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Selected Abstracts

Prenatal stress causes dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 region by glutamate in offspring rats

Ning Jia
Abstract A substantial number of human epidemiological data, as well as experimental studies, suggest that adverse maternal stress during gestation is involved in abnormal behavior, mental, and cognition disorder in offspring. To explore the effect of prenatal stress (PS) on hippocampal neurons, in this study, we observed the dendritic field of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3, examined the concentration of glutamate (Glu), and detected the expression of synaptotagmin-1 (Syt-1) and N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor 1 (NR1) in hippocampus of juvenile female offspring rats. Pregnant rats were divided into two groups: control group (CON) and PS group. Female offspring rats used were 30-day old. The total length of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 of offspring was significantly shorter in PS than that in CON (p < 0.01). The number of branch points of the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in hippocampal CA3 of offspring was significantly less in PS (p < 0.01). PS offspring had a higher concentration of hippocampal Glu compared with CON (p < 0.05). PS offspring displayed increased expression of Syt-1 and decreased NR1 in hippocampus compared with CON (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively). The expression of NR1 in different hippocampus subfields of offspring was significantly decreased in PS than that in CON (p < 0.05-0.01). This study shows that PS increases the Glu in hippocampus and causes apical dendritic atrophy of pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA3 in offspring rats. The decline of NR1 in hippocampus may be an adaptive response to the increased Glu. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2010 [source]

Effect of parental ageing on offspring developmental and survival attributes in an aphidophagous ladybird, Cheilomenes sexmaculata

K. Singh
Abstract The present study is the first attempt to investigate the effect of parental ageing of Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) on total developmental period, developmental rate, adult weight on emergence, longevity, egg to adult survival and age-specific survivorship of the offspring. Young parents (10,20 day old) produced offspring with the shortest total developmental period, highest development rate, highest weight on emergence, greater longevity and highest survival. Age-specific survivorship of the offspring of younger parents declined later than the offspring of middle (30,40 day old) and old (50,60 day old) aged parents. This study would help in understanding the effect of parental ageing on future generations of predaceous ladybird beetles and would be helpful in designing mass multiplication programme of the bioagent, C. sexmaculata, in the laboratory. [source]

Estimation of metabolisable energy content of date pit and its effect on lipid and protein oxidation in broiler chicks

Mojtaba Zaghari
Abstract BACKGROUND: Two experiments were conducted to evaluate date pit as a feed ingredient in broiler chick diets. In the first experiment, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of date pit was determined using 72 Ross (308) broiler chicks. Broiler chicks received experimental diets from 25 to 30 days of age. Two diets were fed: diet 1, basal diet and diet 2, 60% basal diet + 40% date pit. Date pit ileal AMEn was estimated to be 704 kcal kg,1. The second study was conducted to evaluate the AMEn value obtained and also the effectiveness of using a commercial multi-enzyme in diets containing date pit. Diets with three levels of date pit (10, 20 and 30% date pit) with or without enzyme supplementation were fed to broiler chicks from day old to 42 days of age. RESULTS: Chicks receiving different levels of dietary date pit had comparable body weight to those fed on corn,soybean meal diet. Both date pit levels and enzyme supplementation had a significant effect on feed conversion ratio. Plasma total antioxidant levels of positive control were significantly lower than the experimental diets. CONCLUSION: Results obtained in our study suggested that date pit could be used as a feed ingredient in the diet of broiler chicks without any negative effect on performance. Furthermore, date pit may have beneficial effects on plasma antioxidant status in broiler chicks. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Dietary oligochitosan supplementation enhances immune status of broilers

Rui-Lin Huang
Abstract Oligochitosan (COS) is a type of prebiotic, which favourably alters the intestinal microflora balance, inhibits the growth of harmful bacteria, promotes good digestion and boosts immune function. The effect of dietary COS supplementation on immune function in broilers was assessed by feeding graded levels (0, 50, 100, 150 mg kg,1) of COS. Two thousand four hundred male commercial Avian® broilers (1 day old) were assigned randomly to five dietary treatment groups (60 birds/pen with eight pens per treatment). Diet A was a typical maize- and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 6 mg kg,1 antibiotics of flavomycin (positive control). Diet B was the basal diet without any supplement. Diets C, D and E were formulated by addition of 50, 100, 150 mg kg,1 of COS to the basal diet, respectively. On the morning of days 21 and 42, a total of 64 (eight birds/pen with eight pens per treatment) of the growth experimental birds were killed by cervical dislocation, respectively for determination of serum concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM, and weights of spleen, bursa and thymus. Compared with broilers fed the control and the positive control diets, dietary supplementation with COS increased (P < 0.001) serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgM, with the greatest response for the 100 mg kg,1COS supplementation. Chitosan oligosaccharides supplementation also enhanced the immune organ development. Results suggest COS can improve immune response in birds. Through positive modulation of the immune response, COS has great potential as an effective, antibiotic-like growth promoter for poultry. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Effects of methoxyfenozide on Lobesia botrana Den & Schiff (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg, larval and adult stages

