Deep Field (deep + field)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Deep Field

  • newton deep field

  • Terms modified by Deep Field

  • deep field south

  • Selected Abstracts

    X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies in the Subaru,XMM Deep Field

    A. Finoguenov
    Abstract We present the results of a search for galaxy clusters in the Subaru,XMM Deep Field (SXDF). We reach a depth for a total cluster flux in the 0.5,2 keV band of 2 × 10,15 erg cm,2 s,1 over one of the widest XMM,Newton contiguous raster surveys, covering an area of 1.3 deg2. Cluster candidates are identified through a wavelet detection of extended X-ray emission. The red-sequence technique allows us to identify 57 cluster candidates. We report on the progress with the cluster spectroscopic follow-up and derive their properties based on the X-ray luminosity and cluster scaling relations. In addition, three sources are identified as X-ray counterparts of radio lobes, and in three further sources, an X-ray counterpart of the radio lobes provides a significant fraction of the total flux of the source. In the area covered by near-infrared data, our identification success rate achieves 86 per cent. We detect a number of radio galaxies within our groups, and for a luminosity-limited sample of radio galaxies we compute halo occupation statistics using a marked cluster mass function. We compare the cluster detection statistics in the SXDF with that in the literature and provide the modelling using the concordance cosmology combined with current knowledge of the X-ray cluster properties. The joint cluster log(N) , log(S) is overpredicted by the model, and an agreement can be achieved through a reduction of the concordance ,8 value by 5 per cent. Having considered the dn/dz and the X-ray luminosity function of clusters, we conclude that to pin down the origin of disagreement a much wider (50 deg2) survey is needed. [source]

    Radio imaging of the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field , II.

    The 37 brightest radio sources
    ABSTRACT We study the 37 brightest radio sources in the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field. We have spectroscopic redshifts for 24 of 37 objects and photometric redshifts for the remainder, yielding a median redshift zmed for the whole sample of zmed, 1.1 and a median radio luminosity close to the ,Fanaroff,Riley type I/type II (FR I/FR II)' luminosity divide. Using mid-infrared (mid-IR) (Spitzer MIPS 24 ,m) data we expect to trace nuclear accretion activity, even if it is obscured at optical wavelengths, unless the obscuring column is extreme. Our results suggest that above the FR I/FR II radio luminosity break most of the radio sources are associated with objects that have excess mid-IR emission, only some of which are broad-line objects, although there is one clear low-accretion-rate object with an FR I radio structure. For extended steep-spectrum radio sources, the fraction of objects with mid-IR excess drops dramatically below the FR I/FR II luminosity break, although there exists at least one high-accretion-rate ,radio-quiet' QSO. We have therefore shown that the strong link between radio luminosity (or radio structure) and accretion properties, well known at z, 0.1, persists to z, 1. Investigation of mid-IR and blue excesses shows that they are correlated as predicted by a model in which, when significant accretion exists, a torus of dust absorbs ,30 per cent of the light, and the dust above and below the torus scatters ,1 per cent of the light. [source]

    The SCUBA Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) , VIII.

    SWIRE, SXDF surveys, The nature of faint submillimetre galaxies in SHADES
    ABSTRACT We present the optical-to-submillimetre spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for 33 radio and mid-infrared (mid-IR) identified submillimetre galaxies discovered via the SHADES 850-,m SCUBA imaging in the Subaru- XMM Deep Field (SXDF). Optical data for the sources come from the SXDF and mid- and far-IR fluxes from SWIRE. We obtain photometric redshift estimates for our sources using optical and IRAC 3.6- and 4.5-,m fluxes. We then fit SED templates to the longer wavelength data to determine the nature of the far-IR emission that dominates the bolometric luminosity of these sources. The IR template fits are also used to resolve ambiguous identifications and cases of redshift aliasing. The redshift distribution obtained broadly matches previous results for submillimetre sources and on the SHADES SXDF field. Our template fitting finds that active galactic nuclei, while present in about 10 per cent of our sources, do not contribute significantly to their bolometric luminosity. Dust heating by starbursts, with either Arp220 or M82 type SEDs, appears to be responsible for the luminosity in most sources (23/33 are fitted by Arp220 templates, 2/33 by the warmer M82 templates). 8/33 sources, in contrast, are fitted by a cooler cirrus dust template, suggesting that cold dust has a role in some of these highly luminous objects. Three of our sources appear to have multiple identifications or components at the same redshift, but we find no statistical evidence that close associations are common among our SHADES sources. Examination of rest-frame K -band luminosity suggests that ,downsizing' is underway in the submillimetre galaxy population, with lower redshift systems lying in lower mass host galaxies. Of our 33 identifications six are found to be of lower reliability but their exclusion would not significantly alter our conclusions. [source]

