) were recorded among young military conscripts in the Finnish Defence Forces during the study period from October 1991 to March 1994. This period covered three outbreaks caused by H3N2-subtype influenza A virus and one outbreak of influenza B. During the 1991/92 outbreak caused by A/Beijing/353/89-like virus, the calculated influenza A incidence was 2,206/10,000 men. During the 1992/93 outbreak when influenza B was the predominant virus, a new drift variant of influenza A that belonged to the lineage of A/Beijing/32/92-like and A/Shangdong/9/93-like viruses circulated but the incidence of influenza A was not more than 1,044/10,000. A higher incidence, 2,810/10,000, was recorded during the 1993/94 outbreak, when the circulating virus was similar to the 1992/93 virus antigenically and with regard to haemagglutinin and neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences. Crossreactive haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies induced in 1991/92 probably were sufficient to restrict the epidemic activity in 1992/93 but no longer in 1993/94. Furthermore, during the 1991/92 outbreak, some of the A/Beijing/353/89-like viruses already had shared the NA sequence markers characteristic of the viruses in 1992/93 and 1993/94, which may also have strengthened protection in 1992/93. J. Med. Virol. 72:275,280, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Gut motor function: immunological control in enteric infection and inflammation

W. I. Khan
Summary Alteration in gastrointestinal (GI) motility occurs in a variety of clinical settings which include acute enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal pseudo-obstruction and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Most disorders affecting the GI tract arise as a result of noxious stimulation from the lumen via either microbes or chemicals. However, it is not clear how injurious processes initiated in the mucosa alter function in the deeper motor apparatus of the gut wall. Activation of immune cells may lead to changes in motor-sensory function in the gut resulting in the development of an efficient defence force which assists in the eviction of the noxious agent from the intestinal lumen. This review addresses the interface between immune and motor system in the context of host resistance based on the studies in murine model of enteric nematode parasite infection. These studies clearly demonstrate that the infection-induced T helper 2 type immune response is critical in producing the alterations of infection-induced intestinal muscle function in this infection and that this immune-mediated alteration in muscle function is associated with host defence mechanisms. In addition, by manipulating the host immune response, it is possible to modulate the accompanying muscle function, and this may have clinical relevance. These observations not only provide valuable information on the immunological control of gut motor function and its role in host defence in enteric infection, but also provide a basis for understanding pathophysiology of gastrointestinal motility disorders such as in IBS. [source]