Francisco-Javier Sáenz-de-Cabezón Irigaray
Abstract The effect of the non-steroidal ecdysone agonist methoxyfenozide was evaluated against different developmental stages of the grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana Dennis & Schiffermuller (Lep, Tortricidae). Methoxyfenozide administered orally reduced the fecundity and fertility of adults treated with 1, 5 and 10 mg litre,1; longevity was not affected. An LC50 value of 4.5 mg litre,1 was obtained when applied to eggs of less than 1 day old. Surface treatment was more effective than when applied by spraying. Administered into the diet, methoxyfenozide had a larvicidal effect; older larvae were more susceptible than younger larvae, with LC50 values of 0.1 mg litre,1 for L1, 0.04 for L3 and 0.02 for L5. Larvae treated with sub-lethal doses throughout their lives did not emerge as adults at the highest doses (0.08, 0.04, 0.02 and 0.01 mg litre,1), with 65% and 40% emergence occurring for the lowest (0.005 and 0.0025 mg litre,1). Mortality occurred only in the larval stage. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Rearing of pike-perch larvae using formulated diets , first success with starter feeds

Teresa Ostaszewska
Abstract The present study evaluated the performance of two commercial diets: AgloNorse (AN) and BioKyowa (BK), and two experimental, formulated diets based on casein (C) or casein plus casein hydrolysates (CH) in rearing of pike-perch larvae (Sander lucioperca L.). All fish were 5 day old and control group was fed live Artemia nauplii. Fish were sampled periodically for histological comparison of morphological changes in the digestive tracts. Survival of fish fed Artemia nauplii, BK and AN was similar: 54.4%, 50.8% and 52.4%, respectively, while the fish fed formulated diets C and CH showed considerably lower survival: 28.4% and 21.6% respectively. After 5 weeks of rearing, the average body mass of fish ranged from 212±32 mg in Artemia fed group to 53.8±6.8 mg in C diet fed group. A considerable vacuolization of supranuclear zone in enterocytes of posterior intestine was observed in the larvae fed commercial diets. No anomalies in liver development were found. Hepatocytes of fish fed BK diet showed larger glycogen storage areas, compared with those occupied by lipids. The highest zymogen accumulation of pancreatic cytoplasm was observed in fish fed Artemia. In fish fed C and CH diets, anomalies in digestive system development were indicated by lower and less numerous intestinal folds, smaller hepatocytes, retarded development of gastric glands, and in CH group , also local fatty degeneration of liver. [source]

Cerebral palsy in siblings caused by compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding protein C

We report two sisters with extensive bilateral periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PVHI) causing cerebral palsy (CP). The older sister presented at 20 months with cortical visual blindness, spastic diplegia, and purpura fulminans. The younger sister presented aged 3 days old with apnoeas and multifocal seizures. She subsequently had global developmental delay, cortical visual blindness, spastic quadriplegia, epilepsy, and purpura fulminans at age 2 years. Neuroimaging of both siblings showed bilateral PVHI consistent with bilateral cerebral intramedullary venous thrombosis occurring at under 28 weeks' gestation for the older sister and around time of birth for the younger sister. At latest follow-up, the older sister (13y) has spastic diplegia at Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II, and the younger sister (10y) has spastic quadriplegia at GMFCS level IV. Both sisters showed partial quantitative reduction in plasma protein C antigen and severe qualitative reduction in plasma protein C anticoagulant activity. They were heterozygous for two independent mutations in the protein C gene (PROC). There was no other risk factor for CP. To our knowledge, this is the first family reported with compound heterozygous PROC mutations as the likely genetic cause of familial CP. This report adds to the list of known monogenic causes of CP. [source]

Cerebellar granule cells show age-dependent migratory differences in vitro

Krisztián Tárnok
Abstract Developmental differences between cerebellar granule cells during their migratory period were revealed using dissociated granule cell cultures isolated from 4, 7, or 10 days old (P4, P7, P10) mice. Under all culture conditions, the great majority of cultivated cell populations consisted of those granule cells that had not reach their final destination in the internal granule cell layer (IGL) by the age of isolation. In vitro morphological development and the expression of migratory markers (TAG-1, astrotactin, or EphB2) showed similar characteristics between the cultures. The migration of 1008 granule cells isolated from P4, P7, and P10 cerebella and cultivated under identical conditions were analyzed using statistical methods. In vitro time-lapse videomicroscopy revealed that P4 cells possessed the fastest migratory speed while P10 granule cells retained their migratory activity for the longest time in culture. Cultures obtained from younger postnatal ages showed more random migratory trajectories than P10 cultures. Our observations indicate that despite similar morphological and molecular properties, migratory differences exist in granule cell cultures isolated from different postnatal ages. Therefore, the age of investigation can substantially influence experimental results on the regulation of cell migration. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2005 [source]

Salinity tolerance in young Allis shad larvae (Alosa alosa L.)