    A deep i -selected multiwaveband galaxy catalogue in the COSMOS field,

    A. Gabasch
    ABSTRACT In this paper we present a deep and homogeneous i -band-selected multiwaveband catalogue in the COSMOS field covering an area of about 0.7 deg2. Our catalogue with a formal 50 per cent completeness limit for point sources of i, 26.7 comprises about 290 000 galaxies with information in 8 passbands. We combine publicly available u, B, V, r, i, z and K data with proprietary imaging in H band. We discuss in detail the observations, the data reduction, and the photometric properties of the H -band data. We estimate photometric redshifts for all the galaxies in the catalogue. A comparison with 162 spectroscopic redshifts in the redshift range 0 ,z, 3 shows that the achieved accuracy of the photometric redshifts is ,z/(zspec+ 1) , 0.035 with only ,2 per cent outliers. We derive absolute UV magnitudes and investigate the evolution of the luminosity function evaluated in the rest-frame UV (1500 Ĺ). There is a good agreement between the luminosity functions derived here and the luminosity functions derived in the FORS Deep Field. We see a similar brightening of M* and a decrease of ,* with redshift. The catalogue including the photometric redshift information is made publicly available. [source]

    Where are z= 4 Lyman Break Galaxies?

    Results from conditional luminosity function models of luminosity-dependent clustering
    ABSTRACT Using the conditional luminosity function (CLF) , the luminosity distribution of galaxies in a dark matter halo , as a way to model galaxy statistics, we study how z= 4 Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) are distributed in dark matter haloes. For this purpose, we measure luminosity-dependent clustering of LBGs in the Subaru/XMM,Newton Deep Field by separating a sample of 16 920 galaxies to three magnitude bins in i, band between 24.5 and 27.5. Our model fits to data show a possible trend for more-luminous galaxies to appear as satellites in more-massive haloes; the minimum halo mass in which satellites appear is 3.9+4.1,3.5× 1012, 6.2+3.8,4.9× 1012 and 9.6+7.0,4.6× 1012 M, (1, errors) for galaxies with 26.5 < i, < 27.5, 25.5 < i, < 26.5 and 24.5 < i, < 25.5 mag, respectively. The satellite fraction of galaxies at z= 4 in these magnitude bins is 0.13,0.3, 0.09,0.22 and 0.03,0.14, respectively, where the 1, ranges account for differences coming from two different estimates of the z= 4 LF from the literature. To jointly explain the LF and the large-scale linear bias factor of z= 4 LBGs as a function of rest UV luminosity requires central galaxies to be brighter in UV at z= 4 than present-day galaxies in same dark matter mass haloes. Moreover, UV luminosity of central galaxies in haloes with total mass greater than roughly 1012 M, must decrease from z= 4 to today by an amount more than the luminosity change for galaxies in haloes below this mass. This mass-dependent luminosity evolution is preferred at more than 3, confidence level compared to a pure-luminosity evolution scenario where all galaxies decrease in luminosity by the same amount from z= 4 to today. The scenario preferred by the data is consistent with the ,downsizing' picture of galaxy evolution. [source]

    Mission: impossible (escape from the Lyman limit)

    A. Fernández-Soto
    ABSTRACT We investigate the intrinsic opacity of high-redshift galaxies to outgoing ionizing photons using high-quality photometry of a sample of 27 spectroscopically identified galaxies of redshift 1.9 < z < 3.5 in the Hubble Deep Field. Our measurement is based on maximum-likelihood fitting of model galaxy spectral energy distributions , including the effects of intrinsic Lyman-limit absorption and random realizations of intervening Lyman-series and Lyman-limit absorption , to photometry of galaxies from space- and ground-based broad-band images. Our method provides several important advantages over the methods used by previous groups, including most importantly that two-dimensional sky subtraction of faint-galaxy images is more robust than one-dimensional sky subtraction of faint-galaxy spectra. We find at the 3,statistical confidence level that on average no more than 4 per cent of the ionizing photons escape galaxies of redshift 1.9 < z < 3.5. This result is consistent with observations of low- and moderate-redshift galaxies but is in direct contradiction to a recent result based on medium-resolution spectroscopy of high-redshift (z, 3) galaxies. Dividing our sample into subsamples according to luminosity, intrinsic ultraviolet colour and redshift, we find no evidence for selection effects that could explain such a discrepancy. Even when all systematic effects are included, the data could not realistically accommodate any escape fraction value larger than ,15 per cent. [source]