A. Bardonnet
Abstract,,, Estuarine migration in Allis shad (Alosa alosa) usually does not take place before mid-summer, but exposure to salinity in brackish water may occur earlier as many spawning areas are of necessity located in upper estuarine zones due to the placement of dams. Therefore, Allis shad conservation programmes need to consider the risk of mortality due to the ability of young Allis shad to tolerate salinity. To evaluate larval mortality due to the inability of larvae to withstand salinity during early ontogeny, we exposed larvae of different ages (from few days old to 27 days old) to salinities ranging from 0 to 30 g·l,1. Results indicate that direct seawater exposure induces high mortality in young larvae whatever the ontogenetic stage. However, young larvae can easily deal with upper estuary salinity conditions. [source]

Methoprene modulates the effect of diet on male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, performance at mating aggregations

Ihsan ul Haq
Abstract The effect of access to dietary protein (P) (hydrolyzed yeast) and/or treatment with a juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (M), (in addition to sugar and water) on male aggregation (lekking) behaviour and mating success was studied in a laboratory strain of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Six-day-old males were treated with (1) protein and methoprene (M+P+), (2) only protein (M,P+), or (3) only methoprene (M+P,), and compared with 14-day-old sexually mature untreated males (M,P,). The lekking behaviour of the four groups of males when competing for virgin sexually mature females (14,,16 days old) was observed in field cages. The following parameters were measured at male aggregations: lek initiation, lek participation, males calling, male,male interaction, female acceptance index, and mating success. For all these parameters, the M+P+ males significantly outperformed the other males. Moreover, for all parameters, there was a similar trend with M+P+ > M,P+ > M,P, > M+P,. More M+P+ males called and initiated and participated in lek activities than all other types of male, which resulted in higher mating success. They had also fewer unsuccessful copulation attempts than their counterparts. Whereas treatment with methoprene alone had a negative effect in young males with only access to sugar, access to dietary protein alone significantly improved young male sexual performance; moreover, the provision of methoprene together with protein had a synergistic effect, improving further male performance at leks. The results are of great relevance for enhancing the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) against this pest species. The fact that access to dietary protein and treatment of sterile males with methoprene improves mating success means that SIT cost-effectiveness is increased, as more released males survive to sexual maturity. [source]

Factors affecting the reproductive biology of Melittobia digitata and failure to meet the sex ratio predictions of Hamilton's local mate competition theory

M.F. Cooperband
Abstract Melittobia digitata Dahms (Eulophidae, Tetrastichini), a species of parasitic wasp satisfying all of Hamilton's local mate competition requisites, does not exhibit the predicted change in sex ratio with increased foundress number. A multifactorial design was used to test how age, oviposition experience, feeding experience, mating, and foundress number affect host-acceptance, number of offspring, and sex ratio of this species developing on honey bee pupae, Apis mellifera (L.) (Apidae, Apini). All factors significantly affected the time it took for oviposition to commence. Females oviposited soonest when they were 2 days old, mated, had previous feeding and oviposition experience, and were placed on hosts with multiple foundresses. Although the age difference between 2- and 5-day-old females is small, it significantly affected reproductive behavior. Age, mating, and foundress number were found to have an effect on sex ratio, however, the foundress effect was found to be a mathematical artifact of the limited host size. After correcting for this variable, females were found to have a constant sex ratio of approximately 0.05. Several 2-way interactions between factors were revealed: age and experience, age and foundress number, age and mating, foundress number and experience, and foundress number and mating. One 3-way interaction was found between age, mating, and foundress number. This study demonstrates that the sex ratio of M. digitata is not altered with increased foundresses, as predicted by Hamilton, and that slight changes in preconditioning may modify reproductive behavior. [source]

Histologic and morphologic effects of valproic acid and oxcarbazepine on rat uterine and ovarian cells

EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2010
Ali Cansu
Summary Purpose:, To determine the histologic and morphologic effects of valproic acid (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on rat uterine and ovarian cells. Methods:, Fifty-six female prepubertal Wistar rats (21,24 days old and weighing between 47.5 and 58.1 g) were divided equally into four groups, which were given drinking water (controls), 300 mg/kg/day of VPA, 100 mg/kg/day of OXC or VPA + OXC via gavage, for 90 days. Ovaries and uteri of rats on proestrous and diestrous phases of estrous cycle were extirpated and placed in a fixation solution. The tissue specimens were assessed with apoptosis (TUNEL) staining protocols, eosinophil counting, and electron microscopic techniques. Results:, In uteri, apoptosis in stroma, mitochondrial swelling, and cristolysis were observed in the VPA group, and OXC led to negative effects on epithelial cell and intracellular edema. In ovaries, both drugs increased apoptosis and intracytoplasmic edema. Organelle structure disruption was also observed in the OXC group. More conspicuous degenerative modifications were determined in the VPA + OXC group. In uteri, the number of TUNEL-positive luminal epithelial cells was 7.20 ± 1.32 in controls, and significantly increased to 29.60 ± 1.58, 34.20 ± 2.53, and 54.80 ± 2.04 in VPA, OXC, and VPA + OXC groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The highest number of TUNEL-positive glandular epithelium cells was observed in the VPA + OXC group; however, the number of TUNEL-positive stroma cells was highest in the VPA group. The highest number of eosinophils in stroma was in the VPA group. Conclusion:, VPA and OXC trigger apoptotic and degenerative effects on rat uterine and ovarian cells. VPA also prevents implantation of embryo to the uterus and causes abortion via endometrial eosinophil infiltration. [source]

Effects of chronic treatment with valproate and oxcarbazepine on ovarian folliculogenesis in rats

EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2008
Ali Cansu
Summary Purpose: We aimed to define the morphologic effects of valproate (VPA) and oxcarbazepine (OXC) on ovarian folliculogenesis in rats. Methods: Forty female wistar rats (21,24 days old and weighted between 46.4 and 55.3 g) were divided equally into 4 experimental groups, which were applied tap water (control group), 300 mg/kg/day VPA, 100 mg/kg/day OXC, and both VPA and OXC via gavage for 90 days. Ovaries of the rats on proestrous and diesterous phase of estrous cycle according to daily vaginal smear were taken out and placed in a fixation solution. Immunohistochemical and apoptosis (TUNEL) staining protocols were applied. Results: The number of follicles decreased and that of corpora lutea increased significantly in OXC, VPA, and OXC+VPA treated groups compared with control group (p < 0.05). The number of TUNEL positive ovarian follicles was 1.40 ± 0.52 in control group, but it significantly increased to 3.50 ± 0.53, 3.50 ± 0.53, and 4.90 ± 0.88 in VPA, OXC, and VPA+OXC groups (p < 0.0001). The increase in the number of TUNEL positive granulosa cells was also significant for OXC and VPA+OXC groups (p < 0.0001). Immunohistochemical HSCORE decreased for TGF,1 and IGF1 staining and increased for P53 staining in all drug groups compared with control group (p < 0.001). Intensity of P53 labeling increased, while intensity of TGF,1, IGF-1, and GDF-9 immunoreactivity decreased significantly in all drug groups compared with control group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Long-term treatment with VPA or OXC from prepuberty to adulthood causes apoptosis and deterioration of folliculogenesis in rat ovarian follicles. [source]

Anticonvulsant Action of Topiramate Against Motor Seizures in Developing Rats

EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2000
Renata Haugvicová
Summary Purpose: To study the anticonvulsant action of topiramate (TPM) in developing rats. Methods: Motor seizures were elicited by administering pentylenetetrazol (100 mg/kg subcutaneously) in five age groups of Wistar rats (7, 12, 18, 25, and 90 days old). TPM was administered intraperitoneally in doses from 10 to 640 mg/kg 2 hours before pentylenetetrazol. The time course of TPM action was studied in 12- and 25-day-oId rats up to 24 hours after the 160-mg/kg dose, and the incidence and pattern of seizures were evaluated. Results: TPM did not influence minimal seizures (clonus of forelimb and head muscles with preserved righting ability). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, however, were reliably changed at all developmental stages studied. The tonic phase was suppressed so that the majority of animals exhibited generalized clonic seizures (with a loss of righting reflexes). In addition, the incidence of generalized seizures was decreased after the 20-, 40-, and 80-mg/kg doses in the 7-day-old rat pups. The specific suppression of the tonic phase of generalized seizures was observed up to 12 hours in the 12-day-old rat pups. The same result was obtained over 6 hours after TPM administration in the 25-day-old animals, and with longer intervals the incidence of generalized seizures decreased in this age group. Conclusions: TPM exhibits stable anticonvulsant action against the tonic phase of generalized tonic-clonic seizures throughout development. In addition, it suppresses all phases of generalized seizures in 7-day-old rats. The anticonvulsant action of TPM lasted longer in 25-day-old than in 12-day-old rats. The two actions of TPM might be ascribed to two different mechanisms of action. [source]

Alcohol tolerance and nicotine cross-tolerance in adolescent mice

Marcelo F. Lopez
The present experiment was designed to evaluate the development of tolerance to alcohol and cross-tolerance to nicotine in adolescent mice. C57BL/6J mice (30,40 days old) were injected IP with alcohol (2.5 g/kg) for 4 consecutive days. A control group received four saline injections. On the test day, all subjects received an alcohol injection. Tolerance to alcohol's hypothermic effect was observed. Mice (male and female) exposed to alcohol for the 4 previous days showed less hypothermic response to an alcohol challenge than animals injected for 4 days with saline and then challenged with alcohol. Tolerance to alcohol's motor incoordinating effects and differences in blood alcohol concentrations were not observed. Thirty days following alcohol treatment, the same mice received a single nicotine injection (1 mg/kg) to assess cross-tolerance. Nicotine's effect on locomotor activity (open field test) and rectal temperature varied as a function of prior adolescent alcohol exposure and gender. Specifically, female mice who had been exposed to alcohol administrations were more resistant to nicotine's effect on locomotion and temperature than saline-treated animals. In summary, these data demonstrate that adolescent mice develop tolerance to some, but not all, alcohol-induced responses, and that female mice are cross-tolerant to nicotine's effects on temperature and activity. [source]