    Evidence for a large fraction of Compton-thick quasars at high redshift

    Alejo Martínez-Sansigre
    ABSTRACT Using mid-infrared and radio selection criteria, we pre-select a sample of candidate high-redshift type 2 quasars in the Subaru XMM,Newton Deep Field (SXDF). To filter out starburst contaminants, we use a Bayesian method to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) between 24-,m and the B -band, obtain photometric redshifts, and identify the best candidates for high- z type 2 quasars. This leaves us with 12 zphot, 1.7 type 2 quasar candidates in an area ,0.8 deg2, of which only two have secure X-ray detections. The two detected sources have estimated column densities NH, 2 & 3 × 1027 m,2, i.e. heavily obscured but Compton-thin quasars. Given the large bolometric luminosities and redshifts of the undetected objects, the lack of X-ray detections suggests extreme absorbing columns NH, 1028 m,2 are typical. We have found evidence for a population of ,Compton-thick' high-redshift type 2 quasars, at least comparable to, and probably larger than, the type 1 quasar population, although spectroscopic confirmation of their active galactic nuclei nature is important. [source]

    Constraints on the initial mass function of the first stars

    Raffaella Schneider
    ABSTRACT Motivated by theoretical predictions that the first stars were predominantly very massive, we investigate the physics of the transition from an early epoch dominated by massive Pop III stars to a later epoch dominated by familiar low-mass Pop II/I stars by means of a numerically generated catalogue of dark matter haloes coupled with a self-consistent treatment of chemical and radiative feedback. Depending on the strength of the chemical feedback, Pop III stars can contribute a substantial fraction (several per cent) of the cosmic star formation activity even at moderate redshifts, z, 5. We find that the three z, 10 sources tentatively detected in Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) Ultra Deep Fields (UDFs) should be powered by Pop III stars, if these are massive; however, this scenario fails to reproduce the derived Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) electron scattering optical depth. Instead, both the UDFs and WMAP constraints can be fulfilled if stars at any time form with a more standard, slightly top-heavy, Larson initial mass function. [source]

    First stars contribution to the near-infrared background fluctuations

    M. Magliocchetti
    ABSTRACT We show that the emission from the first, metal-free stars inside Population III objects (Pop IIIs) is needed to explain the level of fluctuations in the near-infrared background (NIRB) recently discovered by Kashlinsky et al., at least at the shortest wavelengths. Clustering of (unresolved) Pop IIIs can in fact account for the entire signal at almost all the ,1,30 arcsec scales probed by observations in the J band. Their contribution fades away at shorter frequencies and becomes negligible in the K band. ,Normal', highly clustered, ,z,, 3 galaxies undergoing intense star formation such as those found in the Hubble Deep Fields can ,fill in' this gap and provide for the missing signal. It is in fact found that their contribution to the intensity fluctuations is the dominant one at ,= 2.17 ,m, while it gradually loses importance in the H andJ bands. The joint contribution from these two populations of cosmic objects is able, within the errors, to reproduce the observed power spectrum in the whole near-infrared range on small angular scales (,, 200 arcsec for Pop III protogalaxies). Signals on larger scales detected by other experiments instead require the presence of more local sources. [source]

    The possible detection of high-redshift Type II QSOs in deep fields

    Avery Meiksin
    ABSTRACT The colours of high-redshift Type II quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) are synthesized from observations of moderate-redshift systems. It is shown that Type II QSOs are comparable to starbursts at matching the colours of z850 -dropouts and i775 -drops in the Hubble UltraDeep Field, and more naturally account for the bluest objects detected. Type II QSOs may also account for some of the i775 -drops detected in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields. It is shown that by combining imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, it will be possible to clearly separate Type II QSOs from Type I QSOs and starbursts based on their colours. Similarly, it is shown that the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) ZYJ filters may be used to discriminate high-redshift Type II QSOs from other objects. If Type II QSOs are prevalent at high redshifts, then active galactic nuclei (AGNs) may be major contributors to the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium. [source]

    Observing the high redshift Universe using the VIMOS-IFU

    S. Foucaud
    Abstract We describe the advantages of using Integral Field Spectroscopy to observe deep fields of galaxies. The VIMOS Integral Field Unit is particularly suitable for this kind of study thanks to its large field-of-view (,1 arcmin2). After a short description of the VIMOS-IFU data reduction, we detail the main scientific issues which can be addressed using observations of the Hubble Deep Field South with a combination of Integral Field Spectroscopy and broad band optical and near-Infrared imaging. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]