X chromosome number causes sex differences in gene expression in adult mouse striatum

Xuqi Chen
Abstract Previous research suggests that sex differences in the nigrostriatal system are created by direct effects of the sex chromosomes (XX vs. XY), independent of the action of gonadal hormones. Here we tested for sex chromosome effects on expression of three mRNAs in the striatum and nucleus accumbens of adult mice of the four core genotypes model (XX and XY gonadal males, XX and XY gonadal females). Mice were gonadectomized (GDX) at 47,51 days old to eliminate group differences in the levels of gonadal steroids. Three weeks later, mice were killed and brains collected for in situ hybridization of the striatum, or the striatum was dissected out for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression in XX and XY mice was measured by in situ hybridization using riboprobes encoding the dynorphin precursor Pdyn (prodynorphin), the substance P precursor Tac1 (preprotachykinin) or dopamine D2 receptor. XX mice had higher expression, relative to XY mice of the same gonadal sex, of Pdyn and Tac1 mRNA in specific striatal regions. Quantitative PCR confirmed that GDX XX mice have higher Pdyn expression in striatum than XY mice, regardless of their gonadal sex. XX had higher Pdyn expression than XY or XO mice, indicating that the sex chromosome effect is the result of XX vs. XY differences in the number of X chromosomes, probably because of sex differences in the expression of X gene(s) that escape inactivation. We detected no sex chromosome effect on D2 receptor mRNA. [source]

Recombinant human erythropoietin suppresses symptom onset and progression of G93A-SOD1 mouse model of ALS by preventing motor neuron death and inflammation

Seong-Ho Koh
Abstract Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms, including inflammation, attenuated survival signals and enhanced death signals, are involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Erythropoietin (EPO) has recently been highlighted as a cytokine with various potent neuroprotective effects, including reduction of inflammation, enhancement of survival signals and prevention of neuronal cell death. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) on ALS model mice. We treated 96 ALS model mice with vehicle only, or 1, 2.5 or 5 iµ of rhEPO/g of mouse once every other week after they were 60 days old. The treatment significantly prolonged symptom onset and life span, preserved more motor neurons, enhanced survival signals, and attenuated inflammatory signals in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that treatment with rhEPO represents a potential therapeutic strategy for ALS. [source]

Mesoscale eddies and survival of late stage Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) larvae

Elizabeth A. Logerwell
We examined the distribution of sardine larvae relative to environmental conditions with the purpose of identifying and characterizing habitat that encourages high larval growth and survival, based on the 1983,1998 surveys of the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI). Long-term averages show that sardine ,survivors' (spatially aggregated larvae , 18 days old) were most abundant offshore, whereas sardine egg density, chlorophyll biomass and zooplankton volume were greatest inshore. In contrast, mesoscale eddies, observed in remotely sensed sea surface temperature imagery, were found only in offshore regions. To further examine the link between eddies , which often result in locally elevated chlorophyll and zooplankton , and sardine survival, we compared the distribution of larvae and eddies survey by survey. Sardine survivors were most abundant offshore in only one-quarter of the research surveys, and when they were most abundant offshore they were associated with eddies. This indicates that the offshore eddy habitat produced exceptionally large numbers of survivors, as evidenced by the disproportionate effect on the long-term average. [source]

Plasticity of perisynaptic astroglia during synaptogenesis in the mature rat hippocampus

GLIA, Issue 1 2007
Mark R. Witcher
Abstract Astroglia are integral components of synapse formation and maturation during development. Less is known about how astroglia might influence synaptogenesis in the mature brain. Preparation of mature hippocampal slices results in synapse loss followed by recuperative synaptogenesis during subsequent maintenance in vitro. Hence, this model system was used to discern whether perisynaptic astroglial processes are similarly plastic, associating more or less with recently formed synapses in mature brain slices. Perisynaptic astroglia was quantified through serial section electron microscopy in perfusion-fixed or sliced hippocampus from adult male Long-Evans rats that were 65,75 days old. Fewer synapses had perisynaptic astroglia in the recovered hippocampal slices (42.4% ± 3.4%) than in the intact hippocampus (62.2% ± 2.6%), yet synapses were larger when perisynaptic astroglia was present (0.055 ± 0.003 ,m2) than when it was absent (0.036 ± 0.004 ,m2) in both conditions. Importantly, the length of the synaptic perimeter surrounded by perisynaptic astroglia and the distance between neighboring synapses was not proportional to synapse size. Instead, larger synapses had longer astroglia-free perimeters where substances could escape from or enter into the synaptic clefts. Thus, smaller presumably newer synapses as well as established larger synapses have equal access to extracellular glutamate and secreted astroglial factors, which may facilitate recuperative synaptogenesis. These findings suggest that as synapses enlarge and release more neurotransmitter, they attract astroglial processes to a discrete portion of their perimeters, further enhancing synaptic efficacy without limiting the potential for cross talk with neighboring synapses in the mature rat hippocampus. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Effects of age and viral determinants on chronicity as an outcome of experimental woodchuck hepatitis virus infection

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
Paul J. Cote Ph.D.
Acute hepadnavirus infections either resolve or progress to chronicity. Factors that influence chronicity as an outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in humans can be studied experimentally in the woodchuck model. Accordingly, several woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) inocula were characterized. Representative inocula had high titers of infectious virus (approximately 107.7 -109.5 woodchuck 50% infectious doses per milliliter [WID50% /mL] by subcutaneous inoculation), with 1 WID50% ranging between 21 and 357 physical virion particles. WHV7P1 (standard high dose, 5 × 106WID50%) produced a 72% chronicity rate (i.e., percent chronic of total infected) in neonatal woodchucks (1-3 days old). Comparable doses of WHV8P1 resulted in a lower chronicity rate in neonates (34% chronic) indicating that it represented a strain different from WHV7P1. Neonatal woodchucks were more susceptible to chronic infection by high doses of WHV7P1 (range, 65%-75% chronic) compared with 8-week-old weanlings (33% chronic) and adult woodchucks (0% chronic; i.e., all resolved). High doses of cloned wild-type viruses also induced high rates of chronicity in neonates (70%-80% chronic). Chronicity rates in neonates were decreased for low doses of WHV7P1 (500 WID50% , 9% chronic) and for high doses of a precore WHeAg-minus mutant WHV8 clone (17% chronic). Thus, both age and viral determinants can influence chronicity as an outcome of experimental WHV infection. Standardized inocula will enable the study of mechanisms that initiate and maintain chronic hepadnavirus infection and also provide a means for developing WHV carriers for therapeutic studies. [source]

Post-fledging behaviour in Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos: onset of juvenile dispersal and progressive distancing from the nest

IBIS, Issue 2 2006
Thirteen juvenile Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos were tracked during their first year of life using satellite telemetry. Distances to the nest attained during that period and the age at the onset of juvenile dispersal were explored. The performance of nine different criteria to determine that age was analysed. In general, after a brief period of restricted movements around the nest, the average distance to the nest increased with time. Maximum distances to the nest ranged between 57.7 and 184.3 km, and were considerably greater in females (mean ± sd, 138.5 ± 44.5 km) than in males (70.5 ± 14.0 km). No sex difference was observed in the age at which that distance was attained (males: 329 ± 32 days, females: 312 ± 20 days). The onset of juvenile dispersal took place around the fifth month of life (September in Spain). Eight of the nine criteria provided similar results, suggesting that in Spain dispersal starts when birds are between 140 and 180 days old, and that the post-nestling period lasts between 60 and 120 days. For future studies, to determine the age at which the onset of juvenile dispersal occurs, we recommend the use of either the first day on which individuals were located beyond the mean distance between nests of different pairs (10 km in our study area), or the date of the record midway between the first and the last location recorded during the month in which the maximum variability in the distance to the nest was observed. [source]

Transplanted XY germ cells produce spermatozoa in testes of XXY mice,

Y. Lue
Summary XXY mouse has been characterized as an experimental model for men with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY male phenotype). To test whether donor XY germ cells could proliferate and differentiate in the XXY testicular environment, donor testicular cells from adult (2,3 months old) and immature (10 days old) XY green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic mice were transplanted into the seminiferous tubules of adult (4,7 months old) and young (6 weeks old) XXY recipient mice respectively. Twelve weeks after transplantation, GFP positive spermatogonia were found in 21.74% (five out of 23) of adult XXY recipients who received adult donor cells. The GFP positive segments of seminiferous tubules were observed in 44.44% (four out of nine) young XXY recipients who received donor cells from 10 days old GFP mice. We found using immunohistochemistry and cell morphology that donor-derived GFP positive germ cells were spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids and spermatozoa in some of the seminiferous tubules of young XXY recipient mice. The results demonstrated that the donor XY germ cells were able to qualitatively complete spermatogenesis in some of the seminiferous tubules of XXY mice. [source]

Dormant ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus are activated to germinate after treatment with ultra high pressure

J. Dijksterhuis
Abstract Aims:, Ascospores of Talaromyces macrosporus are constitutively dormant and germinate after a strong external shock, classically a heat treatment. This fungus is used as a model system to study heat resistance leading to food spoilage after pasteurization. This study evaluates the effect of high pressure on the germination behaviour of these spores. Methods and Results:, Ascospore containing bags were subjected to ultra high pressure and spores were plated out on agar surfaces. Untreated suspensions showed invariably very low germination. Increased germination of ascospores occurred after short treatments at very high pressure (between 400 and 800 MPa). Activation is partial compared with heat activation and did not exceed 6·9% (65 times that of untreated suspensions) of the spore population. Maximum activation was attained shortly (10 s,3 min) after the pressure was applied and accompanied by cell wall deformations as judged by scanning electron microscopy. The spores observed in this study were harvested from cultures that were 39,58 days old. The maturity of spores at similar developmental stages was measured by assessing the heat resistance of ascospores. Between 20 and 40 days heat resistance increased 2·4-fold, but only an additional increase of 1·3-fold was observed at later stages (40,67 days). Conclusions:, Our investigations show that high pressure constitutes a second type of shock that can activate heat-resistant ascospores to germinate. Activation is maximal after very short treatments and accompanied with changes in the cell wall structure. High-pressure activation is not the result of immaturity of the ascospores. Significance and Impact of the Study: These observations are relevant for the application of high pressure as a novel pasteurization method. [source]

Age-related differences in susceptibility to cisplatin-induced renal toxicity,,

P. Espandiari
Abstract Limited experimental models exist to assess drug toxicity in pediatric populations. We recently reported how a multi-age rat model could be used for pre-clinical studies of comparative drug toxicity in pediatric populations. The objective of this study was to expand the utility of this animal model, which previously demonstrated an age-dependent sensitivity to the classic nephrotoxic compound, gentamicin, to another nephrotoxicant, namely cisplatin (Cis). Sprague,Dawley rats (10, 25, 40 and 80 days old) were injected with a single dose of Cis (0, 1, 3 or 6,mg,kg,1 i.p.). Urine samples were collected prior and up to 72,h after treatment in animals that were , 25 days old. Several serum, urinary and ,omic' injury biomarkers as well as renal histopathology lesions were evaluated. Statistically significant changes were noted with different injury biomarkers in different age groups. The order of age-related Cis-induced nephrotoxicity was different than our previous study with gentamicin: 80 > 40 > 10 > 25 day-old vs 10 , 80 > 40 > 25-day-old rats, respectively. The increased levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1: urinary protein/tissue mRNA) provided evidence of early Cis-induced nephrotoxicity in the most sensitive age group (80 days old). Levels of Kim-1 tissue mRNA and urinary protein were significantly correlated to each other and to the severity of renal histopathology lesions. These data indicate that the multi-age rat model can be used to demonstrate different age-related sensitivities to renal injury using mechanistically distinct nephrotoxicants, which is reflected in measurements of a variety of metabolite, gene transcript and protein biomarkers. Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Microvolt T Wave Alternans Inducibility in Normal Newborn Puppies: Effects of Development

T Wave Alternans in Normal Newborn Puppies.Introduction: The cause of sudden infant death syndrome is unknown, but increased cardiac vulnerability due to repolarization instability may be a contributing factor. The QT interval normally is long at birth and increases further during the first few postnatal months. Although excessive QT intervals indicate increased cardiac vulnerability in the long QT syndrome, the impact of less pronounced QT prolongation during this developmental period is unclear. In adults and older children, the ease of inducing microvolt-level T wave alternans (TWA) is used as a measure of repolarization instability and arrhythmia vulnerability. The aim of this study was to determine if TWA is inducible in normal newborn puppies. Methods and Results: Atrial pacing was performed in 15 anesthetized beagle puppies 7 to 35 days old. The pacing drive cycle length was systematically decreased in 20-msec steps from baseline until AV conduction blocked. Pacing was performed for 8 minutes at each cycle length. Three-lead ECGs were recorded continuously during the last 5 minutes of pacing at each cycle length. The recordings were analyzed off-line for the presence of microvolt-level TWA using a sensitive spectral analysis technique. Microvolt-level TWA was present in all puppies. TWA was not present at baseline but developed and increased in amplitude as heart rate increased. The threshold heart rate for TWA did not correlate with age. However, due to age-dependent changes in baseline heart rate, the 7- to 14-day-old animals needed a 50% to 78% increase in heart rate to reach threshold heart rate, whereas the oldest animals needed only a 5% to 25% increase. Conclusion: These data suggest that developmentally dependent dynamic repolarization instability exists in puppies as manifest by the inducibility of TWA. [source]

Differential cytokine activity and morphology during wound healing in the neonatal and adult rat skin

W. Wagner
Abstract Wound-healing mechanisms change during transition from prenatal to postnatal stage. Cytokines are known to play a key role in this process. The current study investigated the differential cytokine activity and healing morphology during healing of incisional skin wounds in rats of the ages neonatal (p0), 3 days old (p3) and adult, after six different healing times (2 hrs to 30 days). All seven tested cytokines (Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) ,, TGF,1, ,,2 and ,,3, IGF 1, Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF A), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) exhibited higher expression in the adult wounds than at the ages p0 and p3. Expression typically peaked between 12 hrs and 3 days post-wounding, and was not detectable any more at days 10 and 30. The neonate specimen showed more rapid re-epithelialization, far less inflammation and scarring, and larger restitution of original tissue architecture than their adult counterparts, resembling a prenatal healing pattern. The results may encourage the use of neonatal rat skin as a wound-healing model for further studies, instead of the more complicated prenatal animal models. Secondly, the data may recommend inhibition of PDGF A, basic FGF or TGF-,1 as therapeutic targets in efforts to optimize wound healing in the adult organism. [source]

Vitamin D and androgen regulation of prostatic growth

Eddy S. Leman
Abstract Vitamin D has been reported to inhibit the growth of prostate cancer cells and model systems. In this study, we examined the interaction between 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25 D) in the presence or absence of endogenous testosterone on the growth and development of the adult rat prostate. Male Sprague,Dawley rats (165 days old) were either kept intact or castrated. Seven days after castration, the rats were treated with vehicle (control) or 1,25 D for 3 weeks and then sacrificed. Both ventral and dorsal lateral prostates were harvested; whole tissue lysates were collected and AR and VDR protein levels were analyzed by immunoblot analyses. Administration of 1,25 D in the intact animals decreased the prostatic size by 40%, compared to control animals, whereas 1,25 D did not influence the size of the prostate in castrated rats. 1,25 D administration in intact groups also increased both the AR and VDR protein levels by ,twofold, whereas in castrated groups, 1,25 D only increased the AR protein level by 1.5,2.5-fold. 1,25 D in the presence of endogenous testosterone inhibits prostatic growth, whereas 1,25 D in the absence of endogenous testosterone does not affect prostatic growth. The growth inhibitory activity of 1,25 D in the presence of testosterone may be mediated through the ligand activated AR and VDR pathways. These studies may reveal important information about the potential efficacy of 1,25 D as well as hormonal status in understanding the development of prostate diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 90: 138,147, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dietary restriction affects lifespan but not cognitive aging in Drosophila melanogaster

AGING CELL, Issue 3 2010
Joep M.S. Burger
Summary Dietary restriction extends lifespan in a wide variety of animals, including Drosophila, but its relationship to functional and cognitive aging is unclear. Here, we study the effects of dietary yeast content on fly performance in an aversive learning task (association between odor and mechanical shock). Learning performance declined at old age, but 50-day-old dietary-restricted flies learned as poorly as equal-aged flies maintained on yeast-rich diet, even though the former lived on average 9 days (14%) longer. Furthermore, at the middle age of 21 days, flies on low-yeast diets showed poorer short-term (5 min) memory than flies on rich diet. In contrast, dietary restriction enhanced 60-min memory of young (5 days old) flies. Thus, while dietary restriction had complex effects on learning performance in young to middle-aged flies, it did not attenuate aging-related decline of aversive learning performance. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Drosophila, dietary restriction reduces mortality and thus leads to lifespan extension, but does not affect the rate with which somatic damage relevant for cognitive performance accumulates with age. [source]

Genetic and demographic variation in new recruits of Naso unicornis

S. Planes
Demographic data showed that larvae of Naso unicornis colonizing the reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, on the same night within a restricted area originated from several spawning events that occurred 67 to 94 days previously. Based on the demographic structure of larvae of N. unicornis colonizing the reef, it cannot be entirely dismissed that siblings colonize together because five spawning dates grouped c. 55% of the captured larvae. Relatedness analysis reinforced these observations and also confirmed that larvae colonizing together were not all siblings. Larvae of the same spawning dates, however, appeared related in some age-classes (72, 74 and 77 days old), suggesting that siblings recruited together. In addition, the larvae appeared genetically different from adults (P=0·002) and juveniles (P<0·001) while juveniles and adults were similar (P=0·100). The variations in allelic and genotypic frequencies in the larvae probably reflect a family-structure that is diluted once larvae are recruited into the lagoon because of high mortality and active movement of fish. [source]

Mild zinc deficiency and dietary phytic acid accelerates the development of fulminant hepatitis in LEC rats

Akiko Saito
Abstract Background and Aim:, Restriction of copper intake delays hepatic copper accumulation in Long,Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, which are animal models of Wilson's disease. Involvement of zinc is suggested to develop hepatitis in the disease; however, this has not been clarified. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of mild zinc deficiency on the development of hepatitis and to determine the relationship between the absorption and hepatic levels of copper, zinc and iron. Methods:, Male LEC and F344 (wild type atp7b) rats were fed a low zinc, phytate-containing or control diet. The onset of hepatitis (Experiment 1), and absorptive rates of copper, zinc and iron and hepatitis indices in 4 weeks (Experiment 2) were observed. Results:, The onset of fulminant hepatitis in LEC rats was much earlier in the low zinc and phytate groups (mean 94.6 ± 2.74 days and 82.8 ± 3.56 days old, respectively) than in the control group (136 ± 2.11 days old) with worse hepatitis indices. Hepatic copper levels were much higher in LEC rats than F344 rats, but were not largely different among the diet groups without prominent changes in copper absorption. Hepatic levels and intestinal absorption of zinc and iron were lower in the phytate group than in the control group. Conclusion:, Mild zinc deficiencies caused by a low zinc or phytate-containing diet accelerate the onset of hepatitis in LEC rats without increasing copper absorption, and zinc and iron metabolism may be involved in the earlier onset of jaundice of LEC rats. [source]